nep-hpe New Economics Papers
on History and Philosophy of Economics
Issue of 2013‒12‒06
25 papers chosen by
Erik Thomson
University of Manitoba

  1. James M. Buchanan's contractarianism and modern liberalism By Vanberg, Viktor J.
  2. MIT and Money By Perry Mehrling
  3. A critical regard to the history of econometrics By Erich Pinzón Fuchs
  4. Risk and Choice: A Research Saga By Gollier, Christian; Hammitt, James; Treich, Nicolas
  5. On the theory of capital in post-industrial societies By Cavalieri, Duccio
  6. Arguments from natural law reevaluated through a dialogue between legal history and legal theory By Dmitry Poldnikov
  7. Bridging Innovation System Research and Development Studies: challenges and research opportunities By Lundvall , Bengt-Åke; Vang , Jan; Joseph , KJ; Chaminade , Cristina
  8. Equitable commerce: the mediaeval origins of American anarchism By Rodion Belkovich
  9. Economic efficiency as a model of the social context of the conceptualization of the law By Sergey Tretyakov
  10. The concept of “comity” in Ulrich Huber’s conflict doctrine By Irina Getman-Pavlova
  11. WAITING TO COOPERATE? By Todd R. Kaplan; Bradley J. Ruffle; Ze’ev Shtudiner
  12. Paleoconservatism of the southern agrarians By Rodion Belkovich
  13. Global legal pluralism: A new way of legal thinking By Mikhail Antonov
  14. (Re)Conceptualising the Space of Markets: The case of the 2007-9 global financial crisis By Jones, A.
  15. A Comment on "Cycles and Instability in a Rock-Paper-Scissors Population Game: A Continuous Time Experiment" By Wang, Zhijian; Zhu, Siqian; Xu, Bin
  16. Strategic Experimentation with Heterogeneous Agents and Payoff Externalities By Kaustav Das
  17. Autour d'Adam Smith : l'économie politique britannique et le républicanisme à la fin du XVIIIe siècle By Thomas Ruellou
  18. The legacy of classical natural law in Russian dogmatic jurisprudence in the late 19th century By Dmitry Poldnikov
  19. Merchant Sharing Theory By Laurent Fournier
  20. Happiness of economists By Feld, Lars P.; Necker, Sarah; Frey, Bruno S.
  21. L'axiomatique dans les preuves d'existence d'un équilibre général, chez Arrow et Debreu By Aurélien Goutsmedt
  22. Subjective Public Rights in the Legal Philosophies of Russian Liberalism in the Early 20th Century By Anastasiya Tumanova
  23. The Arab spring and Islamic legal thought By Leonid Sykiainen
  24. Must One Be an Ogre to Rationally Prefer Aiding the Nearby to the Distant Needy? By John A Weymark
  25. Does trust mean giving and not risking? Experimental evidence from the trust game By Garapin, A.; Muller, L.; Rahali, B.

  1. By: Vanberg, Viktor J.
    Abstract: [Conclusion] Hayek has been rightly praised for his most important role in the modern revival of classical liberalism. I want to submit, though, that a truly 'modern' liberalism must fill a void in the classical liberal tradition that Hayek only started to address, namely to complement the well-developed liberal theory of the market by a consistent liberal theory of democracy. As I have argued above, to have shown how this void may be filled is the specific contribution of James Buchanan to a modern liberalism. It is not the least important feature of his contractarian-constitutionalist approach that it draws attention to the fact that markets and politics are both to be judged in terms of their capacity to allow the individuals involved to realize mutual gains, and that - in contrasting market and democracy - we must keep in mind that there is neither a 'market as such' nor a 'democracy as such.' Both, markets and democracies exist only as arenas for social cooperation that are framed by specific 'rules of the game' and their working properties will be critically dependent on the nature of these rules. Accordingly, liberals who care about how the prospects for individuals to realize mutual gains, in the market arena as well as in politics, might be improved, should focus their research ambitions on comparing specific institutional alternatives for how social cooperation may be organized in both these realms. --
    Date: 2013
  2. By: Perry Mehrling (Barnard College, Columbia University)
    Abstract: The Treasury-Fed Accord of 1951 and the subsequent rebuilding of private capital markets, first domestically and then globally, provided the shifting institutional background against which thinking about money and monetary policy evolved within the MIT economics department. Throughout that evolution, a constant, and a constraint, was the conception of monetary economics that Paul Samuelson had himself developed as early as 1937, a conception that informed the decision to bring in Modigliani in 1962, as well as Foley and Sidrauski in 1965.
    Keywords: MIT, monetary economics, Paul Samuelson
    JEL: B22 E50
    Date: 2013–10
  3. By: Erich Pinzón Fuchs (UP1 UFR02 - Université Paris 1, Panthéon-Sorbonne - UFR d'Économie - Université Paris I - Panthéon-Sorbonne - PRES HESAM)
    Abstract: Econometrics has become such an obvious, objective - almost natural - tool that economists often forget that it has a history of its own, a complex and sometimes problematic history. Two works - Morgan (1990) and Qin (1993) - constitute the Received View of the history of econometrics. Basing our analysis on Leo Corry's methodological (and historiographical) framework of image and body of knowledge, the main purpose of this dissertation is to provide a critical account of the Received View. Our main criticism is that historians of econometrics have a particular image of knowledge that stems from within econometrics itself, generating a problem of reflexivity. This means that historians of econometrics would evaluate econometrics and its history from an econometrician point of view, determining very specific criteria of what should be considered as "true", what should be studied or what should be the questions that the scientific community should ask. This reflexive vision has conducted the Received View to write an internalist and funnel-shaped version of the History of Econometrics, presenting it as a lineal process progressing towards the best possible solution: Structural Econometrics and Haavelmo's Probability Approach in Econometrics (1944). The present work suggests that a new history of econometrics is needed. A new history that would overcome the reflexivity problem yielding a certainly messier and convoluted but also richer vision of econometrics' evolution, rather than the lineal path towards progress presented by the Received View.
    Keywords: history of econometrics, economic methodology and philosophy, history of recent economic thought, quantification in economics, image and body of knowledge, reflexivity
    Date: 2013–06–11
  4. By: Gollier, Christian; Hammitt, James; Treich, Nicolas
    Abstract: As in any research field, risk theory has its important questions, results, and paradoxes, as well as its seminal papers and key authors. Louis Eeckhoudt has been a key author in the field of risk theory. To celebrate his many contributions and continue the development of theories of decision making under risk, the Toulouse School of Economics hosted “Risk and choice: A conference in honor of Louis Eeckhoudt” July 12- 13, 2012. This paper presents some of Eeckhoudt’s main contributions to the literature, and provides some illustrations of the remarkable research saga in risk theory over the last 50 years since Pratt’s (1964) characterization of risk aversion under expected utility.
    Keywords: Risk aversion, prudence, risk, self-protection, insurance, portfolio choice, expected utility.
    JEL: D81
    Date: 2013–07
  5. By: Cavalieri, Duccio
    Abstract: This is an analysis of the present unsatisfactory state of the theory of capital and a proposal to reformulate this theory in line with some neglected late-Marxian views on the subject and in the light of the passage of capitalism from the industrial to a post-industrial era characterized by the dominance of speculative finance. The author’s aim is to provide a better integration of the theory of capital with those of money and finance. Attention is focused on a Marxian price index, the monetary expression of labour value, MEV, which accounts for both explicit and implicit cost components and, differently from MELT, does not consider only the money value of living labour time.
    Keywords: value; capital theory; post-industrialism; critical Marxism; MEV.
    JEL: B12 B13
    Date: 2013–11–25
  6. By: Dmitry Poldnikov (PhD, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law, Higher School of Economics (Moscow))
    Abstract: The paper suggests several ways to rediscover the legacy of early modern and classical natural law of the 18th century in contemporary legal thought through the joint efforts of legal history and legal theory with particular reference to the domain of contract law. Additionally, the paper justifies the revival of the research in the domain of natural law in connection with legal argumentation
    Keywords: theory of law, legal history, interdisciplinary interaction, natural law, argumentation, civil law, contract law.
    JEL: K10
    Date: 2013
  7. By: Lundvall , Bengt-Åke (CBS, Aalborg University, Denmark); Vang , Jan (Copenhagen Institute of Technology, Aalborg University, Denmark); Joseph , KJ (Centre for Development Studies (CDS), India); Chaminade , Cristina (CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: This paper links innovation system analysis to economic development. Both fields are young and interdisciplinary. In the recent years, there has been a renewed interest on applying the innovation system concept in developing countries. In the first part of this paper we try to specify the conditions under which innovation systems can be used in a developing country context; and we do so in a dialogue with critiques developed within the community of evolutionary and development scholars. In the second part of the paper we give a brief assessment of how development economics has evolved and we draw some lessons for a research strategy. We will argue that the crisis of the first generation of development economics that was represented by scholars such as Nurkse, Myrdal, Hirschman, Singer and Sen has left a void in development economics that cannot be filled neither by mainstream neoclassical economics nor by ‘new growth theory’. We see the innovation system approach as a serious candidate to fill this void
    Keywords: Innovation systems; development economics; developing countries
    JEL: O30
    Date: 2013–11–25
  8. By: Rodion Belkovich (National Research University Higher School of Economics. Legal Theory and Comparative Law Department. Associate Professor)
    Abstract: Traditional ideas sometimes turn into revolutionary ones because of changing circumstances in which they continue to exist. Their revolutionary appearance, however, might be intentionally accentuated by the new followers of these ideas. Consequently, a legitimate and respectable tradition of thought becomes marginal and ridiculed. It is an aim of the history of political thought then to reveal the true origins of these ideas. This paper focuses on one such case, namely, the equitable commerce theory of the first American anarchist Josiah Warren. The study seeks to show that the novel character of this theory is overestimated and that an essentially conservative idea of just price lies in the foundation of the whole American anarchist movement
    Keywords: Josiah Warren, anarchism, individualism, just price, equitable commerce, paleoconservatism
    JEL: Z19
    Date: 2013
  9. By: Sergey Tretyakov (National Research University Higher School of Economics, Associate Professor the Chair of Civil Law of the Moscow State University)
    Abstract: In the present working paper we have hypothesized an explanation for the fact that the evaluation of the social impact of law is modeled predominantly by the economic efficiency concept. Considering the early stages of the concept’s development, we try to make it more intelligible to the European lawyers.
    Keywords: efficiency, marginal utility theory, Darwinism, preferences, social consequences of law
    JEL: K10
    Date: 2013
  10. By: Irina Getman-Pavlova (Associated Professor, Department of International Private Law, National Research University “Higher School of Economics”, Candidate of science)
    Abstract: This article investigates the concept of “comity”, discussed by Ulrich Huber (Dutch scholar of the XVIIth century). This author is the most typical representative of the Dutch theory of the conflict of law. Huber’s writings primarily reflected the doctrine of comity, which is the basis of the Dutch school statutes. This article concludes that all Huber’s axioms have entered modern doctrine and court practice (especially in common law countries). Huber is the founder of the “national theory” of conflict rules and, at the same time, the founder of “international theory” in the private international law
    Keywords: private international law, doctrine, theory of the statutes, the Netherlands (the Dutch), Dutch school of conflict law XVIIth century, Ulrich Huber, international comity, positivism, pragmatism.
    JEL: K40
    Date: 2013
  11. By: Todd R. Kaplan (University of Exeter, University of Haifa); Bradley J. Ruffle (Wilfrid Laurier University, Ben-Gurion University); Ze’ev Shtudiner (Ariel University)
    Abstract: Sometimes cooperation between two parties requires exactly one to cede to the other. If the decisions whether to cede are made simultaneously, then neither or both may acquiesce leading to an inefficient outcome. However, inefficiency may be avoided if a party can wait to see what the other does. We experimentally test whether adding a waiting option to such a two-player cooperation game enhances cooperation. Although subjects cede less overall with the waiting option, we show that they coordinate more and consequently achieve higher profits. Yet, a dark side overhangs waiting: the least cooperative pairs do worse with this option. They wait not to facilitate coordination but to disguise their entry.
    Date: 2013
  12. By: Rodion Belkovich (National Research University Higher School of Economics. Legal Theory and Comparative Law Department. Associate Professor)
    Abstract: The emergence of the Tea Party movement in recent years has shown that under the surface of mainstream political life in the USA there exists a different layer of ideas, which cannot be satisfactorily described in terms of the Republican/Democrat dichotomy. These ideas have their origins in the foundation of the American Republic, which owes a lot to ancient and mediaeval political theory. In the twentieth century there was a revival of these ideas in the form of the so-called “paleoconservative” movements which rediscovered their ancient and mediaeval heritage. This paper focuses on one of them, the Southern Agrarian movement, as exemplary of this radical intellectual project
    Keywords: paleoconservatism, southern agrarians, south, slavery, civil war.
    JEL: Z19
    Date: 2013
  13. By: Mikhail Antonov (National Research University Higher School of Economics (St. Petersburg, Russia))
    Abstract: The subject matter of this article is the terminology which is used in contemporary law and sociological jurisprudence to denote changes in legal regulation. Among the most fashionable terms are those of globalization and pluralism. In the author’s opinion, these two terms indicate diverse phenomena and have different tasks. Pluralism is a concept allowing the description and explication of various legal facts, institutions, relations which are not generally recognized in state-centered theory of law. Globalization is a common name for the distinctive characteristics which distinguish the present-day Western civilization from other civilizations. The amalgamation of these two different aspects into one set of methods and ideas inspired by the need to explain modernity does not lead to the formation of a new methodology or of a scientific conception. Rather globalization talks about plurality in contemporary law having another function – to describe the changing mentality, new ways of legal thinking which are growing in the Western world. These changes have repercussions in many fields of science, i.e. in a new understanding of such traditional concepts as sovereignty
    Keywords: legal pluralism, globalization, legal orders, transnational law, civilization, sociological jurisprudence, sustainability.
    JEL: K1
    Date: 2013
  14. By: Jones, A.
    Abstract: The 2007-9 period saw an unprecedented crisis emerge in global financial markets with the collapse of several large western financial institutions, and the nearest moment of systemic crisis yet witnessed in the globalized financial system. The crisis has thus provoked a significant questioning of market theories, and in particular understandings of market within orthodox neoclassical economics. Within the social sciences, a significant element of this response has built on a growing heterodox socioeconomic literature which is heavily critical of hegemonic conceptions of the market within economics. However, whilst a small body of work in economic geography has begun to engage with this literature, geographical thinking has not directly sought to conceptualise the nature and significance of market spatiality. Utilizing a cultural economy approach, this paper therefore argues that economic geographical theories need to foreground the concept of market rather than treat markets as a ‘component’ of wider processes. It further contends that the concept of the ‘market’ needs to be reconceptualised in a way that captures the spatialities of markets and the difference that space makes to market behaviours and outcomes. Drawing on the growing heterodox socioeconomic literature on markets, it thus proposes a practice-oriented ‘socio-spatial approach’ for framing conceptions of market spatiality, arguing that such a spatial epistemology opens up a range of theoretical possibilities for further contesting hegemonic neoclassical theories of the market beyond current socioeconomic critiques. It seeks to illustrate the utility of such a framework through a case study analysis of the limitations inherent in existing policy practices surrounding the early phase of the recent global financial crisis.
    Keywords: markets; economic practices; financial crisis; spatiality; cultural economy; actor network theory; performativity
    Date: 2013
  15. By: Wang, Zhijian; Zhu, Siqian; Xu, Bin
    Abstract: The authors (Cason, Friedman and Hopkins, Review of Economic Studies, 2014) claimed that control treatments (using simultaneous matching in discrete time) replicate previous results that exhibit weak or no cycles. After correcting two mathematical mistakes in their cycles tripwire algorithm, we study the cycles by scanning the tripwire in the full strategy space of the games and we find significant cycles that were omitted by the authors. So we suggest that all of the treatments exhibit significant cycles.
    Keywords: experiments; learning; cycles; mixed equilibrium; discrete time
    JEL: C72 C73 C92 D83
    Date: 2013–11–26
  16. By: Kaustav Das (Department of Economics, University of Exeter)
    Abstract: This paper analyses a two-player game of strategic experimentation with two-armed bandits.At least one of the arms is risky in the sense that it may not yield a lumpsum payoff. There is payoff externality between the players and they differ in their ability to learn across the risky arm. Either player has to decide in a continous time regarding which arm to use. Two alternative settings are analysed. The first setting has two risky arms which are perfectly negatively correlated. The other one has one safe arm and one risky arm. I show that in equilibrium (Markovian) there is always too much of duplication which implies that with respect to a social planner's solution, risky arms are explored excessively.
    Keywords: R&D competition, Two-armed Bandit, Duplication, Learning.
    JEL: C73 D83 O31
    Date: 2013
  17. By: Thomas Ruellou (UP1 UFR02 - Université Paris 1, Panthéon-Sorbonne - UFR d'Économie - Université Paris I - Panthéon-Sorbonne - PRES HESAM)
    Abstract: Ce mémoire a pour objet d'étude le tournant que subit l'économie politique britannique à la fin du XVIIIe siècle, en termes de champ et de méthode. Partageant la critique des lectures quelques peu rapides des théories économiques attribuant à Smith une soi-disant "autonomisation" de l'économie vis-à-vis de la morale et de la politique, nous souhaitons au contraire montrer que ce tournant ne s'effectua qu'après sa mort. Ainsi, la contribution de Dugald Stewart est à ce titre essentielle en ce que, partant d'une relecture des ouvrages d'Adam Smith, elle fournit les bases à une restriction du champ de l'économie politique au regard de la philosophie politique, s'émancipant ainsi des questions de gouvernement. Pour appréhender ce tournant théorique, il convient de restituer la richesse de l'œuvre d'Adam Smith, en montrant qu'elle s'inscrit profondément dans le contexte philosophique et politique de son temps, et qu'elle prend un sens particulier lorsqu'on la lit au regard de ce contexte. Plus précisément, la philosophie politique dite "républicaine" qui parcourt les XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles britanniques est invoquée pour mettre à jour les ressorts de la critique du "système mercantile" et la justification du "système de la liberté naturelle" qui en découle. Nous montrons ainsi que la croissance de la production de richesses est selon Smith conditionnée par une certaine forme de gouvernement et par la liberté politique qui en dépend. De plus, le système de la liberté naturelle permettrait d'atteindre un idéal politique qui sous-tend les écrits de Smith. Son étude de l'histoire de l'Europe et de l'économie des colonies de l'Empire britannique fournit la base de notre argumentation. C'est donc toute une place accordée à la philosophie politique, touchant à un idéal de justice et de répartition des pouvoirs, qui sera évincée de l'économie politique avec Stewart. En effet, ce dernier rejette les questions constitutionnelles hors du champ de cette discipline, et n'accorde aux structures politiques aucun effet sur la production de richesses. Il s'inscrit ainsi en opposition à ceux qui, dans la décennie 1790, et principalement dans le champ politique, ont une lecture des œuvres de Smith différente de la sienne. Ces derniers, en se situant sur le terrain pratique, partagent l'étendue de la réflexion de Smith et lient leurs analyses économiques avec celles de la Constitution de l'État. Dans ce cas, nous voyons que la promotion de la liberté du commerce dépasse le cadre d'une position partisane en faveur d'une catégorie particulière de la population. Même s'ils demeurent plus critiques de la société commerciale que Smith, notamment sur les questions des vertus citoyennes, ils se rapprochent de lui et caractérisent une manière de penser qui sera évincée par Stewart. C'est sans doute parce que ce dernier se situe au carrefour entre les XVIIIe et le XIXe siècles, où la philosophie républicaine est en perte de vitesse, qu'il est l'un des premiers représentants de ceux qui accordent à la politique une place subalterne dans la théorie économique.
    Keywords: Adam Smith, économie politique britannique, républicanisme
    Date: 2013
  18. By: Dmitry Poldnikov (PhD, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law, Higher School of Economics (Moscow))
    Abstract: The paper examines the inconspicuous influence of the legacy of the classical natural law of the 18th century on Russian dogmatic jurisprudence of civil law, taking as an example the authoritative “Course on civil law” (1868-1880) by Konstantin Pobedonostsev. Despite the dogmatic purpose of the course and the hostility of its author towards European liberal doctrines of natural law, some striking similarities between them can be found, especially in the general provisions and principles of contract law, the method of its exposition and the recourse to justice and supra-positive ideal
    Keywords: legal history, dogmatic jurisprudence, natural law, civil law, contract law, principles, justice, Russia
    JEL: N93
    Date: 2013
  19. By: Laurent Fournier (Chercheur Indépendant - Aucune)
    Abstract: This paper is the first attempt to formalize a new field of economics; studding the Intangibles Goods available on the Internet. We are taking advantage of the digital world's specific rules to propose a theory of trading & sharing unified. A function based money is created as a world-wide currency; ⊔ (pronounced /k^p/). We argue that our system discourage speculation activities while it makes easy captured taxes for governments. The implementation removes the today's paywall on the Internet and provides a simple-to-use, open-source, free-of-charge, highly-secure, person-to-person, privacy-respectful, digital payment tool for citizens, using standard smart-phones with a strong authentication. Next step will be the propagation of the network application and we expect many shared benefits for the whole economics development.
    Keywords: Economics; Internet; Intangible Good; Sharing; Trading; Money; Digital Signature; Payment; Currency; Exchange Rate; Cultural Piracy; Copyright; Paywall; Peer-to-peer
    Date: 2013–11–22
  20. By: Feld, Lars P.; Necker, Sarah; Frey, Bruno S.
    Abstract: This study investigates the determinants of economists' life satisfaction. The analysis is based on a survey of professional, mostly academic economists from European countries and beyond. We find that certain features of economists' professional situation influence their well-being. Happiness is increased by having more research time while the lack of a tenured position decreases satisfaction in particular if the contract expires in the near future or cannot be extended. Surprisingly, publication success has no effect on satisfaction. While the perceived level of external pressure also has no impact, the perceived change of pressure in recent years has. Economists may have accepted a high level of pressure when entering academia but do not seem to be willing to cope with the increase observed in recent years. --
    Keywords: happiness,academic labor market,extrinsic and intrinsic motivation,publish or perish-culture
    JEL: I31 A11 J28
    Date: 2013
  21. By: Aurélien Goutsmedt (UP1 UFR02 - Université Paris 1, Panthéon-Sorbonne - UFR d'Économie - Université Paris I - Panthéon-Sorbonne - PRES HESAM)
    Abstract: Ce travail s'attache à montrer que les années 1940 et 1950 témoignent d'une révolution épistémologique profonde en économie, au moins aussi importante que la "révolution keynésienne". Cette révolution a conduit à l'émergence d'un style de pensée axiomatique. L'intégration de la méthode axiomatique en économie conduit à séparer la structure logique de la théorie de ses interprétations possibles, la monographie de Debreu (1959) constituant le modèle canonique de cette séparation pour la discipline économique. À partir de cette séparation, deux points de vue différents émergent au sein des modèles d'équilibre général : un point de vue économique et un point de vue axiomatique (ou mathématique). À chacun de ces points de vue est liée une logique de développement qui lui est propre. La logique de développement axiomatique pousse à réduire le nombre d'hypothèses ou, du moins, à les affaiblir, afin de proposer des théorèmes les plus généraux possibles. La logique de développement économique, quant à elle, conduit à rechercher des hypothèses réalistes renforçant la pertinence économique du modèle. Cette double logique conduit à une tension permanente dans l'activité théorique de l'économiste. En effet, la généralisation mathématique des théorèmes conduit, dans certains cas, à des interprétations peu conformes avec l'intuition économique ou bien peut contribuer à obscurcir leur signification économique. On perd en compréhension ce que l'on gagne en extension. L'exemple de l'article de 1954 de Kenneth Arrow et Gérard Debreu permet d'illustrer cette tension essentielle du style de pensée axiomatique en économie.
    Keywords: Equilibre général, axiomatique, preuves d'existence, cohérence logique, réalisme des hypothèses
    Date: 2013–06
  22. By: Anastasiya Tumanova (Doctor of Law, Doctor of History, Professor, Faculty of Law, Leading Scientific Researcher, Centre for Studies of Civil Society and Nonprofit Sector, Higher School of Economics (Moscow))
    Abstract: This paper examines the doctrine of subjective public rights, which was developed by the legal phi-losophies of Russian Liberalism in Late Imperial Russia. This doctrine caused a revolution in the consciousness of law and order of the intellectual elite of the Russian Empire and influenced the liberation movement, the content of programs and activities of liberal political parties, and the State Duma of the Russian Empire. This paper is of interest to legal historians and historians of legal teachings, law theorists, and historians of intellectual thought. It is based on a wide range of sources, including scientific and journalistic works of liberal-minded Russian legal theorists, such as Pavel Novgorodtsev, Vladimir Gessen, Bogdan Kistyakovsky, Maksim Kovalevsky, and others, many of whom are for the first time introduced into scientific use in relation to the study of subjec-tive rights
    Keywords: History of state, law and legal thought of Late Imperial Russia, human rights and free-doms, law-based state, legal philosophies of Russian liberalism
    JEL: K
    Date: 2013
  23. By: Leonid Sykiainen (National Research University Higher School of Economics. Department of Theory of Law and Comparative Law; Professor)
    Abstract: At the end of 2010 there was series of political crises in the Arab world and this period came to be known as “the Arab Spring”. Islam has played a significant role in these events. In certain countries overthrowing the existing regimes resulted in Islamic governments coming to power. A number of aspects of the Arab Spring attracted the attention of contemporary Islamic legal thought. Its different schools diverge in the assessment of the mass protests. Islamic jurisprudence explains the “fiqh of revolution” which justifies the demonstrations and protests against the regime from a Sharia-based point of view
    Keywords: “the Arab Spring”; Islam; political reforms; Sharia, demonstrations; innovation; “fiqh of revolution”
    JEL: K30
    Date: 2013
  24. By: John A Weymark (Vanderbilt University)
    Abstract: Caspar Hare ["Rationality and the Distant Needy," Philosophy & Public Affairs 35 (2007): 161-78] has offered two distinct, but related, arguments whose purpose is to show that anyone in a position to help someone in great need at little personal cost who is minimally decent must violate one or more of the conditions that characterize a rational preference if he conditions assistance on the beneficiary being nearby. In this paper, it is shown that Hare's arguments for this conclusion have limited scope; they are only valid if the nearby and distant needy are the same person. Therefore, he has not established his conclusion for the more morally problematic case in which they are different. Moreover, even if the two beneficiaries are the same person, Hare's arguments only apply in very special circumstances or if distance is interpreted temporally.
    Keywords: duties of assistance, formal ethics, Sacrifice Principle, Caspar Hare, Peter Singer
    JEL: D6
    Date: 2013–11–26
  25. By: Garapin, A.; Muller, L.; Rahali, B.
    Abstract: In a within-subjects framework, we compare levels of transfer in the trust game and in the (triple) dictator game. We control preferences towards risk through the Holt and Laury test (2002) and social preferences with the ring test (Liebrand, 1984). We then provide evidence that social preferences correlate with levels of transfer, while risk attitudes do not. Finally, we also cast doubts on the predictive power of the two tests.
    JEL: C72 C90
    Date: 2013

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