nep-hpe New Economics Papers
on History and Philosophy of Economics
Issue of 2020‒04‒06
nineteen papers chosen by
Erik Thomson
University of Manitoba

  1. A missing touch of Adam Smith in Amartya Sen’s account of public reasoning: the man within for the man without By Laurie Bréban; Muriel Gilardone
  2. Samuelson's Neoclassical Synthesis in the Context of Growth Economics, 1956-1967 By Michaël Assous; Muriel Dal Pont Legrand; Sonia Manseri
  3. Liberal Foundations of Basic Income. Argument Combining Philosophy and Economics By Claude Gamel
  4. Welfare Economics in Large Worlds: Welfare and Public Policies in an Uncertain Environment By Guilhem Lecouteux
  5. Frank W. Taussig and Carl S. Joslyn on the social origins of American business leaders. A chapter in the history of social science at Harvard By Luca Fiorito; Massimiliano Vatiero
  6. Inequality as Entitlements over Labor By , Stone Center; Segal, Paul
  7. Paul Baran’s Economic Surplus Concept, the Baran Ratio, and the Decline of Feudalism By Lambert, Thomas
  8. The engineering tools that shaped the rational expectations revolution By M.J. Boumans
  9. Editorial to the special issue: The monetary economics of Basil J. Moore By Mark Setterfield
  10. Philosophical issues related to risks and values By Kinouchi, Renato
  11. Le philosophe et le management By Henri Zimnovitch
  12. A consistent representation of Keynes’s long-term expectation in ?nancial market By Marcello Basili; Alain Chateauneuf; Giuseppe Scianna Author-Email
  13. Keynes, Sraffa y la ley de grafeno de los salarios By Hernando Matallana
  14. État providence et fractures sociales. Nouveaux défis By Mathieu Lefebvre; Pierre Pestieau
  15. Les économistes et l'environnement en Europe By Antoine Missemer
  16. Refutations of Say's Law and Dynamics of a Monetary Economy of Production By Edouard Cottin-Euziol
  17. La prudence selon Thomas d'Aquin : Un éclairage pour le manager contemporain By Bernard Guéry
  18. La crisis argentina del 2002 desde la perspectiva del ciclo económico austriaco By Nicolle Valentina Herrera Pinto
  19. The Production of Scientific Facts: Beveridge and the International Scientific Committee on Price History By Julien Demade

  1. By: Laurie Bréban (PHARE - Philosophie, Histoire et Analyse des Représentations Économiques - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne); Muriel Gilardone (CREM - Centre de recherche en économie et management - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Sen claims that his 2009 theory of justice is based in part upon Smith's idea of the "impartial spectator". His claim has received criticism: some authors have responded that his interpretation of Smith's concept is unfaithful to the original (e.g., Ege, Igersheim and Le Chapelain 2012); others, focusing on internal features of Sen's analysis, critique his use of the Smithian impartial spectator, arguing that it is a weak point in his comparative theory of justice (e.g., Shapiro 2011). In this paper we address both sets of criticisms. While agreeing with commentators that Sen's reading of Smith is somewhat unfaithful, we reiterate that his aim in The Idea of Justice is not to provide an exegesis of Smith but rather to build his own comparative theory of justice by "extending Adam Smith's idea of the impartial spectator" (IJ: 134) to his own project. After clarifying their distinct approaches to the concept of the impartial spectator, we draw upon our account of these differences to evaluate Sen's own use of the concept. Despite significant divergences, we show that Sen's version of the impartial spectator is not inconsistent with Smith's analysis. Though it does not correspond to Smith's concept, i.e. to what the Scottish philosopher sometimes calls the "man within", it is reminiscent of another figure from Smith's moral philosophy: the "man without". Beyond this analogy, there are further connections between Smith's imaginary figure of the "man within" and Sen's account of "common beliefs"—both notions are ways of representing our beliefs regarding what is moral or just. But whereas Smith's moral philosophy offers an analysis of the process by which the "man without" influences the "man within", nothing of that kind is to be found in Sen's conception of public reasoning. And it is here that Smith's famous concept of "sympathy" can supplement Sen's theory, in a way which furnishes an answer to Shapiro's (2011) criticism regarding the possibility of the spontaneous change of beliefs toward greater impartiality.
    Keywords: Sen,Smith,Impartial Spectator,Man Without,Public Reasoning,Man Within,Sympathy,Deliberation,Justice,Agreement,Non-Prudential Morality
    Date: 2020
  2. By: Michaël Assous (Université Lyon 2, CNRS, Triangle); Muriel Dal Pont Legrand (Université Côte d'Azur, CNRS, GREDEG, France); Sonia Manseri (Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, Phare)
    Abstract: Samuelson (1952: 60) introduced the term «neoclassical synthesis” and used it later in the 1955 3rd edition of Economics: An Introductory Analysis to refer to a “consensus” among American economists. In the 1960s when growth theory emerged as a major issue, Samuelson modified his view and in the 6th edition of Economics, the term assumed a specific meaning. As long as it was assumed that the economy was managed on a Keynesian-basis in the short-run, the neoclassical growth model was considered the most appropriate tool to analyze full-employment growth. This “new” approach of the synthesis was challenged in debates on income distribution dynamics and expectations, opposing the protagonists in the Cambridge controversy. We draw on original archival material from Duke University and Cambridge University in the UK to try to clarify some of the hidden dimensions of Samuelson's synthesis and the debates it triggered.
    Keywords: Samuelson, Sen, Kaldor, Neoclassical Synthesis, Instability, growth, expectations
    JEL: A1 B2 B3 D5 E1
    Date: 2020–03
  3. By: Claude Gamel (LEST - Laboratoire d'économie et de sociologie du travail - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Debates among Liberals on social justice have played a major role in current discussion on basic income (or universal benefit). In this paper, the notion is considered on the basis of the "economics of liberal egalitarianism", for which the anchor point is to be found in Rawls' philosophical works. Although this author certainly does not support basic income, he still provides an appropriate general framework to consider it, in particular through the hierarchy of his principles of justice (I). At the third level of this hierarchy, the interpretation of the "principle of difference" appeared controversial concerning the treatment of "Malibu surfers", through which Van Parijs can have defended the unconditional nature of basic income (II). There remains the transition from the philosophy to the economics of basic income, which allows considering it as a precise alternative of negative income tax. At this stage, a rereading of Friedman's intuition on this topic results in seeing basic income as a "universal tax credit" (III). We conclude with some prospective remarks on a possible implementation of this conception of basic income in the case of liberal democracies and of France as well (IV).
    Abstract: Les débats entre libéraux sur la justice sociale ont beaucoup alimenté la réflexion contemporaine sur le revenu de base (ou allocation universelle). Cette notion est présentée ici comme relevant de « l'économie de l'égalitarisme libéral », dont le point d'ancrage se situe dans l'œuvre philosophique de Rawls. Celui-ci n'est certes pas partisan de l'allocation universelle, mais sa pensée offre néanmoins un cadre général adéquat pour l'étudier, en particulier par la hiérarchie des principes de justice qu'il défend (I). Au troisième niveau de cette hiérarchie, l'interprétation à donner au « principe de différence » a suscité la controverse des « surfeurs de Malibu », par laquelle Van Parijs a pu défendre le caractère inconditionnel de l'allocation universelle (II). Reste alors à passer de la philosophie à l'économie du revenu de base, en montrant comment ce dernier peut être considéré comme une variante précise d'impôt négatif sur le revenu. A ce stade, une relecture de l'intuition de Friedman sur la question aboutit à considérer l'allocation universelle comme un « crédit d'impôt universel » (III). En conclusion, pour les démocraties libérales et dans le cas de la France, sont esquissées quelques observations prospectives sur une éventuelle application d'une telle conception du revenu de base (IV).
    Keywords: unconditional nature,universal tax credit.,liberalism,basic income,revenu de base,libéralisme,inconditionnalité,crédit d’impôt universel.
    Date: 2019
  4. By: Guilhem Lecouteux (Université Côte d'Azur; GREDEG CNRS)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is first to review the different conceptions of welfare advanced in the literature on behavioural welfare economics. I then argue that Savage’s distinction between small and large worlds offers the adequate framework to conceptualise the problem of inferring a notion of welfare from possibly incoherent individual choices. I distinguish between welfarist, behaviourist, constitutional, and procedural approaches to the reconciliation problem, and show that they offer complementary solutions depending on the nature of the uncertainty of the choice problem, and on the epistemic position of the theoretician with respect to the agent we intend to model.
    Keywords: reconciliation problem, nudge, boost, large worlds, welfare
    JEL: A11 B40 D01 D63 D91
    Date: 2020–03
  5. By: Luca Fiorito; Massimiliano Vatiero
    Abstract: In their 1932 volume American Business Leaders: A Study in Social Origins and Social Stratification, Frank W. Taussig and Carl S Joslyn, then a young Harvard graduate, argued that success in business depended more on innate superiority than on other environmental factors such as financial aid, influential connections, and formal education. The aim of this paper is to analyze the main contentions of Taussig and Joslyn, as well the intellectual genesis of, and the general reactions to, this controversial volume. Although our main focus is on Taussig and Joslyn, other figures, all directly affiliated with Harvard, will play a decisive role in our narrative—the economist Thomas Nixon Carver, the psychologist William McDougall, and the sociologist Pitirim Aleksandrovic Sorokin. This makes the scope of this paper in many respects broader than its title may suggest—in the sense that it will allow us to place a work like American Business Leaders within the context of an important strand of social science research at Harvard during the interwar years.
    Keywords: Taussig, Frank Williams; eugenics; hereditarianism, business leaders, Harvard
    JEL: B1 B15
    Date: 2019–09
  6. By: , Stone Center (The Graduate Center/CUNY); Segal, Paul
    Abstract: The modern study of economic inequality is based on the distribution of entitlements over goods and services. But social commentators at least since Rousseau have been concerned with a different aspect of economic inequality: that it implies that one person is entitled to command another person for their own personal ends. I call this inequality as entitlements over labor. I propose to measure entitlements over labor by calculating the extent to which top income groups can afford to buy the labor of others for the purpose of their personal consumption. Unlike standard inequality measures, this measure is not welfarist, but instead has its normative basis in relations of domination, hierarchy and social status between people. I estimate entitlements over labor in three high-inequality and two low-inequality countries and argue that inequality as entitlements over labor is socially and politically salient, capturing a side of inequality neglected by standard measures. (Stone Center on Socio-Economic Inequality Working Paper)
    Date: 2020–03–12
  7. By: Lambert, Thomas
    Abstract: In his book, the Political Economy of Growth (1957), and in an article he wrote several years earlier (1953), the economist Paul A. Baran noted how in an economic system characterized by a hierarchy of classes and where economic and political power are concentrated in the top class of such a system, the amount of output and income above what is consumed by most people (e.g., food, clothing, housing, public safety, education) mostly goes to the top class. This extra amount is what he called the economic surplus, a form of savings or income left over after consumption. In a feudalistic system, there is little incentive to use the proceeds of this type of surplus to buy more tools and equipment for more production of output and income. The lord or baron has little incentive to lend or give serfs money because he may not benefit from any increased productivity by them. It is with capitalism that such incentives to re-invest in production become important. This paper uses recently published and estimated historical data to illustrate Baran’s observations and thoughts on feudalism. It is shown that during the 13th and 14th centuries in England that the economic surplus declined, and this decline helps to explain the “crisis of feudalism” that started in the 13th century. It is not until several centuries later when capitalism becomes the dominant economic system that the economic surplus begins to rise on a consistent basis probably due to the reinvestment of a portion of the surplus into productive activities and a greater ratio of capital income to rental income and a greater ratio of investment to economic surplus. However, and somewhat surprisingly, by the 19th Century the surplus still does not attain levels reached in the 13th Century.
    Keywords: Keywords: Baran ratio, Dobb-Sweezy debate, economic surplus, capitalism, feudalism, GDP, national income
    JEL: B24 B51 N13
    Date: 2020–03–16
  8. By: M.J. Boumans
    Abstract: The rational expectations revolution was not only based on the introduction of Muth’s idea of rational expectations to macroeconomics; the introduction of Muth’s hypothesis cannot explain the more drastic change of the mathematical toolbox and concepts, research strategies, vocabulary, and questions since the 1980s. The main claim is that the shift from “Keynesian economics†to “new classical economics†is based on a shift from a control engineering approach to an information engineering methodology. The paper even shows that the “revolution†was more radical. The change of engineering tools has changed macroeconomics more deeply, not only its methodology but also its epistemology and ontology. To show this shift in epistemology and ontology, the history of economics will be interwoven with the history of mathematics which cannot be detangled from the emergence of the digital computer and the influence of this emergence on the changed nature of mathematics: the adoption of a new concept of solution, no longer a number, a formula, or a function, but an algorithm. The result of this new concept of solution was a new approach to the analysis of processes. Information engineering studies the fundamental limits in communication and finds its origins in Shannon’s theory of communication, and incorporates the tools designed by Turing, Shannon, Kálmán, and Bellman. The resulting ontology of this kind of engineering is a world populated by machines that communicate with each other by exchanging information. This information does not, however, contain only signals about the system states but also noise that needs to be filtered out. It is not a deterministic world, but one governed by stochastic processes. The decisions these machines take is conditioned on the (noisy) information they have about the current state of the world but at the same time will affect future states. Policy in this world therefore means tracing an optimal trajectory taking all these issues into account.
    Keywords: communication theory, control engineering, dynamic programming, information engineering, Kalman filter, rational expectations, Turing machine
    Date: 2019–12
  9. By: Mark Setterfield (Department of Economics, New School for Social Research)
    Abstract: This paper outlines endogenous money theory (EMT) and the contributions of Basil J. Moore to EMT. It then describes the various papers that will appear in Volume 17, Issue 3 (2020) of the European Journal of Economics and Economic Policies: Intervention. Coolectively, these papers explore the monetary economics of Basil J. Moore – its origins, substance, and application – in light of its status as an ongoing and still-developing research project.
    Keywords: Basil J. Moore, monetary economics, horizontalism
    JEL: E43 E51 E52
    Date: 2020–03
  10. By: Kinouchi, Renato
    Abstract: This paper begins with the assumption that the concept of risk implies an entanglement between facts and values. This is not an arbitrary assumption since it can directly be deduced from the standard notion of risk. The value-ladenness of risk raises at least two further issues: the first one concerns the scales adopted to evaluate the severity of risks; the second concerns the commensurability/comparability of risks to human health and the environment. Some additional light is shed on those issues whether the models used in risk analysis were understood as fictions limited by the values that they can include. From this point of view, controversies on the limited scope of standard risk assessments are not only descriptive but also evaluative.
    Keywords: commensurability; comparability; fiction; models; risk; values
    JEL: F3 G3
    Date: 2018–12–01
  11. By: Henri Zimnovitch (PESOR - UP11 - Université Paris-Sud - Paris 11)
    Abstract: Dans une histoire de la philosophie, on ne trouvera pas d'entrée à « management », c'est une idée trop neuve, elle a un demi-siècle en France, le temps qu'il aura fallu pour que les grandes entre-prises en viennent à dominer la vie économique. Le management est une discipline dans tous les sens du terme : c'est un corpus de connaissances, de techniques, enseignées à l'Université ; c'est aussi un ensemble de règles de conduite auxquelles les hommes doivent se soumettre au sein des organisations dans lesquelles ils travaillent. Concernant ce dernier point, on comprend combien le regard du philo-sophe est opportun. Nous allons rendre compte de celui d'André Comte-Sponville au travers des publications 1 qu'il a consacrées à la question ; nous accorderons une attention particulière au thème du management de l'éthique d'entreprises. Enfin, nous verrons comment ses analyses sur la distinction entre valeur et vérité permettent d'engager une critique épistémologique féconde des sciences de gestion. On doit à Robert N. Anthony, qui fut professeur à la Harvard Business School, une définition cano-nique du management control comme étant « le processus par lequel les dirigeants influencent leurs colla-borateurs pour mettre en oeuvre les stratégies de l'organisation ». On ne compte plus dans le monde le nombre de travaux académiques qui abordent la question. Mais quelle peut être la valeur ajoutée du philosophe sur ce sujet ? On va la mesurer à partir de la réflexion qu'André Comte-Sponville développe lors des conférences qu'il donne sous le titre « Sens du travail, bonheur et motivation » à un public de responsables d'entreprises ou d'étudiants en écoles de commerce et qui a fait l'objet d'un article dans la revue Entreprise & société. Partant de l'idée que le métier de manageur 2 est de faire travailler les autres, le raisonnement se développe en trois parties, dialectique oblige. Dans un premier temps, il clarifie la définition du travail, la dégage des sophismes qui empêchent de penser les contradictions, lui donne un sens. Celui-ci est explicité dans une deuxième partie en traduisant les concepts utilisés en management, comme la motivation , par ceux étudiés en philosophie : le désir et le bonheur. Enfin, dernier temps, il met en évidence le rôle des manageurs qui est de parvenir à articuler les divergences d'intérêts entre les différents acteurs de l'entreprise. Pour André Comte-Sponville, le salarié, s'il avait le choix, préférerait ne pas travailler. Une évidence ? Encore faut-il la faire admettre à ceux, ils sont légion en gestion, tant chez les praticiens que chez les académiques, pour qui le travail est une valeur morale, qui « permet de donner du sens à nos actes » (Gomez, p. 18), qui assure sa dignité à l'homme 3. Pour montrer que le travail ne porte pas son sens en lui-même, qu'il n'est pas intrinsèque mais extrinsèque, le philosophe use de logique et d'humour ; sa culture achève de convaincre quand il puise dans les Évangiles, avec le Sermon sur la Montagne, dans Aristote montrant que le travail tend au loisir et non pas le loisir au travail, ou Kant disant « la dignité, c'est la valeur de ce qui n'a pas de prix ». Une autre confusion sur le travail que nous permet d'éviter André Comte-Sponville, par le recours à l'étymologie : celle entre activité contrainte, le travail, et activité choisie, la skholè chez les Grecs, l'otium chez les Romains, qui n'est ni repos ni divertissement. Or un courant de pensée puissant en gestion, que Douglas McGregor, professeur à la Sloan School of Management, suscita à partir des années 1960, oppose la théorie X, selon laquelle l'homme ne travaillerait que dans l'espoir d'obtenir une récompense ou dans la crainte d'une sanction, à la théorie Y qui considère au contraire que l'homme, spontanément, aime travailler. On voit par cet exemple comment André Comte-Sponville, en précisant ce que les mots disent, peut éviter au raisonnement de dégénérer en sophisme. Mais son apport ne se limite pas à une fonction
    Date: 2020
  12. By: Marcello Basili; Alain Chateauneuf; Giuseppe Scianna Author-Email
    Abstract: This paper advances an intuitive representation of Keynes’s notion of long-term expectation. We introduce the epsilon-contamination approach and represent the conventional judgment by the Steiner point of agents’ common probability set. We anticipate a change in conventional judgment by updating the Steiner point.
    Keywords: Keynes, long-term expectation, epsilon contamination, uncertainty, multiple priors.
    JEL: D81
    Date: 2019–08
  13. By: Hernando Matallana
    Abstract: Esta nota considera la lógica monetaria del salario relativo para el caso de trabajo homogéneo, la incidencia tributaria del impuesto sobre las diversas formas del ingreso funcional y la lucha por el salario relativo en el caso de trabajo heterogéneo en la economía monetaria de producción. La discusión advierte que el salario relativo disponible y con ello la condición económica de los trabajadores en el sistema de los mercados, se ajustan al interés particular de la clase funcional de los propietarios de riqueza.
    Keywords: distribución del ingreso, economía monetaria de producción, incidencia tributaria, salario relativo, salarios diferenciales
    JEL: B21 D33 E12 H22 J31
    Date: 2020–03–29
  14. By: Mathieu Lefebvre (Université de Strasbourg); Pierre Pestieau (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE))
    Abstract: L’objet de cet article est de défendre l’idée que le rôle de l’État providence n’a sans doute jamais été aussi important qu’aujourd’hui, mais que cela implique qu’il se renouvelle pour relever le défi que présentent les diverses fractures sociales. Il lui faudra réorienter ses priorités et adopter une politique davantage proactive. Il lui faudra surtout sécuriser le quotidien des pauvres mais aussi des classes moyennes qui subissent de plein fouet les chocs qu’entraine une économie de marché mondialisée.
    Date: 2019–11–07
  15. By: Antoine Missemer (CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Depuis le XVIII° siècle, les économistes ont entretenu des rapports ambivalents avec les enjeux environnementaux. C'est en Europe qu'ont été pensées pour la première fois les questions d'épuisement des ressources et d'externalités liés aux pollutions industrielles. Aujourd'hui, la discipline économique, très internationalisée, est amenée à se réinventer face au défi du changement climatique.
    Date: 2020
  16. By: Edouard Cottin-Euziol (LEGO - Laboratoire d'Economie et de Gestion de l'Ouest - UBS - Université de Bretagne Sud - UBO - Université de Brest - IMT - Institut Mines-Télécom [Paris] - IBSHS - Institut Brestois des Sciences de l'Homme et de la Société - UBO - Université de Brest - UBL - Université Bretagne Loire - IMT Atlantique - IMT Atlantique Bretagne-Pays de la Loire - IMT - Institut Mines-Télécom [Paris])
    Abstract: In a monetary economy of production, Say's law is invalid for several reasons. On the basis of some of these refutations (Schmitt, 1984; Renaud, 2000), it is possible to state that the revenues generated by the production process are structurally lower than the supply price of production. We study here the dynamics of such an economy and obtain two main results. First, the long-term debt level of this economy has to increase during a growth phase to enable demand to grow at the same pace as supply. Secondly, due to the repayment of this debt, the gap between supply and net revenues generated by the production process widens along a growth phase.
    Keywords: Economic Growth,Monetary Economy of Production,Repayment of Past Bank Credits
    Date: 2020–03–18
  17. By: Bernard Guéry (IPC - IPC - Facultés libres de philosophie et de psychologie)
    Abstract: Today's managers must make decisions in a world where irrationality fills a great role. They lack the necessary tools to identify all possibilities laying in front of them. Reflecting upon prudence after Thomas Aquinas can help us conceptualize managers' decisions in this contingent world. Prudence enables us to coordinate all the different possible actions towards the purpose of human life. Hence, a dynamic tension directs prudence between two demands: skillfulness and science. In this polarity is found the answer to two needs managers have: the one of meaning, for prudence does not forget the purpose of human life; and that of the key concepts to understand contingent reality in order to act, for it integrates singularities.
    Abstract: Le manager contemporain est contraint de décider dans un monde où l'irrationnel tient une large part. Il manque de clés de lecture des possibles qui s'ouvrent à lui. Le traitement de la prudence selon saint Thomas peut contribuer à penser la décision du manager dans ces nouvelles conditions. La prudence permet de coordonner les différentes actions possibles à la finalité de la vie humaine. Elle est donc régie par une tension dynamique entre deux exigences, à mi-chemin entre l'habileté et la science. C'est dans cette polarité que se trouve la réponse à deux besoins du manager : celui du sens, car la prudence n'oublie pas la finalité de la vie humaine en conjuguant atteinte des objectifs professionnels et réussite de la vie privée ; et celui des clés de lecture du réel contingent pour agir, car elle intègre le singulier.
    Keywords: Thomas Aquinas,Prudence,Manager,Decision,Irrational,Thomas d'Aquin,prudence,manager,decision,Irrationnel
    Date: 2020–03–16
  18. By: Nicolle Valentina Herrera Pinto
    Abstract: El propósito de este documento es explicar de manera empírica, desde la teoría austriaca del ciclo económico, la causalidad existente entre las políticas intervencionistas en Argentina desde 1983 y su posterior crisis en el año 2002. En dicho periodo, se instauraron cinco diferentes planes de estabilización económica que tenían como principal propósito detener la inflación creciente característica de este país y aumentar el crecimiento económico. Dichos planes se llevaron a cabo mediante políticas monetarias implementadas masivamente por el Banco Central de la República de Argentina, las cuales se basaron en la manipulación de la masa monetaria y en su mayoría, el crédito al sector privado. Sin embargo, de los cinco planes instaurados ninguno fue capaz de crear mejores condiciones a largo plazo, de hecho en la medida en que se instauraba cada nuevo plan, la inflación, el desempleo y la pobreza aumentaban, lo que se evidencia en la crisis del 2001 - 2002. Según la Escuela Austriaca, dichas manipulaciones tienen una causalidad directa con periodos de hiperinflación, depresión y recesión simultánea, como se refleja en el caso argentino en el periodo estudiado.
    Keywords: Escuela Austriaca, ciclos económicos Austriacos, crisis argentina
    JEL: B25 B53 E32 E43 E52
    Date: 2020–03–25
  19. By: Julien Demade (LAMOP - Laboratoire de Médiévistique Occidentale de Paris - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This book tells the story of a largely forgotten enterprise: that of the International Scientific Committee on Price History. If this endeavour can nevertheless still be of interest today, it is not only because failures offer insights into social dynamics as well as successes do ; nor is it solely because we find, gathered around this failed enquiry, a slew of very famous names, and names indeed which one would not expect to stumble upon in this context – there is Beveridge and Kautsky, Bloch and Malinowski. First and foremost, it is because the object of this enquiry offers a rare opportunity to bridge the divide between national scientific traditions as well as between disciplines – such as history and economy, or epistemology and the sociology of scientific knowledge. Thus, the initially narrow scope of this study opens up to a vast field of enquiry, as the object of this study shifts to determining how a particular class of objects – those deemed scientific – are produced, and how epistemological, theoretical and institutional issues interact in this process. Indeed, the conversion of past prices (as they appear in the archives) into historical prices taken as scientific facts, raises diverse and crucial questions : on the respective standing of social and natural sciences, about monetarism, or on the transition from the academic field of the Humboldtian scholar to that of big science. Viewed through the prism of this particular case, these issues will appear in a new light for the simple reason that, in the case at hand, fields of enquiry which are ordinarily examined independently are found to be tightly interrelated.
    Abstract: Ce livre est l'histoire d'une entreprise oubliée : le Comité international d'histoire des prix. Si l'objet pourtant est d'intérêt, c'est que les échecs tout autant que les réussites nous renseignent sur le fonctionnement social ; c'est aussi que l'on retrouve, autour de cette enquête faillie, des noms eux fort célèbres, et que l'on ne s'attend pas à rencontrer dans ce contexte – de Beveridge à Kautsky, de Bloch à Malinowski. Mais c'est surtout que cet objet s'avère idéal pour dépasser les frontières qui séparent aussi bien les traditions scientifiques nationales que les disciplines – entre histoire et économie, entre sociologie des sciences et épistémologie ; et, ce faisant, cette étude permet d'aborder une question aussi vaste que s'est voulu restreint le propos initial. C'est en effet la production d'une classe particulière de faits, les faits considérés comme scientifiques, qu'il s'agit de comprendre, et ceci en tenant compte, parmi les forces à l'œuvre dans la détermination de cette production, des enjeux aussi bien épistémologiques que théoriques et institutionnels. Car, dans la transformation opérée d'un prix passé (tel qu'il apparaît dans les archives) en un prix historique considéré comme un fait scientifique, s'avèrent déterminantes des questions aussi diverses et cruciales que le statut respectif des sciences sociales et des sciences de la nature, le monétarisme, ou le passage du champ académique du savant humboldtien à l'ère de la big science. Questions qui, réciproquement, reçoivent de l'analyse de ce cas précis un éclairage dont l'intérêt tient au croisement de ces domaines le plus souvent considérés isolément, croisement que précisément permet ce cas d'espèce.
    Keywords: histoire des prix,William Beveridge,Comité international d'histoire des prix,Thorold Rogers,Georges d'Avenel,historiographie,histoire des sciences,histoire de l'économie,Lucien Febvre,François Simiand,Marc Bloch,Annales d'histoire économique et sociale
    Date: 2018–04

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