nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2023‒02‒27
twenty papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. Agent-based Integrated Assessment Models: Alternative Foundations to the Environment-Energy-Economics Nexus By Karl Naumann-Woleske
  2. The Economy as a Complex System of Economic Actions: In Search of a New Paradigm By Leiashvily, Paata
  3. Homo moralis goes to the voting booth: coordination and information aggregation By Ingela Alger; Jean-François Laslier
  4. Thorstein Veblen, The Meaning of Work, and its Humanization By Jon D. Wisman
  5. Responsabilité, crises et globalisation : la sanction du marché By Laurent Bazin
  6. The Church of Economics: 'Capital and its Crisis', a Book by Shimshon Bichler and Jonathan Nitzan By Hever, Shir
  7. Les Remèdes Aux Crises Environnementales Et Financières Offerts Par l’Économie Islamique By Ezzedine Ghlamallah
  8. Employment Relationships in Multi-stakeholder Cooperatives By Nathalie Magne; Delphine Vallade; Cyrille Ferraton; Jean Cartellier
  9. The topics of Islamic economics and finance research By Ezzedine Ghlamallah; Christos Alexakis; Michael Dowling; Anke Piepenbrink
  10. Inequality and productive structure: New evidence at the world level By Verónica Amarante; Bibiana Lanzilotta; Joaquín Torres
  11. Rethinking Queer (Asian) Studies: Geopolitics, Covid-19, and Post-Covid Queer Theories and Mobilities By Wei, John
  12. Evolution and Kantian morality: a correction and addendum By Alger, Ingela; Weibull, Jörgen W.
  13. Consensus group decision making under model uncertainty with a view towards environmental policy making By Phoebe Koundouri; Georgios I. Papayiannis; Electra Petracou; Athanasios Yannacopoulos
  14. Financial Inclusion Measurement: Deepening the Evidence By Indradeep Ghosh; Susan Thomas
  15. On the marginal utility of fiat money: insurmountable circularity or not? By Reiss, Michael
  16. Fractal Theory of Income Distribution By Ranaldi, Marco
  17. The Optimum: from Theology to Science and Fiction By Laurent Loty
  18. Social preferences or sacred values? Theory and evidence of deontological motivations By Daniel L. Chen; Martin Schonger
  19. Discrimination in the Formation of Academic Networks: A Field Experiment on #EconTwitter By Ajzenman, Nicolas; Ferman, Bruno; Sant’Anna, Pedro C.
  20. Enhancing the livelihoods of marginalized indigenous women through customary forests in Bali, Indonesia By Lukas R. Wibowo; Maharani Hapsari; Rini Astuti; Eusebius Pantja Pramudya; Digby Race; Dewi Ratna Kurniasari; Ismatul Hakim

  1. By: Karl Naumann-Woleske
    Abstract: Climate change is a major global challenge today. To assess how policies may lead to mitigation, economists have developed Integrated Assessment Models, however, most of the equilibrium based models have faced heavy critiques. Agent-based models have recently come to the fore as an alternative macroeconomic modeling framework. In this paper, four Agent-based Integrated Assessment Models linking environment, energy and economy are reviewed. These models have several advantages over existing models in terms of their heterogeneous agents, the allocation of damages amongst the individual agents, representation of the financial system, and policy mixes. While Agent-based Integrated Assessment Models have made strong advances, there are several avenues into which research should be continued, including incorporation of natural resources and spatial dynamics, closer analysis of distributional effects and feedbacks, and multi-sectoral firm network structures.
    Date: 2023–01
  2. By: Leiashvily, Paata
    Abstract: Based on a dialectical analysis of purposeful activity, a decentralized economy is presented as a complex nonlinear living system of economic actions. In such an economy, the general laws of the universe, which dialectics and synergetics studies, manifest themselves in a specific form. This allows us to see many well-known economic phenomena in an unusual light and to discover in them what cannot be detected by standard methods of orthodox theory. The monograph presents a system of concepts, based on which the fundamentally new interpretation of how the market economy functions and how it has evolved from its inception to the present is given. It is shown that behind the external chaos of economic life hiding surprisingly ordered, symmetrical, deep structures that provide self-regulation of a competitive market economy. Like all living systems, the economy is developing, which results in the monopolization and financialization of the economy. But over time, it loses the ability to self-regulate. Regulation becomes necessary, because of which the role of centralization of the economy increases. The search for new methods of regulating such an economy becomes inevitable.
    Keywords: methodology, market self-regulation, economic value, pricing, business cycle, monopolization, financialization
    JEL: A1 D0 E0
    Date: 2022
  3. By: Ingela Alger (TSE-R - Toulouse School of Economics - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Jean-François Laslier (Unknown)
    Abstract: This paper revisits two classical problems in the theory of voting—viz. the divided majority problem and the strategic revelation of information—in the light of evolutionarily founded partial Kantian morality. It is shown that, compared to electorates consisting of purely self-interested voters, such Kantian morality helps voters solve coordination problems and improves the information aggregation properties of equilibria, even for modest levels of morality.
    Date: 2022–04
  4. By: Jon D. Wisman
    Abstract: Thorstein Veblen gave special attention to work. He claimed that an instinct of workmanship " present in all men, and asserts itself even under very adverse circumstances... [It] is the court of final appeal in any question of economic truth or adequacy." Although many scholars have examined Veblen's claim, this article differs by examining his conception of work in light of findings from anthropology, evolutionary psychology, and happiness research. The questions explored are: Why and how did Veblen understand work as instinctual and did his understanding conform to Charles Darwin's concept of instincts? Is it an instinct that evolved to be pleasurable or to gain respect and status to motivate provisioning? If evidence supports the claim that work did indeed evolve to be pleasurable, and today much of it is not, then its restructuring should be a top social priority. Although Veblen's understanding of work provides inadequate guidance as to how it should be restructured, he was pathbreaking in insisting that our understanding of this question, and of human behavior and society more generally, must be grounded in the evolutionary biology launched by Darwin. Accordingly, a second aim of this article is to offer support for Veblen's attempt to do so.
    Keywords: instinct of workmanship; Darwinism; institutions; anthropology of work; happiness; research
    JEL: A13 B15 Z10
    Date: 2023
  5. By: Laurent Bazin (CLERSÉ - Centre Lillois d’Études et de Recherches Sociologiques et Économiques - UMR 8019 - Université de Lille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CESSMA UMRD 245 - Centre d'études en sciences sociales sur les mondes africains, américains et asiatiques - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - Inalco - Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales - UPCité - Université Paris Cité)
    Abstract: Responsibility (or accountability) is a key notion of the contemporary discourse on development. It is a basis of the neoliberal ideology that dominates the world economics since the structural adjustment plans in the 1980s, in particular in the conception of both the global norm of ‘governance' and the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. This article undertakes to demonstrate that the notions of responsibility and acountability are the other side of a mode of domination based on market as a technique of power : a system in which the financial markets exercise the power of sanction. Finally, responsibility appears as the operator of a triple transfer of riches, risks and morality.
    Abstract: La notion de responsabilité est un terme clé du lexique contemporain sur le développement. Elle est inscrite au cœur des diverses notions qui le composent, en particulier dans l'élaboration de la norme de gouvernance et des politiques mondiales de lutte contre la pauvreté qui ont marqué la première décennie du XXIe siècle. Cet article s'efforce de montrer que si la responsabilisation semble le mot d'ordre du discours néolibéral actuel, c'est que la responsabilité est l'envers de la domination par les marchés financiers, qui exercent le pouvoir de sanction. La responsabilité est l'opérateur d'un triple transfert de richesses, de risques et de moralité.
    Keywords: Responsibility, accountability, governance, empowerment, poverty, financialisation, globalisation, World Bank, responsabilité, imputabilité, gouvernance, pauvreté, financiarisation, Banque mondiale
    Date: 2022
  6. By: Hever, Shir
    Abstract: שמשון ביכלר ויהונתן ניצן פרסמו באחרונה את ספרם "ההון ושברו" (פרדס, 2022, 602 עמ'), בו הם דנים במשותף בתהפוכות כלכליות ותיאורטיות עדכניות. הספר ראה אור כעשרים שנה לאחר שספרם "מרווחי מלחמה לדיווידנדים של שלום" הכה גלים בחוגים הביקורתיים בישראל. בעשרים השנים האחרונות פרסמו ביכלר וניצן כמה ספרים ועשרות מאמרים באנגלית. בין השאר, ייסדו באוניברסיטת יורק בטורונטו אסכולה כלכלית חדשה, אשר עוררה דיונים סוערים בקרב כלכלנים ברחבי העולם. למרות ששורשי המחקר האמפירי של ביכלר וניצן נטועים בכלכלה הישראלית , בישראל דווקא לא שמעו על מחקרם. הספר החדש בעברית הוא אפוא קריאת חובה עבור כלכלנים ביקורתיים. מדובר בספר מאתגר לקריאה. סגנון הכתיבה הציני ואף הלעגני של ביכלר וניצן לא מתחנף לקוראים. כדי להבין את הספר נדרשת מידה ניכרת של צניעות וסבלנות, וגם גישה נכונה – יש לקרוא אותו כרומן בלשי .הספר אינו מספק תשובה לתעלומה, אלא מלמד את מלאכת הבילוש. באמצעות 82 תרשימים המבטאים מחקר אמפירי בן עשורים, מזמין הספר את הקורא לפענח את נתוני הכלכלה ולהסיק מסקנות בעצמו. מחציתו הראשונה של הספר היא ביקורת נוקבת על תיאוריות כלכליות קיימות. קריאת 300 העמודים הראשונים תבטיח לכל סטודנט לכלכלה בישראל ציון 100 בכל קורס מבוא (את המתמטיקה והסטטיסטיקה עליו ללמוד בכל זאת). זאת בתנאי שיצליח להתגבר על תחושת הקבס העולה כאשר מורדת המסיכה מפניה של הכלכלה הניאו-קלסית השמרנית. קוראים שמאליים ייהנו מאוד מהביקורת על הכלכלה השמרנית, אך גם להם צפויה הפתעה לא נעימה: הספר מפנה ביקורת גם כלפי הכלכלה המרקסיסטית, ומנסה להפריך ביסודיות את עיקריה. גם כאן משתמש הספר באותה דקדקנות מדעית, אך גם צינית ולעגנית, שבעזרתה הוא מבקר את הכלכלה הניאו-קלאסית. חלקו השני של הספר מציג תיאוריה כלכלית מורכבת, הבנויה על כלכלה פוליטית מוסדית מבית מדרשו של תורסטין ובלן. נוסף לכך, שזורים בו ניתוחים מרקסיסטים של סוויזי, קלצקי, ברן ועוד רבים. התיאוריה נבנית בהדרגה בעזרת ניתוח כלכלי-פוליטי של נתונים אמפיריים. בדרך מוצעים כלים לניתוח ואף חיזוי מגמות כלכליות. ביכלר וניצן חוקרים את ההון ככוח. הם מנתחים את המבנה והתפקוד של תאגידי הענק, הממשלות וציבור המשקיעים העשירים. הספר חושף את האסטרטגיות של השחקנים הגדולים והחזקים ביותר בכלכלה העולמית – הם מתחרים זה בזה, אך גם משתפים פעולה; הם מייצרים ציות וכניעות בקרב הציבור הרחב, אך מוכנים להסתכן בהתרת הרסן כדי להתמודד עם משברים.
    Keywords: accumulation, capital as power, crisis, ideology, Marxism, neoclassical economics
    JEL: P16 E13 B14 P
    Date: 2023
  7. By: Ezzedine Ghlamallah (CERGAM - Centre d'Études et de Recherche en Gestion d'Aix-Marseille - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - UTLN - Université de Toulon)
    Abstract: This article discusses how Islamic economics can provide remedies to environmental and financial crises. The first part of the article deals with the issue of environmental and financial crises (1). The environmental crises are analyzed through the issues of global warming, deforestation and marine pollution, and biodiversity loss (1.1). The financial crises are studied through the indebtedness, as a cause and consequence of the depressions, in a context that feeds speculation, where the financial markets are perfused with liquidity (1.2). This first part presents an observation allowing us to establish a diagnostic. The second part serves as a prescription and is devoted to the remedies offered by Islamic economics: the abandonment of usury and speculation; the attachment to the principles of justice, compassion, the search for the common good, as well as responsibility; but also the duty to share wealth and moderation (2.1). The implementation of the principles of Islamic economics is exposed through the contributions of Islamic finance to financial stability and the examples of the mechanisms of zakāh and waqf that respond to the adoption of the values of sharing and sustainability, to benefit humanity and the environment (2.2). Thus, through a withdrawal mechanism such as zakāh and a distribution instrument such as waqf, Islamic economics offers remedies to fully finance the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) without having to recourse to more debt.
    Abstract: Cet article aborde la manière dont l'économie islamique peut apporter des remèdes aux crises environnementales et financières. La première partie de l'article traite de la question des crises environnementales et financières (1). Les crises environnementales sont analysées à travers les questions du réchauffement climatique, de la déforestation et de la pollution maritime, ainsi que de la perte de biodiversité (1.1). Les crises financières sont étudiées à travers l'endettement, en tant que cause et conséquence des dépressions, dans un contexte alimentant la spéculation où, les marchés financiers malades sont perfusés à la liquidité (1.2). Cette première partie présente un constat permettant d'établir un diagnostic. La seconde partie fait office de prescription et se consacre aux remèdes offerts par l'économie islamique : l'abandon de l'usure et de la spéculation ; l'attachement aux principes de justice, de compassion, de recherche de bien commun, ainsi que de responsabilité ; mais également le devoir de partage des richesses et de modération (2.1). La mise en oeuvre des principes de l'économie islamique est exposée à travers les apports de la finance islamique à la stabilité financière et les exemples des mécanismes de la zakāh et du waqf qui répondent à l'adoption des valeurs de partage et de durabilité, pour être profitable à l'humanité et à l'environnement (2.2). Ainsi, grâce à un mécanisme de prélèvement comme la zakāh et un instrument de distribution comme le waqf, l'économie islamique offre des remèdes permettant de financer intégralement les objectifs de développement durable (ODD) sans avoir à recourir à plus d'endettement.
    Keywords: Crise Economique, Crise Financière, Crise environnementale, Crise climatique, Finance islamique, Economie islamique
    Date: 2022–01–15
  8. By: Nathalie Magne (UMR ART-Dev - Acteurs, Ressources et Territoires dans le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - UPVM - Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3 - UPVD - Université de Perpignan Via Domitia - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Delphine Vallade (UMR ART-Dev - Acteurs, Ressources et Territoires dans le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - UPVM - Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3 - UPVD - Université de Perpignan Via Domitia - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UM - Université de Montpellier); Cyrille Ferraton (UMR ART-Dev - Acteurs, Ressources et Territoires dans le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - UPVM - Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3 - UPVD - Université de Perpignan Via Domitia - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UM - Université de Montpellier); Jean Cartellier
    Date: 2022–07–06
  9. By: Ezzedine Ghlamallah (CERGAM - Centre d'Études et de Recherche en Gestion d'Aix-Marseille - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - UTLN - Université de Toulon); Christos Alexakis; Michael Dowling; Anke Piepenbrink
    Abstract: We provide a comprehensive structuring of research on Islamic economics and finance into the core topics of the area, for the period 1979 to 2018. This is carried out through a probabilistic topic modeling approach that allows statistical learning of the connection between research articles as well as their shared topics. This approach, which blends machine learning and natural language processing, helps provide a comprehensive structure to the literature. Our topic modeling analysis is conducted on approximately 1500 articles, and suggests the Islamic economics and finance literature can be well-described by 11 topics. These topics cover economic, finance, and morality issues. Our research can be applied to provide a clear structure for ongoing research agendas in Islamic economics and finance as well as a framework for understanding research development in this area. We also note the differences between Islamic and conventional approaches to economics and finance research in order to highlight the inherent new contributions of this maturing area of research.
    Keywords: Islamic finance, Islamic banking, Islamic economics, Takaful
    Date: 2021–09
  10. By: Verónica Amarante; Bibiana Lanzilotta; Joaquín Torres
    Abstract: This paper investigates the evolution of the productive structure around the world and the role it plays in the difference in inequality levels, using panel data for the period from 1995 to 2018. We approximate a country's productive structure through the Economic Complexity Index. Our results indicate that income inequality at the world level is not linearly related to economic complexity. Instead, our results indicate that, when the levels of complexity of the economy are very low, increases in complexity mainly lead to an increase in economic inequality.
    Keywords: Income inequality, Structure of production, Economic complexity, Panel data
    Date: 2023
  11. By: Wei, John (University of Otago)
    Abstract: This paper considers queer studies in the global geopolitical hotspot of Asia, as well as how we can reimagine queer theories through both the Covid-19 pandemic and the intensified regional and global superpower competition and geopolitical tensions. It argues for a rethinking of queer studies through today’s international relations and geopolitical complications in a sociological political economy. The aim is to connect critical studies with analyses of economic and social class structures, an approach that has been substantiated by the current crises, and to present an expanded queer mobility theory with two brief case studies (mini-critiques) of the current socioeconomic conditions facing marginalized people under Covid-19 and the changing geopolitical landscape. In so doing, this paper actively explores what queer studies can do and can be through the current historical turning point of the pandemic and geopolitical rivalry towards potential post-Covid socioeconomic revival and recovery.
    Date: 2023–01–29
  12. By: Alger, Ingela; Weibull, Jörgen W.
    Abstract: Theorem 1 in Alger and Weibull (Games and Economic Behavior, 2016) consists of two statements. The first establishes that Homo moralis with the right degree of morality is evolutionarily stable. The second statement is a claim about sufficient conditions for other goal functions to be evolutionarily unstable. However, the proof given for that claim presumes that all relevant sets are non-empty, while the hypothesis of the theorem does not guarantee that. We here prove instability under a stronger hypothesis that guarantees existence, and we also establish a new and closely related result. As a by-product, we also obtain an extension of Theorem 1 in Alger and Weibull (Econometrica, 2013).
    Keywords: Preference evolution; evolutionary stability, morality; Homo moralis.
    Date: 2023–02–02
  13. By: Phoebe Koundouri; Georgios I. Papayiannis; Electra Petracou; Athanasios Yannacopoulos
    Abstract: In this paper we propose a consensus group decision making scheme under model uncertainty consisting of a two-stage procedure and based on the concept of Frechet barycenter. The first stage is a clustering procedure in the metric space of opinions leading to homogeneous groups, whereas the second stage consists of a proposal most likely to be accepted by all groups. An evolutionary learning scheme of proposal updates leading to consensus is also proposed. The schemes are illustrated in examples motivated from environmental economics.
    Keywords: consensus group decision making; model uncertainty; environmental decision making; Frechet barycenter;
    Date: 2023–02–06
  14. By: Indradeep Ghosh (Dvara Research); Susan Thomas (xKDR Forum)
    Abstract: The widely accepted view that finance is important to improve the lives of individuals has led to a tenacious policy support for financial inclusion. The term itself has evolved with time, and along with it, the approaches to measure financial inclusion. This paper in the 17th edition of the Inclusive Finance India Report ( describes the evolution of financial inclusion in India and the various strategies used to quantify so far. The paper presents new thinking on measuring financial inclusion, including the latest Findex measure from the World Bank and the holistic input-output-outcome approach by Dvara Research and XKDR Forum. While both approaches depend upon household surveys, the paper identifies gaps between the measurement focus of the Findex, which continues to focus on bank accounts and payment systems, and the Dvara-XKDR approach which incorporates a greater coverage of what the household holds as financial instruments, how they are used and the perceived well-being of households that are more financially included. The evidence presented suggests that the input-output-outcome can be more useful to both policy makers and financial service providers in identifying households that are financially less included.
    JEL: D1 G2 G5
    Date: 2023–01
  15. By: Reiss, Michael
    Abstract: The question of how a pure fiat currency is enforced and comes to have a non-zero value has been much debated (Selgin, 1994). What is less often addressed is, in the case where the enforcement is taken for granted and we ask what value (in terms of goods and services) the currency will end up taking. Establishing a decentralised mechanism for price formation has proven a challenge for economists: "Since no decentralized out-of-equilibrium adjustment mechanism has been discovered, we currently have no acceptable dynamical model of the Walrasian system." (Gintis, 2006) In his paper, Gintis put forward a model for price discovery based on the evolution of the model's agents, i.e. \poorly performing agents dying and being replaced by copies of the well performing agents." It seems improbable that this mechanism is the driving force behind price discovery in the real world. This paper proposes a more realistic mechanism and presents results from a corresponding agent based model.
    Keywords: Price discovery, Walrasian system, Agent based model
    JEL: E37 E47
    Date: 2023
  16. By: Ranaldi, Marco
    Abstract: This paper uses fractal mathematics to describe the distribution of income among individuals. It shows the existence of a stochastic fractal relationship between a country’s output and income inequality: the higher the level of income inequality, the lower the country’s output, all else being equal. (Stone Center on Socio-Economic Inequality Working Paper)
    Date: 2023–01–31
  17. By: Laurent Loty (CELLF - Centre d’étude de la langue et des littératures françaises - SU - Sorbonne Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: The idea of the optimum plays a major role in many scientific and political domains, while fiction tends to confront it. I examine it here in light of its historical origins in theological optimism (God created "the best of all possible worlds"), the subject of my 1995 dissertation in the history of optimism from its emergence in the early eighteenth century to its seeming disappearance during the French Revolution. If the theme of the omnipresent optimum is difficult to perceive now, it is because the history of optimism, one of the most consequential ideologies ever to have existed, is also the history of its occultation. This ideology, all the more powerful in being embedded in a blind spot, is disseminated through apparently secular discourses and fields of knowledge. Optimism is a fatalism. It also takes the form of an economic fatalism : society or nature function providentially or naturally at their optimum, or reach their optimum in historical time. Yet the idea of the optimum can also inspire powerful heuristic hypotheses in sciences emancipated from theology, or progressive political actions seeking an optimum. As for fictions they either corroborate optimism (or pessimism, the inverted double of optimisme), or they invent instead, as in Diderot's Jacques le Fataliste, forms of writing and thought that escape this ideology. Investigation into the optimum will permit discovery of a vast continent of our culture along with its major investments. It could constitute a multi-disciplinary research program covering the modern period from the eighteenth century to today.
    Abstract: L'idée d'optimum joue un rôle majeur dans de nombreux domaines scientifiques et politiques, tandis que les fictions s'en saisissent pour s'y confronter. Je l'examine ici à partir de l'optimisme théologique qui est à son origine (Dieu a créé le monde à l'optimum), grâce à l'enquête que j'ai menée, dans une thèse de 1995, depuis l'émergence de cette doctrine au début du XVIIIe siècle, jusqu'à son apparente disparition pendant la Révolution française. Si le thème de l'optimum, omniprésent depuis, est si difficile à déceler aujourd'hui, c'est que l'histoire de l'optimisme, une des plus importantes idéologies qui ait existé, est aussi l'histoire de son occultation. Cette idéologie, d'autant plus puissante qu'elle est une idéologie en angle mort, s'est transférée dans des discours et savoirs apparemment sécularisés. L'optimisme est un fatalisme, une incitation à se soumettre au meilleur des mondes. Il prend aussi la forme d'un fatalisme économique : la nature ou la société fonctionnent providentiellement ou naturellement à l'optimum, ou s'optimisent historiquement. Or, l'idée d'optimum peut aussi inspirer de puissantes hypothèses heuristiques à des sciences émancipées de la théologie, ou à des actions politiques en vue d'une optimisation. Quant aux fictions, elles confirment l'optimisme (ou son double, le pessimisme), ou inventent au contraire, comme Jacques le Fataliste de Diderot, des formes d'écriture et de pensée qui échappent à cette idéologie. Enquêter sur l'optimum permet ainsi de découvrir un continent immense de notre culture ainsi que des enjeux majeurs, et pourrait constituer un vaste programme de recherche pluridisciplinaire du XVIIIe siècle à aujourd'hui.
    Date: 2023–01–07
  18. By: Daniel L. Chen (TSE-R - Toulouse School of Economics - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Martin Schonger (ETH Zürich - Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule - Swiss Federal Institute of Technology [Zürich])
    Abstract: Recent advances in economic theory, largely motivated by experimental findings, have led to the adoption of models of human behavior where decision-makers take into consideration not only their own payoff but also others' payoffs and any potential consequences of these payoffs. Investigations of deontological motivations, where decision-makers make their choice based on not only the consequences of a decision but also the decision per se, have been rare. We provide a formal interpretation of major moral philosophies and a revealed preference method to distinguish the presence of deontological motivations from a purely consequentialist decision-maker whose preferences satisfy first-order stochastic dominance.
    Date: 2022–05
  19. By: Ajzenman, Nicolas (McGill University); Ferman, Bruno (Sao Paulo School of Economics); Sant’Anna, Pedro C. (Sao Paulo School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper assesses the results of an experiment designed to identify discrimination in users' following behavior on Twitter. Specifically, we created fictitious bot accounts that resembled humans and claimed to be PhD students in economics. The accounts differed in three characteristics: gender (male or female), race (Black or White), and university affiliation (top- or lower-ranked). The bot accounts randomly followed Twitter users who form part of the #EconTwitter academic community. We measured how many follow-backs each account obtained after a given period. Twitter users from this community were 12% more likely to follow accounts of White students compared to those of Black students; 21% more likely to follow accounts of students from top-ranked, prestigious universities compared to accounts of lower-ranked institutions; and 25% more likely to follow female compared to male students. The racial gap persisted even among students from top-ranked institutions, suggesting that Twitter users racially discriminate even in the presence of a signal that could be interpreted as indicative of high academic potential. Notably, we find that Black male students from top-ranked universities receive no more follow-backs than White male students from relatively lower-ranked institutions.
    Keywords: gender, economics profession, discrimination, race, social media
    JEL: J15 J16 A11 C93 I23
    Date: 2023–01
  20. By: Lukas R. Wibowo; Maharani Hapsari; Rini Astuti; Eusebius Pantja Pramudya; Digby Race; Dewi Ratna Kurniasari; Ismatul Hakim
    Abstract: This study examines how, why, and under what conditions marginalized women of customary communities can contribute and gain access to the benefits of the social forestry programme. We found that customary communities' dependence on forest resources creates a structure that divides labour and situates women within a particular set of socio-economic roles in the family and in the public economic spheres.
    Keywords: Women, Forests and forestry, Culture, Gender norms, Indigenous peoples, Social norms, Norms
    Date: 2023

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