nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2023‒04‒24
twenty-two papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. Economics and pluralism By Víctor A. Beker
  2. "The charm of emission trading": Ideas of German public economists on economic policy in times of crises By Reinke, Rouven; Porak, Laura
  3. Ricardo was surely right: the abundance of “easy†rents leads to greedy and lazy elites. A tribute to Geoff Harcourt By Palma, J. G.
  4. The Interpretation of Organizational Ontologies By Guilherme Azevedo
  5. Leitura pública e a possibilidade de modos públicos e comuns para a provisão e fruição dos bens culturais By Felizes, Amarílis; Sequeiros, Paula
  6. Understanding the paradox of control and freedom of consumption under digital capitalism with Stafford Beer's cybernetic theory By Hannah Bensussan
  7. Environmental sustainability and job creation: a SAM-based approach for Cameroon By Meligi, El; Ferreira, Valeria; Nechifor, Victor; Ferrari, Emanuele
  8. Systems Thinking, Mapping and Change in Food and Agriculture By Domenico Dentoni; Carlo Cucchi; Marija Roglić; Rob Lubberink; Rahmin Bender; Timothy Manyise
  9. Entre défis organisationnels, sociaux et techniques pour la production de la ville : de la plateformisation des services à l'usager vers la transversalité des échanges By Gaëlle Baudry; Papa Alioune Ba; Youssef Miloudi
  10. Realising the collective value of data by governing with rather than over By Fussell, Cathy
  11. Italy and the trap of GVC downgrading: labour dependence in the European geography of production By Lorenzo Cresti; Giovanni Dosi; Federico Riccio; Maria Enrica Virgillito
  12. The Effects of the Pandemic on Market Power and Profitability By Juan Andres Espinosa-Torres; Jaime Ramirez-Cuellar
  13. Commoning with blockchain. The Ğ1 / Duniter case By Maxime Malafosse; Amandine Pascal; Serge Amabile
  14. Democracy in Political Corporate Social Responsibility: A Dynamic, Multilevel Account By Jennifer Goodman; Jukka Mäkinen
  15. La place de la maintenance et du travail dans le système productif contemporain et dans ses nécessaires transformations By Pierre Caye
  16. On the Establishment of Creative Workers’ Clubs within Creative Quarters By Basile Michel
  17. Singularization and commodification: The functions of connoisseurs in traditional product ranges By Anthony Beudaert; Charlène Lambert
  18. Global protectionist trade effect of rules of origin: assessment of input-output restrictions at HS6 level in 400 FTAs By Kniahin, Dzmitry
  19. Russia’s Dependence on Import of Intermediate Goods By Danila Karpov
  20. Labour quality growth in Poland By Jan Baran
  21. Believing, belonging and understanding : religion and philosophy as narratives and practice in Adam Smith By Jimena Hurtado
  22. Dynamics of the price behavior in stock markets: A statistical physics approach By Hung Diep; Gabriel Desgranges

  1. By: Víctor A. Beker
    Keywords: pluralism, scientific method, mainstream economics, paradigm
    JEL: B41 A11
    Date: 2021–11
  2. By: Reinke, Rouven; Porak, Laura
    Abstract: Economists have become very influential intellectuals in our contemporary society. The scientific knowledge produced by the discipline and the academic status of economists can be considered as a decisive power resource in media debates and politics. The current state of economics has been criticized in the past one and a half decades regarding the ontological and epistemic foundations of the discipline and its policy implications. However, especially since the Covid-19 pandemic, it seems as if publicly presented positions have drastically changed. Instead of advocating pure market liberalism, the state is attributed an important position and market failures are discussed intensively. Given these shifts, this paper analyzes the positions that important German economists present after the unfolding of the Covid-19 pandemic about 'the economy' and economic policy. Methodologically, the paper draws on critical discourse analysis (CDA) of recent interviews on the YouTube channel 'Jung & Naiv' with leading public economists in Germany. By doing so, this study elaborates on the different dimension of economic knowledge that is articulated by public representatives of economics. On the ontological and theoretical level, we find a rather monistic understanding of 'the economy', involving the interplay between markets and the state. Public economists repeatedly emphasize the superiority of market economies and their price mechanism. With regards to economic policy, a shift from rather free-market approaches towards moderate Keynesianism and market design liberalism becomes apparent, indicating a flexible pragmatism.
    Date: 2023
  3. By: Palma, J. G.
    Abstract: Paul Krugman once said that two of the greatest analytical challenges of economic theory today (comparable to those faced by Keynes in the 1930s) were the huge deterioration of market inequality in high-income countries, and Latin America’s underperformance. The main aim of this paper is to tackle simultaneously both challenges, while adding a third: the post-1980 underperformance of advanced Western economies. This article tries to answer these three puzzles returning to Ricardo. For him, the original sin of capitalism is that it will always have rentiers lurking around in search of “easy†rents; and that under certain conditions, in a laissez-faire economy they can get the upper hand. If so, they were bound to transform capitalism into a self-destructing rentier paradise. In other words, what has happened in the West (North and South of the Equator) since their 1980s neo-liberal reforms are basically facets of one and the same phenomenon: the inequality augmenting and productivity-growth retarding impact of a specific type of rentier-based accumulation. And the key link between the two is the negative impact that increased inequality has had on investment. If so, Krugman’s puzzle would not really be much of a mystery after all! And this process of “rentierisation†―of which financialisation is just one (although leading) aspect― is now proving to be as toxic for inequality and productivity growth as for our democracy.
    Keywords: David Ricardo, Geoff Harcourt, Paul Krugman, inequality, productivity-growth, “easy†rents, rentiers’ paradise, “rentierisation†, financialisation, “reverse-catching-up†, neo-liberalism, middle-income trap, US, Western Europe, Latin America
    JEL: B00 E02 G01 N10 O11 O47 Q02
    Date: 2023–03–17
  4. By: Guilherme Azevedo (Audencia Business School)
    Abstract: What does it mean for an organization "to exist"? Building upon the philosophical notion of ontologies as theories of existence, I outline a theory of organizational ontology supported by the premise that organizations contain implicit existential conventions that provide their members with an understanding of what their joint existence is. This study aims to answer two questions. First, what constitutes an organizational ontology? Second, how can this be accessed and represented? Using a methodology informed by cultural interpretation, I ground this study empirically in ethnographic fieldwork at a not-for-profit organization devoted to teaching math to "left behind" children.
    Keywords: Organizational ontology, Ethnography, Ontology, Cultural interpretation, Organizational culture, Cosmology
    Date: 2023
  5. By: Felizes, Amarílis; Sequeiros, Paula (Centro de Estudos Sociais)
    Abstract: Public and public access libraries are organized for the provision of a differentiated set of reading goods. They declare to be open institutions for the use of the public. We address the characteristics of the provision and uses of goods in public libraries, referring to the complexity of these characteristics. The theme of library economics and public reading needs to be deepened to build reflection and proposal on public policies of culture, including policies of public reading. We advance the need to understand some lines of economic thought about reading goods, the market, and valuation, sharing and enjoyment of cultural goods. We focus on the economy of public reading in Portugal and the provision of services and goods that propitiate their shared and/or common usage, while acknowledging that there may similarities with other locations and other areas of culture. We reflect on the current relevance of public policies for reading in libraries and on the need to think about public and common modes of provision of cultural goods and services
    Date: 2023–03–15
  6. By: Hannah Bensussan (CEPN - Centre d'Economie de l'Université Paris Nord - LABEX ICCA - UP13 - Université Paris 13 - Université Sorbonne Nouvelle - Paris 3 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UPCité - Université Paris Cité - Université Sorbonne Paris Nord - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Université Sorbonne Paris Nord)
    Abstract: Studies on the digitalization of markets and economic relations provide contrasting statements on its impact on consumers: it seems to have enhanced both control and freedom of these actors. This paper proposes to understand this paradox through the lens of Stafford Beer's cybernetic theory. We read the literature on digitalization and consumption at the light of Beer's concepts of regulated variety, regulatory variety and recursion, three concepts at the source of Beer's understanding of control and freedom. These concepts, we argue, allow to show the conditioned rise of consumers' freedom to the purpose of control in capitalist orders, i.e., commodity circulation and capital accumulation.
    Keywords: Control, freedom, consumption, digital capitalism
    Date: 2023–03–29
  7. By: Meligi, El; Ferreira, Valeria; Nechifor, Victor; Ferrari, Emanuele
    Abstract: Much debate has focused on the relationship between economic activities and the social and environmental impacts. This article introduces a new and environmentally extended Social Accounting Matrix for Cameroon. The SAM for 2016 has been built on the National Accounts data with the combination of employment data derived by various Households and Labour force surveys, and CO2 emissions accounts has been obtained from official reports and statistics. Based on SAM linear multiplier analysis, the aim of this article is to identify the key sectors for which final demand is most conducive to job creation but also to illustrate the corresponding employment intensity of emissions. In this sense, the ‘employment intensity of carbon’ is computed and used as an indicator that shows the amount of employment associated to CO2 emitted by the production of goods and services. At a later stage, presented how a target of environmental sustainability expressed as a potential CO2 emission reduction goal, as pledged in the latest Nationally Determined Contribution, can be achieved and its implications on the employment change.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2022
  8. By: Domenico Dentoni (Labex Entreprendre - UM - Université de Montpellier, Groupe Sup de Co Montpellier (GSCM) - Montpellier Business School); Carlo Cucchi; Marija Roglić (Labex Entreprendre - UM - Université de Montpellier, Groupe Sup de Co Montpellier (GSCM) - Montpellier Business School); Rob Lubberink; Rahmin Bender; Timothy Manyise
    Abstract: Societal actors across scales and geographies increasingly demand visual applications of systems thinkingthe process of understanding and changing the reality of a system by considering its whole set of interdependenciesto address wicked problems affecting food and agriculture. Yet, despite the wide offer of systems mapping tools, there is still little guidance for managers, policy-makers, civil society and changemakers in food and agriculture on how to choose, combine and use these tools on the basis of a sufficiently deep understanding of socio-ecological systems. Unfortunately, actors seeking to address wicked problems with inadequate understandings of systems often have limited influence on the socio-ecological systems they inhabit, and sometimes even generate unintended negative consequences. Hence, we first review, discuss and exemplify seven key features of systems that should bebut rarely have beenincorporated in strategic decisions in the agri-food sector: interdependency, levelmultiplicity, dynamism, path dependency, self-organization, non-linearity and complex causality. Second, on the basis of these features, we propose a collective process to systems mapping that grounds on the notion that the configuration of problems (i.e., how multiple issues entangle with each other) and the configuration of actors (i.e., how multiple actors relate to each other and share resources) represent two sides of the same coin. Third, we provide implications for societal actors-including decision-makers, trainers and facilitators-using systems mapping to trigger or accelerate systems change in five purposive ways: targeting multiple goals; generating ripple effects; mitigating unintended consequences; tackling systemic constraints, and collaborating with unconventional partners.
    Keywords: Systems thinking Causal loop diagrams value network analysis wicked problems agri-food systems socio-ecological systems, Systems thinking, Causal loop diagrams, value network analysis, wicked problems, agri-food systems, socio-ecological systems
    Date: 2023–02–19
  9. By: Gaëlle Baudry (Berger-Levrault); Papa Alioune Ba (IEP Toulouse - Sciences Po Toulouse - Institut d'études politiques de Toulouse); Youssef Miloudi (Carl Berger-Levrault)
    Abstract: La montée en puissance des technologies numériques à la ville (Green, 2019) telle que les plateformes d'intermédiation replace l'humain au coeur des considérations locales. En comblant des « interstices [qui] laissent deviner ou entrevoir un autre processus de fabrication de la ville, ouvert et collaboratif, réactif et transversal » (Le Strat, 2007), individus et objets se voit conférer une nouvelle forme de pouvoir d'agir (Cooren et al., 2006), induisant de complexes réorganisations territoriales. Ses usagers-tantôt habitant, industriel, associatif, collectif de citoyens-deviennent à la fois consommateurs et producteurs de la ville. Cette pluralité de profils favorise l'émergence d' « injonctions contradictoires » (Baraud-Serfaty et al., 2020) créant un amalgame entre besoin d'autonomie, gain de temps, simplification des conditions de vie, responsabilisation… L'individualisme s'installe au détriment de la vision idéelle de bien commun propre aux gestionnaires des villes (Stébé, Marchal, 2019). Ces derniers doivent délaisser la vision classique de gouvernance unilatérale au profit d'une « nouvelle économie » (Weygand, 2008) collaborative numérique s'exprimant entre hétérogénéité et hybridation des services de la ville. Notre travail questionne la cohérence entre les dynamiques locales et globales pluripartites émergeantes sur un territoire et les ambitions de résilience de ses gestionnaires. Pour ce faire, nous convoquons une plateforme d'intermédiation numérique (Rochet, Tirole, 2006) de données au service de communautés urbaines conçue début 2022 par Berger-Levrault. Nous proposons son modèle économique mettant en tension proposition de valeur, infrastructure de production, position dans l'écosystème de valeur et modèle de revenus. Adoptant une démarche compréhensive, nous usons de techniques qualitatives : collecte documentaire sur le marché et usages des services organisant la ville, observation participante du développement du prototype, et entretiens auprès de deux collectivités. Nous mettons alors en évidence une typologie de défis à relever : organisationnels, au sens de gestion du changement et continuité des services publics ; sociaux, sur les rapports transversaux pluri acteurs et pluri identitaires des usagers ; et techniques, autour des aspects réglementaires des données et viabilité du dispositif. Enfin, nous identifions des leviers sociotechniques alimentant la quête de résilience systémique de la gouvernance territoriale.
    Keywords: construction collective, hybridation sociotechnique, plateformisation, intermédiation, multiface
    Date: 2023–01–23
  10. By: Fussell, Cathy
    Abstract: Governments and businesses are under pressure to realise the value of data. However, value realisation is often fraught, and it is possible to get it scandalously wrong. It is difficult to realise value unless you know what it looks like, and our current theories of value are an inadequate guide. The mechanistic Newtonian-inspired logic that often informs thinking about value creation is counterproductive in complex problem spaces typical of social domains. This logic often leads to harmful practices that erode reputations and trust. However, we do not yet know how to govern complexity to create collective value. To address this problem, I propose a combined theory of value and power underpinned by complexity theory. That is, value is the enhanced capacity to act (i.e. power) we seek from all social arrangements. I rework the power-to, -over, and -with trichotomy to argue that the value created in social assemblages can be hoarded (power-over) or shared (power with). I pose the questions ‘what does a power-with look like?’ and ‘why should we choose it?’ I propose that systemic power with (i.e. governing-with) tends to look like a collective experiment in which data is used as feedback, rather than to judge and control. As all participants obtain value, virtuous cycles of value creation ensue. Governing with is proposed as normatively superior to governing-over for producing long-term collective value and flourishing as the contributing capacities of all are enhanced. We cannot effectively combat domination (i.e. power-over) unless we can clearly articulate an alternative. This paper proposes power-with and governing-with as domination’s foil.
    Date: 2023–03–20
  11. By: Lorenzo Cresti; Giovanni Dosi; Federico Riccio; Maria Enrica Virgillito
    Abstract: How does Italy position inside the European structure of trade relationships? How labour bilateral flows have changed over time? Which type of employment activity has been outsourced? Which insourced? Focusing on a three-country perspective, what are the employment bilateral relationships between Italy-Germany-Poland (descending periphery-core-ascending periphery)? To address these questions we develop a novel set of bilateral labour dependence indicators inside I-O production networks. Overall, we provide evidence of the reconfiguration of Italy as falling into the trap of GVC downgrading, with an increasing number of trade relationships in employment requirements, particularly in the most strategic productions, as insourced from abroad. The offshoring strategy conducted so far has resulted in a weakening of its internal production capacity and employment absorption, even more harshly when compared to other European countries.
    Keywords: Input-output; global value chains; international division of labour; core-periphery.
    Date: 2023–04–02
  12. By: Juan Andres Espinosa-Torres; Jaime Ramirez-Cuellar
    Abstract: We explore firm-level markup and profit rates during the COVID-19 pandemic for a panel of 3, 611 publicly traded firms in Compustat and find increases for the average firm. We offer conditions to give markups and profit rate forecasts a causal interpretation of what would have happened had the pandemic not happened. Our estimations suggest that had the pandemic not happened, markups would have been 4% and 7% higher than observed in 2020 and 2021, respectively, and profit rates would have been 2.1 and 6.4 percentage points lower. We perform a battery of tests to assess the robustness of our approach. We further show significant heterogeneity in the impact of the pandemic on firms by key firm characteristics and industry. We find that firms with lower than forecasted markups tend to have lower stock-exchange tenure and fewer employees.
    Date: 2023–03
  13. By: Maxime Malafosse (LEST - Laboratoire d'Economie et de Sociologie du Travail - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CERGAM - Centre d'Études et de Recherche en Gestion d'Aix-Marseille - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - UTLN - Université de Toulon); Amandine Pascal (LEST - Laboratoire d'Economie et de Sociologie du Travail - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Serge Amabile (CERGAM - Centre d'Études et de Recherche en Gestion d'Aix-Marseille - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - UTLN - Université de Toulon)
    Abstract: The rise of the internet and peer-to-peer networks have fostered the formation of communities around new collective projects that bring Ostrom's (1990) work on the commons back to the forefront. From this perspective, a new field of specific research suggests that blockchain technology can support commons governance. Studies are still rare and remain very theoretical. The objective of this article is to study the actual use of this technology in the process of commoning. To do so, this paper relies on the case study of the Ğ1, a French free/libre cryptocurrency. Our results detail the governance arrangements of a new type of commons developed by members of the Ğ1 libre currency; the socio-technical system of money creation. In doing so, this case highlights the attributes of the Duniter blockchain specifically developed for the needs of the Ğ1 ecosystem. It also outlines the role of the blockchain in supporting self-organization and the bundles of rights that members have put in place to allocate the universal dividend.
    Abstract: L'essor d'internet et des réseaux pair-à-pair ont favorisé la constitution de communautés autour de nouveaux projets collectifs qui remettent au premier plan les travaux sur les communs d'Ostrom (1990). Dans cette perspective, un nouveau champ de recherches s'intéresse au rôle de la technologie blockchain comme support de la gouvernance des communs. Ces recherches, encore peu nombreuses, sont essentiellement théoriques. Cet article se fixe ainsi comme objectif d'étudier l'utilisation concrète de cette technologie dans le processus de faire commun. Pour ce faire, cet article s'appuie sur l'étude du cas de la monnaie libre Ğ1. Nos résultats présentent en détail les modalités de gouvernance d'un nouveau type de commun développé par les membres de la monnaie libre Ğ1 : le dispositif socio-technique de création monétaire. Ce cas est intéressant car il permet de mettre en exergue les attributs de la blockchain Duniter spécifiquement développée pour les besoins de l'écosystème Ğ1. Il souligne également le rôle de cette blockchain pour soutenir l'auto-organisation du projet et, notamment, les faisceaux de droits que les membres ont mis en place afin d'allouer le dividende universel et le processus de faire commun.
    Keywords: Commons-Based Peer Production (CBPP), Commons, Blockchain, Ostrom, Money, création monétaire, governance, DLT, Distributed ledger technology, Communs, Production par les pairs sur la base des communs, Monnaie Libre Ğ1., gouvernance
    Date: 2022
  14. By: Jennifer Goodman (Audencia Business School); Jukka Mäkinen
    Abstract: Political corporate social responsibility (PCSR) calls for firms to implement and engage in deliberative democracy processes and structures, addressing governance gaps where governments are unwilling or unable to do so. However, an underlying assumption that the implementation of PCSR will enrich democratic processes in society has been exposed and challenged. In this conceptual article, we explore this challenge by developing a framework to reveal the dynamics of firms' deliberative democratic processes and structures (meso level), and those at nation state (macro level). Using existing cases as illustrative examples, we demonstrate that despite the public good premise of PCSR theory toward thickening the overall democracy in a society, corporate democratization at meso level can have the opposite effect and may actually erode macro-level democratic control of society and the economy. These findings imply a need for multilevel analysis in PCSR research and greater consideration of state-level public institutions and the responsibilities of business firms toward those institutions. Furthermore, we contribute to the PCSR literature by identifying the disruptive mechanisms
    Keywords: Political corporate social responsibility, Deliberative democracy, Democratic institutions, Democratic corporate governance
    Date: 2022–02–04
  15. By: Pierre Caye (Centre Jean Pépin - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Date: 2021–09–08
  16. By: Basile Michel (PLACES - Laboratoire de géographie et d'aménagement - CY - CY Cergy Paris Université, ESO - Espaces et Sociétés - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - UM - Le Mans Université - UA - Université d'Angers - UR2 - Université de Rennes 2 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - NantesUniv – IGARUN - Institut de Géographie et d'Aménagement Régional de l'Université de Nantes - Nantes Université - pôle Humanités - Nantes Univ - Nantes Université - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Abstract: This article is a contribution to the ongoing research and debate on cultural or creative quarters and their role in contemporary cities. It focuses on the organization and working methods of the creative workers based in these quarters, devoting particular attention to the networks they establish at micro level. By drawing upon existing economic and sociological research on clubs, the article aims to further our understanding of the spatial organization of cultural and creative industries. On the basis of qualitative studies conducted in two neighborhoods in the French cities of Nantes (Les Olivettes) and Marseille (Le Panier), the article argues that creative workers organize in the form of clubs rooted within creative quarters. These workers unite around specific goods and services, to which they control access via processes of selection and co-optation, creating exclusive groups of mutual assistance of which they are the members. These results hint at the potentially ambivalent impact of such agglomerations of cultural and creative industries in specific urban areas, where the dynamics of sharing and collaboration run the risk of descending into social exclusion and a clique mentality. These results also raise a potential theoretical contribution regarding the use of clubs in urban studies.
    Keywords: co-optation, creative quarters, clubs, creative workers, collaborative network
    Date: 2022
  17. By: Anthony Beudaert (IREGE - Institut de Recherche en Gestion et en Economie - USMB [Université de Savoie] [Université de Chambéry] - Université Savoie Mont Blanc); Charlène Lambert (NIMEC - Normandie Innovation Marché Entreprise Consommation - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - ULH - Université Le Havre Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - UNIROUEN - Université de Rouen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - IRIHS - Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire Homme et Société - UNIROUEN - Université de Rouen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université)
    Abstract: This qualitative research aims to highlight the functions enacted by connoisseurs in both the initiation of recognition and the preservation of authenticity in the offerings of traditional gastronomic products. More specifically, we focus on the context of gastronomic and Bacchic brotherhoods. To do this, 20 semi-structured interviews were conducted with members of these communities of connoisseurs, supplemented with a set of secondary data. Four functions enacted by these communities of connoisseurs are identified: (1) the construction of connoisseurship, which helps initiate the recognition of the product's singular authenticity; (2) the sacralization, which helps reinforce and preserve the recognition of authenticity; (3) the democratization, which consists of passing on the connoisseurship to a neophyte public; (4) the authentication, which ensures the product's "genuine" character. Managerial implications aimed at overcoming the barriers to the commodification of traditional products are then raised.
    Abstract: Cette recherche qualitative a pour objectif d'éclairer les fonctions jouées par les connaisseurs dans l'initiation de la reconnaissance et le maintien de l'authenticité de l'offre de produits gastronomiques traditionnels. Nous nous concentrons plus spécifiquement sur le contexte des confréries gastronomiques et bachiques. Pour ce faire, 20 entretiens semi-directifs ont été menés auprès d'individus investis au sein de ces communautés de connaisseurs, complétés d'une collecte de données secondaires. Quatre fonctions jouées par les communautés de connaisseurs sont ainsi identifiées : (1) la construction de la connoisseurship, permettant d'initier la reconnaissance de l'authenticité singulière du produit ; (2) la sacralisation, permettant de renforcer et maintenir la reconnaissance de cette authenticité ; (3) la démocratisation, consistant à transmettre la connoisseurship à un public néophyte ; (4) l'authentification, assurant au produit son caractère « véritable ». Celles-ci nous permettent de formuler des préconisations managériales visant à surmonter les obstacles à la marchandisation de produits traditionnels.
    Date: 2023–02–06
  18. By: Kniahin, Dzmitry
    Abstract: FTA policymakers designate input-output relationships when formulating rules of origin (RoO). These relationships define restricted inputs that can only be sourced from FTA area. Conconi et al. (2018) found a strong trade diversion effect in such inputs in the case of NAFTA. We construct a global dataset by extracting HS6 input-output restrictions from 400 FTAs a la Conconi et al. using Rules of Origin Facilitator/MacMap global database at HS6 level. We document that: (1) Input-output tables diverge across FTAs, driven by political economy of protected inputs; (2) FTAs show heterogeneity in precision of revealed HS6 input-output relationships. Precision is higher in “sensitive” products and in NAFTA-style FTAs (US FTAs, LatAm FTAs and CPTPP); (3) RoO globally divert trade by XX% in restricted inputs, thus the effect is less than in NAFTA (45%); (4) RoO that designate `allowed' inputs result in `trade creation' in such inputs by X%, somewhat compensating trade diversion in restricted inputs. For example, if fabrics are placed on restricted list, it can trigger imports of yarn instead. Finally, we augment the NAFTA-based HS6 input-output matrix with 460 FTAs and publish a more complete, more granular research dataset which enables disaggregated value-chain impact modeling of trade policy changes.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2022
  19. By: Danila Karpov (Bank of Russia, Russian Federation)
    Abstract: This paper assesses the direct and indirect dependence of Russia’s economy on imported inputs across various industries. The author compares these figures with similar data for other economies. Additionally, we indirectly take into account the quality aspect of this dependence, that is, a small number of possibly critical components for industries that might exist. We assess both the direct dependence of industries and their indirect dependence resulting from consumption of other domestic sectors’ products also containing imported components. The findings of the research suggest that the dependence of the sectors of the Russian economy on imported inputs is relatively low, even though the share of imports for certain industries can be high in absolute terms. In most of the sectors, dependence on imports is the same as or does not exceed the average for a similar group of economies.
    Keywords: input-output tables, import dependence, intermediate goods imports
    JEL: C67 D57 F14
    Date: 2022–12
  20. By: Jan Baran (Narodowy Bank Polski & University of Warsaw, Faculty of Economic Sciences)
    Abstract: The paper investigates changes in the quality of the labour input in Poland in 2006-2020. Labour quality – which captures compositional changes of the workforce, referring to education, experience, gender and occupation – substantially improved, growing on average by 0.55% a year, compared to much slower growth of unadjusted labour input (hours worked) of 0.11% a year. Growth in the labour quality, which means improvement in workers’ characteristics, was mainly driven by positive changes in the educational composition of workers. Labour quality growth showed less volatility compared to growth of hours worked in the economy and it was negatively correlated to both growth of hours worked and GDP growth, mitigating procyclicality of the labour input. Additionally, falling tertiary education wage premia are documented.
    Keywords: human capital, labour quality, labour input.
    JEL: E24 J21 J24
    Date: 2023
  21. By: Jimena Hurtado
    Abstract: Adam Smith included understanding and belonging among basic human needs. Humans have spiritual and material needs that they can satisfy through coordination and cooperation, both need communication. Religion and philosophy emerge when people communicate the explanations they have of their surroundings and their interactions. They represent shared beliefs and inform behavior that allow people to understand and belong. Religion and philosophy, provide tranquility of mind and satisfy the desire to be loved and loveable.
    Keywords: Adam Smith, Religion, Philosophy, Beliefs, Communities.
    JEL: A13 B12 B31
    Date: 2023–03–22
  22. By: Hung Diep (LPTM - UMR 8089 - Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Modélisation - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - CY - CY Cergy Paris Université); Gabriel Desgranges (THEMA - Théorie économique, modélisation et applications - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - CY - CY Cergy Paris Université)
    Date: 2021–05

This nep-hme issue is ©2023 by Carlo D’Ippoliti. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.