nep-hpe New Economics Papers
on History and Philosophy of Economics
Issue of 2015‒12‒12
fourteen papers chosen by
Erik Thomson
University of Manitoba

  1. Invention and Development : Toward Schumpeter's early innovation theory By KOBAYASHI, Daisuke
  2. Positive Freedom in Networked Capitalism: An Empirical Analysis By Davide Carbonai; Carlo Drago
  3. Higher Intelligence Groups Have Higher Cooperation Rates in the Repeated Prisoner's Dilemma By Proto, Eugenio; Rustichini, Aldo; Sofianos, Andis
  4. Du changement organisationnel By Yvon Pesqueux
  5. The Coalitional Nash Bargaining Solution with Simultaneous Payoff Demands By Ricardo Nieva
  6. D'un siècle à l'autre, salaire minimum, science économique et débat public aux États-Unis, en France et au Royaume-Uni (1890-2015) By Gautié, Jérôme
  7. The Middle Muddle: Conceptualizing and Measuring the Global Middle Class By Arjun Jayadev; Rahul Lahoti; Sanjay Reddy
  8. De l'entrepreneur et de l'entrepreneuriat By Yvon Pesqueux
  9. L'humanisme organisationnel By Yvon Pesqueux
  10. Reports, articles and other writings 1955-1972 By Prebisch, Raúl
  11. Las políticas y el cuidado en América Latina: una mirada a las experiencias regionales By Batthyány, Karina
  12. Monetary circulation and archaeological data. The contribution of stratigraphy to monetary history By Stéphane Martin
  13. What kind of microfoundations? Notes on the evolutionary approach By Cimoli, Mario; Porcile, Gabriel
  14. Fraud and Financial Scandals: A Historical Analysis of Opportunity and Impediment By Toms, Steven

  1. By: KOBAYASHI, Daisuke
    Abstract: It has been the consensus among researchers that Schumpeter clearly distinguished the notions of innovation and invention, even neglecting the notion of invention in his work. Consequently, there has been very little effort made to tackle the relationship between Schumpeter’s development theory and the invention theories that were popular in the fields of anthropology and archaeology at that time, making it difficult to grasp how Schumpeter elaborated his own development theory. However, a close examination of his early works demonstrates that Schumpeter’s development theory can also be understood in the context of the debates surrounding the notion of invention. In Theorie der wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung, Schumpeter presented his static agent/innovator dyad with reference to ideas or terms used in the debates of invention being conducted around that time by anthropologists and archaeologists. In the present paper, the author seeks to depict the history of the concept of invention, helped by the work of Benoît Godin, and discusses how Schumpeter presented his development theory based on the ideas involved in the invention debates.
    Keywords: invention, evolutionism, diffusionism, unilinear development, psychic unity,
    Date: 2015–11
  2. By: Davide Carbonai (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil); Carlo Drago (University of Rome "Niccolò Cusano", Italy)
    Abstract: The article proposes a social network analysis of the main European capitalisms and its correspondence with an index of economic freedom. The analysis relates to two kinds of economic liberties taken from the concept of freedom formulated by Isaiah Berlin. While the first kind of freedom (negative freedom) depends on the external system (e.g. the constraints on the firm defined by the regulations), the second refers to the internal obligations within the business system itself that prevent the free exercise of business (positive freedom): specifically, the social network, in which the company is embedded. After an operationalization of the two concepts of freedom, the analysis of a comprehensive database allows us to explore the relationship between the two kinds of freedom.
    Keywords: Social Network Analysis, Antitrust Policies, Interlocking Directorates, Europe, Positive Freedom, Negative Freedom
    JEL: L4 P
    Date: 2015–10
  3. By: Proto, Eugenio (Department of Economics, University of Warwick); Rustichini, Aldo (Department of Economics, University of Minnesota); Sofianos, Andis (Department of Economics, University of Warwick)
    Abstract: Intelligence affects the social outcomes of groups. A systematic study of the link is provided in an experiment where two groups of subjects with different levels of intelligence, but otherwise similar, play a repeated prisoner's dilemma. Initial cooperation rates are similar, but increase in the groups with higher intelligence to reach almost full cooperation, while they decline in the groups with lower intelligence. Cooperation of higher intelligence subjects is payo sensitive and not automatic: in a treatment with lower continuation probability there is no difference between different intelligence groups.
    Keywords: Repeated Prisoner's Dilemma, Cooperation, Intelligence JEL Classification: C73, C91, C92, B83
    Date: 2015
  4. By: Yvon Pesqueux (LIRSA - Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de Recherche en Sciences de l'Action - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM])
    Abstract: Du changement organisationnel 1 Le changement organisationnel est très souvent couplé avec l'apprentissage organisationnel, chacun des deux reposant l'un sur l'autre et les deux se renforçant mutuellement, l'apprentissage organisationnel constituant une forme deréceptivité au changement bien qu'il s'agisse de deux trajectoires différentes en termes de modélisation. Les référents conceptuels sont différents, comme on le verra avec le chapitre consacré à l'apprentissage organisationnel. Dans les deux cas, au regard des hypothèses de travail de ce livre, il est question d'action organisée. La démarche de changement est propice aux interactions, aux adaptations continues, aux remises en cause qui favorisent l'apprentissage en « double boucle » tel que le formalisent C. Argyris& D. A. Schön 2. Elle permet à l'organisation de se développer, de modifier ses modes de fonctionnement pour en intégrer des nouveaux, compatibles avec sa culture, ses systèmes et ses structures.
    Keywords: théorie des organisations, changement organisationnel
    Date: 2015–11–28
  5. By: Ricardo Nieva (Universidad de Lima, Lima, Peru)
    Abstract: We consider a standard coalitional bargaining game where once a coalition forms it exits as in Okada (2011), however, instead of alternating offers, we have simultaneous payoff demands. We focus in the producer game he studies. Each player is chosen with equal probability. If that is the case, she can choose any coalition she belongs to. However, a coalition can form if an only if payoff demands are feasible as in the Nash (1953) demand game. After smoothing the game (as in Van Damme (1991)), when the noise vanishes, when the discount factor is close to 1, and as in Okada´s (2011), the coalitional Nash bargaining solution is the unique stationary subgameperfect equilibrium.
    Keywords: Coalitional Bargaining, Nash Program, Simultaneous Payoff, Demands, Uncertainty
    JEL: C71 C72 C78
    Date: 2015–07
  6. By: Gautié, Jérôme
    Abstract: L'actualité renouvelée des controverses autour du salaire minimum invite à resituer celles-ci dans une histoire longue qui commence à la fin du XIXème siècle. Cette histoire est abordée ici en articulant trois niveaux d'analyse. Les deux premiers portent respectivement sur l'étude des contenus empiriques et théoriques des controverses économiques, et sur celle de leurs enjeux méthodologiques et même, au-delà, épistémologiques. Un troisième niveau d'analyse, selon une approche de sociologie historique des sciences, vise à recontextualiser les débats économiques en tenant compte des modes d'articulation de la sphère académique à trois autres sphères : la sphère politique, la sphère administrative, et la sphère de la société civile et du monde économique et social. A partir de l'expérience des Etats-Unis, de la France et du Royaume-Uni (et de son Commonwealth), trois grandes périodes sont distinguées - autour de la première guerre mondiale, des années 1940 aux années 1980, et, enfin, du milieu des années 1990 à nos jours. Au-delà de la question du salaire minimum, l'histoire de ces débats éclaire sur l'évolution de l'économie du travail au cours de cette période, et, dans une certaine mesure, sur celle de la science économique dans son ensemble.
    Date: 2015–11
  7. By: Arjun Jayadev (University of Massachusetts at Boston); Rahul Lahoti (Georg-August-University Göttingen); Sanjay Reddy (The New School for Social Research and Initiative for Policy Dialogue)
    Abstract: Interest in the emergence of a global middle class has resulted in a number of attempts to identify and enumerate who belongs to it . Current research provides wildly different estimates about the size and evolution of the global middle class because of a lack of consensus on appropriate identification criteria for a person to be deemed to be middle class. We identify three competing and often conflated understandings in the literature on the subject. We further argue that for at least two of these understandings, the literature has been using inappropriate thresholds for identification. Using data from the Global Consumption and Income Project, we provide estimates of the size, composition and evolution of the global middle class for three competing understandings and contrast these to existing estimates.
    JEL: D30 D31 D60 D63 E21 O50 O10
    Date: 2015–12–08
  8. By: Yvon Pesqueux (LIRSA - Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de Recherche en Sciences de l'Action - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM])
    Abstract: synthèse des approches de l'entrepreneur et de l'entrepreneuriat
    Keywords: entrepreneur, entrepreneuriat
    Date: 2015–11–29
  9. By: Yvon Pesqueux (LIRSA - Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de Recherche en Sciences de l'Action - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM])
    Abstract: les auteurs avant et après la Deuxième guerre mondiale
    Keywords: théorie des organisations
    Date: 2015–11–28
  10. By: Prebisch, Raúl (Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL) United Nations)
  11. By: Batthyány, Karina (Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL) United Nations)
    Abstract: En el presente documento se señalan los principales desafíos en materia de cuidados en la región. Para ello, presenta, analiza y discute el concepto de cuidado, el enfoque de derechos y las políticas públicas de América Latina y el Caribe en materia de organización social de los cuidados. El documento presenta las políticas de cuidado en la región y analiza en particular experiencias de organización social de los cuidados en cuatro países. En Chile, estudia el programa nacional de cuidado infantil “Chile Crece Contigo”; en Costa Rica la Red Nacional de Cuido y Desarrollo Infantil; en Ecuador se analiza la incorporación del trabajo reproductivo no remunerado en la Constitución de 2008 y el Plan Nacional del Buen Vivir y en el Uruguay el Sistema Nacional de Cuidados. Se enfatiza en el documento en la importancia y el papel jugado por las encuestas de uso del tiempo en la región para la formulación de políticas de cuidado.
    Date: 2015–02
  12. By: Stéphane Martin (Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen)
    Abstract: For the lack of texts on the subject, studies in monetary history necessarily rely on numismatics. However, when it comes to grasping the temporal dimension of monetary phenomena, traditional numismatic methods appear lacking. Drawing mainly on data from Roma Gaul, this paper identifies a way to bypass the problem. It consists in using stratified data, which archaeological context is precisely recorded. By taking into account extrinsic elements of dating, along with the intrinsic dating of the coins themselves, we can at the same time avoid circular reasonings and have a finer view on the chronology of the phenomena under study.
    Abstract: En l’absence de textes sur le sujet, les études d’histoire monétaire ne peuvent se passer de l’apport de la numismatique. Toutefois, lorsqu’on s’intéresse à la dimension temporelle des phénomènes monétaires, les méthodes traditionnellement employées par la numismatique s’avèrent insuffisantes. En s’appuyant principalement sur des exemples de la Gaule romaine, cet article essaie de montrer que le recours aux données stratifiées, dont le contexte archéologique est précisément connu, permet de contourner cette difficulté. La prise en compte d’éléments de datation extrinsèques, en plus de la datation intrinsèque du numéraire, permet d’éviter les raisonnements circulaires, tout en permettant une chronologie plus fine des phénomènes observés.
    Keywords: Money,Numismatics,Roman Antiquity,Economic history,Histoire économique,Monnaie,Numismatique,Epoque romaine
    Date: 2015
  13. By: Cimoli, Mario; Porcile, Gabriel (Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL) United Nations)
    Abstract: The microfoundations of economic models are a hotly debated topic in the literature. The debate is important because microfoundations —the ways in which agents decide and behave— have implications that go beyond a specific firm, market or activity; they strongly condition macroeconomic outcomes. This document addresses the classical problems of rationality, uncertainty and institutions: when there is Keynes-Knight uncertainty and rationality is bounded, decision making adopts the form of conventional rules or heuristics. The hyper-rational representative agent of the rational expectations world could generate highly misleading outcomes in macro models. Section 2 applies this discussion to the study of technical change and to innovation and diffusion of technology in the international system, which transform the patterns of specialization. Section 3 discusses the forces that may trap a country in a low-growth trap and the crucial role of institutions in escaping from this trap.
    Date: 2015–01
  14. By: Toms, Steven
    Abstract: The paper presents a conceptual framework of financial fraud based on the historical interaction of opportunity and impediment. In the long run the character of opportunity is determined by the technical characteristics of assets and their unique, unknowable or unverifiable features. Impediment is promoted by consensus about the real value of assets, such that through active governance processes, fraudulent deviations from real value can be easily monitored. Active governance requires individuals in positions of responsibility to exercise a duty of care beyond merely being honest themselves. Taking a long run historical perspective and reviewing a selection of British financial frauds and scandals, from the South Sea Bubble to the Global Financial Crisis, the paper notes the periodic occurrence of waves of opportunity and the evolutionary response of passive governance mechanisms.
    Keywords: Financial fraud; South Sea Bubble; Railway Mania; Royal Mail Steam Packet; Slater Walker; Polly Peck; Global Financial Crisis
    JEL: M41 M42 M48 N23 N24 N83 N84
    Date: 2015–12–07

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