nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2023‒03‒13
eighteen papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. Towards Evology: a Market Ecology Agent-Based Model of US Equity Mutual Funds II By Aymeric Vie; J. Doyne Farmer
  2. Ladislaus von Bortkiewicz’s Errors and a Reliable Solution to the Marxian Problem of Transformation in Direct and Inverse Formulation By Kalyuzhnyi, Valeriy
  3. The Impact of different Financial Intermediaries on Housing Market Cycles By Julia Braun; Hans-Peter Burghof; Julius Langer; Dag Einar Sommervoll
  4. Capitalism and Global Governance in Business History: A Roundtable Discussion By Pitteloud, Sabine; Ballor, Grace; Clavin, Patricia; Perrone, Nicolas Marcelo; Rollings, Neil; Slobodian, Quinn
  5. Thermodynamik – grundlegende Einsichten für ein Verständnis von Umweltproblemen By Faber, Malte; Rudolf, Marco; Frick, Marc; Becker, Mi-Yong
  6. The role of joint dynamics in the evolution of alternative market categories. A sociohistorical approach to independent music By Boris Collet; Éric Rémy; Baptiste Cléret
  7. Similarities and differences on solidarity economy between Argentina and France By Eric Dacheux; Gloria Maffet
  8. Order book regulatory impact on stock market quality: a multi-agent reinforcement learning perspective By Johann Lussange; Boris Gutkin
  9. Understanding value through Deleuze and Guattari’s metaphysical and ethical foundations By Fussell, Cathy
  10. The Emergence and Viability of a medical imaging filière: the trade-unions in the French industrial policy By Samuel Klebaner
  11. A social-psychological examination of academic precarity as an organizational practice and subjective experience By Albayrak-Aydemir, Nihan; Gleibs, Ilka Helene
  12. Updating of Input-Output tables in Russia by machine learning methods By Vladimir Potashnikov
  13. Pink Marketing By Kévin Bideaux
  14. Cryptocurrency competition: An empirical test of Hayek's vision of private monies By Mayer, Fabian; Bofinger, Peter
  15. Three propositions for realising collective value By Fussell, Cathy
  16. Financial openness, financial fragility and policies for economic stability: a comparative analysis across regions of the developing world By Pérez Caldentey, Esteban
  17. Perception des risques liés au changement climatique et choix des agriculteurs : Une relation complexe illustrée par des données australiennes By Celine Nauges
  18. Estratificación y clases sociales en América Latina: dinámicas y características en las dos primeras décadas del siglo XXI By Martínez, Rodrigo; Holz, Raúl; Vargas, Luis Hernán; Espíndola, Ernesto

  1. By: Aymeric Vie; J. Doyne Farmer
    Abstract: Agent-based models (ABMs) are fit to model heterogeneous, interacting systems like financial markets. We present the latest advances in Evology: a heterogeneous, empirically calibrated market ecology agent-based model of the US stock market. Prices emerge endogenously from the interactions of market participants with diverse investment behaviours and their reactions to fundamentals. This approach allows testing trading strategies while accounting for the interactions of this strategy with other market participants and conditions. Those early results encourage a closer association between ABMs and ML algorithms for testing and optimising investment strategies using machine learning algorithms.
    Date: 2023–02
  2. By: Kalyuzhnyi, Valeriy
    Abstract: The paper argues that economists still regard the solution to the problem of the transformation of values into prices of production, got by L. von Bortkiewicz, as belonging to Marx himself. After all, it was allegedly “correctly corrected” by the said author in 1907. Bortkiewicz based his solution on several erroneous interpretations’ theory of Marx. Because of Bortkiewicz’s errors, the representatives of the mainstream see no connection between the “value system” and the “production price system”. They claim that the transformation problem itself results from impossibility and that Marxist value theory is, at best, irrelevant and irremediably inconsistent. The paper shows that the solution to the transformation issue exists in both the direct and inverse formulation. We used for this purpose the Tugan-Baranowsky—Bortkiewicz three-sector model. These results are consistent with the concept of Marx within the dualistic approach. They coincide with the results generated by the author in his previous work (see In the present paper, we introduce methods and examples of transformation, including iterative and based on solving systems of simultaneous equations. We prove again with their help that at equilibrium prices, profit arises from surplus value, or more precisely, from the newly created value generated by workers’ labour and from no other source. We also show that a dualistic approach to transformation allows us to see the advantages of value prices, which, unlike production prices, do not limit the growth of the productive power of labour when enterprises introduce new machines. Value prices are in demand under socialism.
    Date: 2022–03–01
  3. By: Julia Braun; Hans-Peter Burghof; Julius Langer; Dag Einar Sommervoll
    Abstract: Housing markets display several correlations to multiple economic sectors of an economy. Their enormous impact on economies’ health, wealth, and stability is uncontroversial. Interestingly, the forms of financing residential property vary widely between the different countries in terms of both, the available product types and the institutions offering them. This research examines the implications of different financial intermediaries on housing market cycles with special emphasis on two institutional types, conventional banks and building and loan associations. Introducing a heterogeneous agent-based model, the interactions of buyers, sellers, and the two types of credit institutions are assessed in an artificial economy. It is elaborated whether financial institutions are able to smooth housing market cycles and, therefore, increase stability using different mortgage granting policies.
    Keywords: Heterogeneous agent-based model; Housing financing; Housing market cycles; Housing market stability
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2022–01–01
  4. By: Pitteloud, Sabine; Ballor, Grace; Clavin, Patricia; Perrone, Nicolas Marcelo; Rollings, Neil; Slobodian, Quinn
    Abstract: This working paper brings together a diverse group of scholars to discuss the historiography of capitalism, business history and global governance and lay the foundations for further research in this area. Grace Ballor and Sabine Pitteloud open the discussion with a historiographical survey of the ways capitalism and its actors – in particular entrepreneurs and managers, firms and business associations – have interacted with international organizations and global governance frameworks. This literature review lays the foundation for contributions from four leading scholars and their perspectives on the past, present, and future of research in this area. Patricia Clavin discusses capitalism and governance through the dynamics of international relations, while Nicolás Perrone brings a lawyer’s perspective to the public-private creation of international rules; Neil Rollings thinks about firms, governments, and global governance through both continuities and change, and Quinn Slobodian applies the analytical framework of international political economy to the evolving relationships between states and markets on a global scale. Our collective examination of business and international order aims to offer critical scholarly insight on the 20th and 21st centuries and outline future research agendas for what promises to be an increasingly rich field of study.
    Keywords: capitalism, globlal governance, business history
    JEL: N0
    Date: 2022
  5. By: Faber, Malte; Rudolf, Marco; Frick, Marc; Becker, Mi-Yong
    Abstract: In this paper, we present a way that allows to make fundamental statements about how economic action entails harmful effects on the environment. These effects are due to natural scientific reasons and are particularly present in the industrialised economy. The starting point of our considerations is that every economic action requires energy, of which many different forms exist. Taking all of these forms into account, heat energy has a particular significance, because other forms of energy can never appear in isolation, but only conjointly with heat energy. For this reason, the branch of physics that deals primarily with energy is called thermodynamics. The study of thermodynamics yields the central link between economic activity and its environmental impact. Understanding basic insights of thermodynamics enables decision-makers in environmental policy to understand the nature of environmental problems and to develop possible solutions. First, we deal with the connection between physical work and heat. Then we explain the two main Laws of Thermodynamics and go into detail about the concept of entropy. We use Boltzmann's approach of the degree of order to give an illustration of the entropy concept. We then turn to the consideration of thermodynamics in economics, first provided by Georgescu-Roegen in 1971. Following this we explain the importance of thermodynamics for environmental policy. We conclude with a summary. In diesem Beitrag stellen wir einen Weg vor, der es erlaubt, grundsätzliche Aussagen darüber zu treffen, dass wirtschaftliches Handeln schädliche Auswirkungen auf die Umwelt mit sich bringt. Diese Auswirkungen sind naturwissenschaftlich bedingt und treten insbesondere in der industrialisierten Wirtschaft auf. Ausgangspunkt unserer Überlegungen ist, dass jedes wirtschaftliche Handeln Energie benötigt, von der es viele verschiedene Formen gibt. Unter Berücksichtigung all dieser Formen kommt der Wärmeenergie eine besondere Bedeutung zu, da andere Energieformen nie isoliert, sondern nur in Verbindung mit der Wärmeenergie auftreten können. Aus diesem Grund wird der Zweig der Physik, der sich hauptsächlich mit Energie beschäftigt, Thermodynamik genannt. Das Studium der Thermodynamik stellt die zentrale Verbindung zwischen wirtschaftlicher Tätigkeit und ihren Auswirkungen auf die Umwelt her. Das Verständnis grundlegender Erkenntnisse der Thermodynamik ermöglicht es Entscheidungsträgern in der Umweltpolitik, das Entstehen von Umweltproblemen zu verstehen und mögliche Lösungen zu entwickeln. Zunächst befassen wir uns mit dem Zusammenhang zwischen physikalischer Arbeit und Wärme. Dann erläutern wir die beiden Hauptsätze der Thermodynamik und gehen ausführlich auf das Konzept der Entropie ein. Zur Veranschaulichung des Entropiekonzepts verwenden wir den Boltzmann'schen Ansatz des Ordnungsgrades. Anschließend wenden wir uns der Betrachtung der Thermodynamik in den Wirtschaftswissenschaften zu, die erstmals von Georgescu-Roegen im Jahr 1971 vorgelegt wurde. Anschließend erläutern wir die Bedeutung der Thermodynamik für die Umweltpolitik. Wir schließen mit einer Zusammenfassung.
    Keywords: Classical Mechanics; Joint Production; Environmental Problems; Thermodynamics; Energy; Entropy; Irreversibility; Efficiency
    Date: 2023–02–14
  6. By: Boris Collet (LUMEN - Lille University Management Lab - ULR 4999 - Université de Lille); Éric Rémy (LGCO - Laboratoire Gouvernance et Contrôle Organisationnel - UT3 - Université Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées); Baptiste Cléret (NIMEC - Normandie Innovation Marché Entreprise Consommation - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - ULH - Université Le Havre Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - UNIROUEN - Université de Rouen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - IRIHS - Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire Homme et Société - UNIROUEN - Université de Rouen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université)
    Abstract: This paper contributes to the understanding of market categorisation processes. More specifically, it analyses the evolution of the independent music category, characterised as a fuzzy category by its instability, and as an alternative category by its power relations with the dominant mainstream music category. Based on a sociohistorical approach, we show how external forces such as boundary reconfigurations on the one hand, and internal forces such as tension around category representations on the other, shape the definition and evolution of the independent music market category. Our findings show the joint action of these dynamics in 1 the emergence and evolution of alternative categories. They highlight the interest of simultaneously examining these multiple dynamics and their relationships in the study of market categories. Our paper also reveals the strategic and ideological issues associated with the alternative-mainstream dialectic, which constitutes a key factor in the structuring and evolution of many other industries.
    Abstract: Cet article contribue à la compréhension des processus de catégorisation des marchés alternatifs. Plus spécifiquement, il analyse l'évolution de la catégorie des musiques indépendantes qui se caractérise comme catégorie floue par son instabilité et comme catégorie alternative par les rapports de force qu'elle entretient avec la catégorie dominante de la musique mainstream. À partir d'une approche sociohistorique, nous montrons comment les dynamiques externes telles que les jeux de frontières d'une part et les dynamiques internes telles que les tensions autour des représentations de la catégorie d'autre part, agissent sur la définition et l'évolution de la catégorie de marché des musiques indépendantes. Nos résultats permettent de souligner l'action conjointe de ces dynamiques dans l'émergence et l'évolution des catégories alternatives. Ils mettent en évidence l'intérêt d'examiner simultanément ces multiples dynamiques et leurs relations pour l'étude des catégories de marché. Notre article révèle également les enjeux stratégiques et idéologiques du rapport entre l'alternatif et le mainstream qui constitue un élément-clé de la structuration et de l'évolution de nombreux autres secteurs.
    Keywords: category dynamics, categorisation, alternative market category, independent music, sociohistorical approach, Dynamiques de catégorie, Catégorisation, Catégorie de marché alternative, Musiques indépendantes, Approche sociohistorique
    Date: 2023
  7. By: Eric Dacheux (UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne); Gloria Maffet (UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne)
    Abstract: The aim of this work is to better understand the specificity of Latin American (and more precisely Argentinean) approaches to SSE by comparing it to a European (French) approach. We present the historical context and the evolution of the solidarity economy in Argentina and France (I). Then we will highlight the different conceptualization between José Luis Coraggio and Jean Louis Laville, the two most recognized researchers on the solidarity economy in these two countries. It should be noted that if these differences were important in their first respective conceptualizations (II), they seem to fade away in the more recent formalization (III).
    Abstract: El objetivo de este trabajo es comprender mejor la especificidad de los enfoques latinoamericanos (y más precisamente argentinos) de la ESS comparándolos con un enfoque europeo (francés). Presentamos el contexto histórico y la evolución de la economía solidaria en Argentina y Francia (I). A continuación, destacaremos la diferente conceptualización entre José Luis Coraggio y Jean Louis Laville, los dos investigadores más reconocidos sobre la economía solidaria en estos dos países. Cabe señalar que si estas diferencias eran importantes en sus respectivas conceptualizaciones iniciales (II), parecen desvanecerse en la formalización más reciente (III).
    Abstract: Le but de ce travail est de mieux comprendre la spécificité des approches latino-américaine (et plus précisément argentine) de l'ESS en la comparant à une approche européenne (française). Nous présentons le contexte historique et l'évolution de l'économie solidaire en Argentine et en France (I). Puis nous mettrons en lumière la conceptualisation différente entre José Luis Coraggio et Jean Louis Laville les deux chercheurs les plus reconnus sur l'économie solidaire dans ces deux pays. Il est à noter que si ces différences étaient importantes dans leurs premières conceptualisations respectives (II), elles semblent s'estomper dans la formalisation plus récente (III).
    Keywords: solidaity économy, theory, comparatism, Economía solidaria, teoría, comparatismo, economie solidaire, theorie, économie
    Date: 2021–06–29
  8. By: Johann Lussange; Boris Gutkin
    Abstract: Recent technological developments have changed the fundamental ways stock markets function, bringing regulatory instances to assess the benefits of these developments. In parallel, the ongoing machine learning revolution and its multiple applications to trading can now be used to design a next generation of financial models, and thereby explore the systemic complexity of financial stock markets in new ways. We here follow on a previous groundwork, where we designed and calibrated a novel agent-based model stock market simulator, where each agent autonomously learns to trade by reinforcement learning. In this Paper, we now study the predictions of this model from a regulator's perspective. In particular, we focus on how the market quality is impacted by smaller order book tick sizes, increasingly larger metaorders, and higher trading frequencies, respectively. Under our model assumptions, we find that the market quality benefits from the latter, but not from the other two trends.
    Date: 2023–02
  9. By: Fussell, Cathy
    Abstract: This paper provides the metaphysical and ethical foundations for understanding what value is and how to create it. Mapped over Deleuze and Guattari’s theory of desiring production, value becomes enhanced capacity to act (or power) and the desire for value creates our entire social world. We enter social relationships—friendships, families, organisations, nation-states, etc—to enhance our capacity to act. In the process, we create desiring machines or assemblages which are temporary collections of things (people, objects, ideas, etc) arranged to create and disperse value for its participants. These assemblages adhere and are legitimate where they produce value for all their contributors and risk dissolution and harm where they disempower and extract value (i.e. illegitimate desiring-production). An inverse metaphysics to traditional Western thought is required in which, firstly, things are motivated internally rather than externally such as by universal laws or truths, and secondly, existence is inherently dynamic rather than static. In this dynamic, complex world, understanding flows of value and their blockers becomes critical to creating collective value and flourishing.
    Date: 2023–02–05
  10. By: Samuel Klebaner (CEPN - Centre d'Economie de l'Université Paris Nord - LABEX ICCA - UP13 - Université Paris 13 - Université Sorbonne Nouvelle - Paris 3 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UPCité - Université Paris Cité - Université Sorbonne Paris Nord - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Université Sorbonne Paris Nord)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to question the way a trade-union may participate to the French filières policy in the medical imaging industry. The first section shows, though a qualitative analysis, how a trade-union has built a multi-scale social network to incite the State to subsidize an open-platform for innovation. In a second part, we demonstrate through an institutional analysis that despite the central position of the trade-union in this policy-making, the project's implementation and its institutional arrangement may thwart the wished industrial cooperation in this sector.
    Abstract: L'objectif de ce papier est de s'interroger sur la manière dont un syndicat peut participer à la construction d'une filière industrielle, à partir de l'étude de l'imagerie médicale. La première section montre de manière qualitative comment un syndicat de salarié a construit un réseau multi-niveau afin d'obtenir de l'Etat un engagement dans la création d'un centre d'innovations technologiques. La seconde section montre à partir d'une lecture institutionnaliste que malgré le rôle central du syndicat dans la construction de cette politique industrielle, l'implémentation et l'architecture institutionnel de ce centre peut mettre en échec la volonté de coopération industrielle espérée.
    Keywords: institutions, trade-union, medical imaging, network, filières, syndicat, imagerie médicale, réseau
    Date: 2023–02–13
  11. By: Albayrak-Aydemir, Nihan; Gleibs, Ilka Helene
    Abstract: Research and teaching conditions have, particularly for those who are junior or from disadvantaged backgrounds, deteriorated considerably over the years in the higher education sector. Unequal opportunities in access and advancement in careers have led to increasing levels of precarity in the higher education sector. Although the concept of precarity has been grasped in many other disciplines, the social-psychological understanding of this concept remains unexplored. In this paper, we aim to develop a social-psychological understanding of precarity to examine how identity dynamics and intergroup relations, as well as associated organizational controls, reinforce inequality regimes and power structures that create precarious conditions in academia. In doing so, we use social identity theory and system justification theory under an inequality regime framework. We argue that even though change towards equality and equity in academia should be possible, it is difficult to achieve this because of entrenched identity interests by power holders and the perceived legitimacy of the existing system. Therefore, academic precarity should be recognized both as a subjective experience and as an organizational practice to make inequalities more visible and decrease the perceptions of legitimacy—and to eventually achieve a fundamental positive transformation in academia.
    Keywords: academia; inequality; precarity; research; social identity; system justification
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2023–01–01
  12. By: Vladimir Potashnikov (The Russian Presidential Academy Of National Economy And Public Administration)
    Abstract: Relevance: Input-output tables are the basis for many types of analysis of the real sector, which are necessary to build a well-thought-out long-term and short-term policy. Evaluation of input-output tables is an expensive and time-consuming procedure. At the same time, national statistical agencies publish additional forecast information, which makes it possible to extend the input-output tables, for example, output and intermediate consumption by sector. The main methods of extending the RAS tables (or its modification GRAS) and Cross Entropy, use data on intermediate demand, the calculation of which requires additional time-consuming work. The use of information only for the previous period and the current period is the main disadvantage of this method. In recent decades, machine learning methods have been gaining popularity, the main advantage of which is finding relationships that can be hard to identify, for example, due to the large dimension of the task or the lack of evidence of cause-and-effect relationships. These methods have proven themselves well in all kinds of image recognition tasks, voice-to-text conversion, and so on. Currently, attempts are being made to apply machine learning methods to economic problems. The application of machine learning methods to the task of updating input-output tables carries a scientific novelty. The purpose of the study is to extend the input-output tables by machine learning methods. The method of extending the input-output tables using convolutional neural networks is the result of the work, as well as the forecast of the coefficients of the direct cost matrix for Russia. Conclusion: the use of input-output tables can improve the quality of forecasts of input-output tables. Recommendations: it is necessary to continue the research in this direction.
    Keywords: Input-Output tables, machine learning, CNN
  13. By: Kévin Bideaux (LEGS - Laboratoire d'Etudes de Genre et de Sexualité - UP8 - Université Paris 8 Vincennes-Saint-Denis - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Gender marketing takes advantage of gender research, modifying some products to respond the allegedly specific needs of women. The aim is to double profits by offering two gendered versions of the same product. Pink is then massively used to particularise a product "for girls/women", which has often been criticised by feminist researchers and activists as sexist. The intent here is to explain how and why such a marketing strategy persists, even though it is in decline. Through gender studies, the article will first show how the gendered use of pink in marketing manages to construct a "feminine mode of consumption", referring to Christian Derbaix and Pierre Gregory's model of the "doors of persuasion" to show how the colour pink can activate different levers likely to modify the attitudes and behaviour of female consumers. The article will then consider Jean Baudrillard's semiological approach to consumption in order to explain female consumers' adherence to this "pink marketing". Finally, using the concept of "extended-self" developed by Russel W. Belk, it will show how the consumption of these "feminine products" allows consumers to prove their belonging to the category of "women", while reinforcing their feeling of "being a woman".
    Keywords: Gender Marketing, Consumer culture, Femininity, Consumerism, Extended-self, Marketing de genre, culture de la consommation, féminité, consumérisme
    Date: 2022–12
  14. By: Mayer, Fabian; Bofinger, Peter
    Abstract: We investigate monopolistic tendencies and the intensity of currency competition on the crypto market in the light of Hayek's "Denationalization of money". Interestingly, Hayek never considered differentiation and specialization by innovative private currencies could lead lasting currency competition instead of network effects. We argue that competition between private currencies could run on different functions of money, especially the function as a store of value and that as a means of exchange, which partly explains the differences in the set-up of private currencies that Hayek demanded and that of cryptocurrencies. Drawing on a large sample of 101 cryptocurrencies and a time frame from 2016 to 2022, we empirically examine the evolution and degree of competition on the crypto market, also taking changes in general crypto market structure into account. We find that competition is strong for unpegged cryptocurrencies that mostly compete as a speculative store of value. Competition is also strong for stablecoins when competing as a stable store of value. Competition is much less pronounced for the function as a means of exchange and network effects and monopolistic tendencies are more likely to be present on this sub-market.
    Keywords: Hayek, Cryptocurrencies, Functions of Money, Currency Competition, NetworkEffects, Monopol
    JEL: B25 D40 E42 E50 E51 L11
    Date: 2023
  15. By: Fussell, Cathy
    Abstract: This paper addresses the problem that we lack clarity about what value and value creation look like which impedes its realisation. Three propositions to address this problem are offered, which are expanded upon in three subsequent working papers. The first proposition is that value is the expanded capacity to act (i.e. power) that we seek from all social investments. The second proposition differentiates collective value creation from value extraction. Power-with is where the value produced from social investments is shared (value sharing). Power-over is where value is hoarded (value extraction). The third proposition is that only a power-with (value sharing) leads to long-term collective virtuous cycles of value creation. Examples are provided of what this looks like in practice indicating the key features of a power-with. In contrast, value extraction risks and undermines value creation by eroding trust, reducing effective feedback, reducing collective members’ capacity to contribute, and can lead to passive withdrawal from value creation arrangements or their active resistance. The authority and legitimacy of society’s agents (e.g. elected officials, public administrators, corporate executives) rests on their facilitation of collective value creation and its dispersal, and on protecting the collective from value extraction.
    Date: 2023–02–05
  16. By: Pérez Caldentey, Esteban
    Abstract: This book presents a comparative analysis of the policy responses of developing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean to the challenges that greater external financial openness and price and exchange-rate flexibility pose to economic stability. Greater external openness has significantly narrowed developing economies’ policy space, while at the same time increasing the potential for financial fragility and instability. These challenges, which have come to the fore since the global financial crisis of 2008–2009, are also manifest in the profound impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and will shape the post-pandemic recovery. The book examines how different countries have used capital controls and macroprudential tools and highlights key lessons learned.
    Date: 2023–01–12
  17. By: Celine Nauges (TSE-R - Toulouse School of Economics - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Le travail de Wheeler et al. (2021) met en évidence la relation complexe entre perception des risques liés au changement climatique et décisions des agriculteurs. A partir de données issues de deux enquêtes menées sur un échantillon de 275 agriculteurs australiens à cinq ans d'intervalle, les auteurs montrent que les perceptions des risques par les agriculteurs ont changé au cours du temps et ont été influencées par les décisions concernant l'exploitation prises par les agriculteurs entre les deux enquêtes.
    Keywords: Comportement des agriculteurs, Perception du risque, Changement Climatique
    Date: 2023–01–30
  18. By: Martínez, Rodrigo; Holz, Raúl; Vargas, Luis Hernán; Espíndola, Ernesto
    Abstract: Uno de los objetivos de investigación de la Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL) es comprender las características de la vulnerabilidad de los estratos medios, las necesidades de políticas y las capacidades institucionales para implementarlas. En el marco del programa Mecanismo Regional para el Desarrollo en Transición, de la CEPAL y la Unión Europea, se busca establecer un cuerpo analítico consolidado sobre la vulnerabilidad de las clases medias en el conjunto de la estratificación social y su relación con la inclusión social y laboral. El objetivo de este documento es contribuir al análisis de esta materia, en un contexto de crisis diversas que han quebrado la tendencia de reducción de la pobreza y la desigualdad en la región. Las fuentes de información disponibles permiten adoptar una perspectiva agregada de distintas dimensiones, combinando tanto los ingresos como los gastos de los hogares, las clases ocupacionales y las percepciones de clase de las personas. El documento presenta un desafío conceptual y analítico cuyo propósito es incidir en el diseño de políticas y la toma de decisiones para retomar la senda hacia el logro de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible de la Agenda 2030.
    Date: 2022–12–30

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