nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2023‒02‒06
twenty-one papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  2. Coupling agent-based modeling with territorial LCA to support agricultural land-use planning By Tianran Ding; Wouter M.J. Achten
  3. The fallacy in productivity decomposition By Simon Bruhn; Thomas Grebel; Lionel Nesta
  4. Dependency revisited: Commodities, commodity-related capital flows and growth models in emerging economies By Schedelik, Michael; Nölke, Andreas; May, Christian; Gomes, Alexandre
  5. Women, Gender, and the Iraqi Uprising: Inequality, Space, and Feminist Prospects (In Arabic) By Asma Jamil Rashid; Zahraa Ali
  6. The Short-Termism of 'Hard' Economics By Ilan Noy; Shakked Noy
  7. Designing organizations for bottom-up task allocation: The role of incentives By Stephan Leitner
  8. The integration of sustainability in the banking sector: from a “greed†to a “green†finance By Giulia Napolitano
  9. Construire une protection sociale-écologique : le cas de la France face aux canicules By Eloi Laurent
  10. Aggregation Bias and Input-Output Regionalization By Randall Jackson; Caroline Welter; Gary Cornwall
  11. La croissance verte est-elle durable et compatible avec l’économie circulaire ? Une approche par l’identité IPAT By Florian Fizaine
  12. L’Economia Sociale in Trentino: Una Panoramica delle Caratteristiche e delle Dimensioni By Martina Bonazza; Chiara Carini; Margherita Vitali
  13. Social Enterprises in the Netherlands: Towards More Institutional Diversity? By Coline Serres; Tine De Moor
  14. Le imprese recuperate dai lavoratori: pratiche e strategie cooperative By Marco Lomuscio
  15. Capitalism and extreme poverty: a global analysis of real wages, human height, and mortality since the long 16th century By Sullivan, Dylan; Hickel, Jason
  16. Sectoral Linkage in the Ethiopian Economy: A Social Accounting Matrix Multiplier Analysis By Kebede, Selamawit G.; Heshmati, Almas
  17. Financial Services for Poor Farmers in Thailand: The Case of the Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives (BAAC) By Mokbul Morshed Ahmad; Nguyen The Manh
  18. Towards the new bioeconomy: Bio-manufacturing as a strategic economic development initiative for Quebec By Bryan Campbell; Michel Magnan
  19. The Financing Structure of NonFinancial Corporations and MacroFinancial Implications in France By Stéphane Dees; Stefan Gebauer; Thomas Goncalves; Camille Thubin
  20. Training Effective Altruism By Sultan Mehmood; Shaheen Naseer; Daniel L. Chen
  21. Entrepreneuriat et religion : vers une mutation affinitaire du marché du travail ? Le sentiment d’exclusion en question By Hugo Gaillard

  1. By: Weber, Cameron
    Abstract: In this research I compare and contrast the class-struggle social theory of industrielisme in the writings of the French liberals around the Le Censeur Européen (1817-1819) with that of Karl Marx’s historical materialism. There are many similarities. Both use concepts of historical development and path-dependency, productive and unproductive labor, of exploitation, and of the necessary primacy of the market under capitalism to bring human freedom. Using Theories of Surplus Value (1860) and available correspondence I show that Marx knew about and respected the French liberal historians and political economists, especially Turgot and Augustin Thierry. It would be conjecture to say that Marx “turned” the original French liberal class struggle, that of free and productive man as exploited by the unproductive state, into his own labor as exploited by capital but we do find and present evidence to this effect.
    Keywords: Political Economy, Karl Marx, Turgot, French Liberals, Class Struggle, Capitalism, Path Dependency, Exploitation
    JEL: B12 B14 D31 P16 P32 Z13
    Date: 2023–01
  2. By: Tianran Ding; Wouter M.J. Achten
    Date: 2022–12–01
  3. By: Simon Bruhn; Thomas Grebel; Lionel Nesta (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po)
    Abstract: This paper argues that the typical practice of performing growth decompositions based on log-transformed productivity values induces fallacious conclusions: using logs may lead to an inaccurate aggregate growth rate, an inaccurate description of the microsources of aggregate growth, or both. We identify the mathematical sources of this log-induced fallacy in decomposition and analytically demonstrate the questionable reliability of log results. Using firm-level data from the French manufacturing sector during the 2009-2018 period, we empirically show that the magnitude of the log-induced distortions is substantial. Depending on the definition of accurate log measures, we find that around 60-80% of four-digit industry results are prone to mismeasurement. We further find significant correlations of this mismeasurement with commonly deployed industry characteristics, indicating, among other things, that less competitive industries are more prone to log distortions. Evidently, these correlations also affect the validity of studies that investigate the role of industry characteristics in productivity growth.
    Keywords: productivity decomposition, growth, log approximation, geometric mean, arithmetic mean
    Date: 2021–01–01
  4. By: Schedelik, Michael; Nölke, Andreas; May, Christian; Gomes, Alexandre
    Abstract: The growth model perspective has provided avenues for bridging Comparative and International Political Economy, mainly with regard to the global financial crisis and developments within the Eurozone. This article aims to contribute to this endeavor by highlighting the joint effects of capital flows and commodity price swings on growth models in emerging capitalist economies. While the literature on dependent financialization has primarily focused on debt-led growth in the Global South, we spell out the negative implications of commodity-based export-led growth. To this end, we first present a stylized depiction of commodity dependence and provide descriptive statistical evidence of its global prevalence. Subsequently, we trace the co-movement of capital flows to emerging economies and commodity prices. We argue that this 'commodity-finance nexus' reinforces the pro-cyclical nature of commodity-based growth, financial volatility, and the vulnerability to global boombust-cycles. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the conventional method for establishing growth models by calculating the relative contributions to growth is ill-suited to capture the commodity-based export-led growth model of highly commodity-dependent economies. Finally, we identify commodity price movements and fiscal policies as major drivers of growth, with an important role for domestic politics as an intervening variable.
    Keywords: Commodity prices, capital flows, dependent financialization, growth models, emerging economies, boom-bust-cycles, export-led growth, fiscal policy, dependency
    JEL: O13 O47 Q33
    Date: 2022
  5. By: Asma Jamil Rashid (Baghdad University, Iraq); Zahraa Ali
    Abstract: This study attempts to explore the meaning, content and importance of women's participation in the October Uprising by providing insights that help explain and analyze the complex conditions of women in Iraq and analyze the social, economic and political context and its repercussions on their lives, including gender disparities. The study relies on a group of field and analytical research conducted by the two researchers to investigate the situation of women in Iraq and in various fields, in addition to field research that dealt with the participation of women in the October protests. It is based on available quantitative and qualitative data to analyze the differences between the sexes. Instead of dealing with the concept of inequalities in a limited sense (i.e., as differences between women and men), this study uses an approach that relies on relational feminist theory - or intersectionality - with a focus on the social history of women and the feminist political economy because of the latter's ability to provide an understanding of the nature of the complex relationship between structures. Social, political, and economic power, resources, access to it, and the person responsible for it, as well as his ability to highlight gender inequalities as one of the reasons that provided for the involvement of women, especially from the young generation, in the protest act, even if he was not the driving force behind this act. In addition to feminist political economy and the common dimension, this research uses the concept of (space production) by Henri Lefebvre in analyzing the protests and their gender dimension. We will employ this concept to emphasize the fact that space is a product of a society that is experienced, conceived and perceived together. According to the sociologist Henri Lefebvre, the social space is socially produced and constructed, and cannot be reduced to its physical construction, nor to economic production, but rather it is developed through a social, material and mental dynamic, which is the fruit of collective values and representations that are experienced, imagined and understood. Lefevre also theorized the concept of marginal social spaces of impossibility, in which revolutionary social imaginations and utopias emerge from people's spontaneous actions rather than through a conscious plan. Henri Lefevre argued that it is not the revolutionary movement that produces space but the discontinuity of the spaces themselves that creates something different and a substitute for the dominant force. The public space is the place for negotiation of the values, ideologies and norms that form the "social contract" of a society. The occupation of space itself allows the individuals who participate in it to contribute to the formation and negotiation of this contract
    Date: 2022–12–20
  6. By: Ilan Noy; Shakked Noy
    Abstract: “Longtermism” is the view that the impacts of our actions on the very long-term future deserve prominent consideration in decision-making. We discuss the primary barrier that prevents academic economists from contributing to longtermist research: an overly rigid preference for methodological “hardness” (Akerlof, 2020). Hardness bias prevents economists from engaging in methodologically pluralistic, interdisciplinary, qualitative, and other kinds of research, including most potential longtermist research. We unpack hardness bias, discuss its roots, illustrate how it prevents economists from engaging in longtermist research, and try to present a positive vision of the kinds of longtermist research economists could engage in if hardness norms were relaxed.
    Keywords: economic methodology, longtermism, academic economics, methodological hardness
    JEL: B40
    Date: 2022
  7. By: Stephan Leitner
    Abstract: In recent years, various decentralized organizational forms have emerged, posing a challenge for organizational design. Some design elements, such as task allocation, become emergent properties that cannot be fully controlled from the top down. The central question that arises in this context is: How can bottom-up task allocation be guided towards an effective organizational structure? To address this question, this paper presents a novel agent-based model of an organization that features bottom-up task allocation that can be motivated by either long-term or short-term orientation on the agents' side. The model also includes an incentive mechanism to guide the bottom-up task allocation process and create incentives that range from altruistic to individualistic. Our analysis shows that when bottom-up task allocation is driven by short-term orientation and aligned with the incentive mechanisms, it leads to improved organizational performance that surpasses that of traditionally designed organizations. Additionally, we find that the presence of altruistic incentive mechanisms within the organization reduces the importance of mirroring in task allocation.
    Date: 2023–01
  8. By: Giulia Napolitano
    Abstract: This work is part of the literature that recognizes the crucial role of an ethical evaluation in the financial sector and investigates the aspects related to the social and environmental impact of economic activities. Those must be strictly complementary to a traditional evaluation, which cannot be the sole parameter of reference for the investor, and intended to make a point on the state of the art of impact finance, in Italy and in Europe, in the light of the COVID-19 pandemic. The interest for the issue was validated by the recent transition of mainstream finance towards a model compatible with the urgent emerging environmental and social challenges, which has caused a rethinking of management models and aims to generate social, as well as economic value, restoring a more positive relationship with society, communities and the environment. In this context, Europe plays a leading role on the basis of a consolidated social culture and a growing attention to innovation in the field of inclusive finance regulation: it has turned out to be by far the most important developed and diversified ESG (environmental, social, governance) market and which continues to dominate sustainable investments and hosts the majority of sustainable funds and assets.
    Keywords: Sustainability, Pandemics, Ethics, Financial markets, CSR
    JEL: G01 G2 G28 G41 M14
    Date: 2022
  9. By: Eloi Laurent (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po)
    Abstract: This article proposes, in the light of the French case, to consider building a social-ecological protection aimed at reducing the health and economic impact of the heatwaves caused by climate change by answering five successive questions: why protect? Protect from what? What to protect? Whom to protect? How to protect?
    Abstract: Cet article propose, à la lumière du cas français, des éléments d'analyse en vue de l'édification d'une protection sociale-écologique visant à atténuer l'impact sanitaire et économique des fortes chaleurs engendrées par le dérèglement climatique, en répondant à cinq questions successives : Pourquoi protéger ? De quoi protéger ? Que protéger ? Qui protéger ? Comment protéger ?
    Keywords: France, heatwaves, elderly, social-ecological risk, insurance
    Date: 2021–01–01
  10. By: Randall Jackson (Regional Research Institute, West Virginia University); Caroline Welter (Regional Research Institute, West Virginia University); Gary Cornwall (U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis)
    Abstract: Conventional wisdom holds that results from input-output (IO) models with greater sectoral detail are superior to those from models with less detail. However, there is an implicit assumption that the more detailed data are as accurate as their aggregated counterparts. In this paper, we explore the tradeoffs between sectoral detail and model accuracy in the context of IO regionalization, a practical context in which greater sectoral detail is commonly achieved via the imputation of missing values. This reality is especially apparent for increasingly smaller geographical regions where privacy concerns result in more suppressed and undisclosed data. As the number (or share) of disaggregated values that require imputation increases, the disaggregated model results will also deviate further from perfect accuracy. Is there a point at which using an aggregate model with greater certainty – relying on more reported and less imputed data – will provide results that are superior to a disaggregated model with greater potential imputation error and uncertainty? To address these questions, we design and implement simulation experiments founded on the concept of aggregation bias that enable us to evaluate the likelihoods that aggregate models would be superior to their disaggregated counterparts.
    Keywords: input-output, regionalization, aggregation bias
    Date: 2022–12–30
  11. By: Florian Fizaine (IREGE - Institut de Recherche en Gestion et en Economie - USMB [Université de Savoie] [Université de Chambéry] - Université Savoie Mont Blanc)
    Abstract: The circular economy concept is currently being used in multiple ways. For some academics and organizations circular economy can be identified as a long term goal of achieved green growth while others argue that circular economy is fundamentally different from green growth. In this paper, we explore the conditions allowing green growth to be compatible with the concept of circular economy. Our model explicitly takes into account the possibility of a dematerializing of wealth production and raw material recycling through a green growth framework. We show that the reconciling of green growth with circular economy requires: (i) a fast decrease of the raw material intensity of economy far removed from present and past trajectories, (ii) the absence of a physical limitation to this decrease. This seems to indicate that green growth is essentially different from, and incompatible with the concept of circular economy.
    Abstract: Il existe une forte polysémie derrière l'expression « économie circulaire ». Certains identifient l'économie circulaire comme une forme finale de la croissance verte (croissance économique infinie dans un monde fini). D'autres, au contraire, perçoivent la croissance verte comme le prolongement d'un ancien modèle fondamentalement incompatible avec les limites de la géosphère et donc très différent de l'économie circulaire qui s'inscrit dans un mimétisme écologique. Dans cet article, nous explorons les hypothèses permettant de réconcilier la croissance verte avec l'économie circulaire via la dématérialisation. Nous montrons que la réconciliation de l'économie circulaire et de la croissance verte réclamerait (i) une vitesse de décroissance de l'intensité matérielle de l'économie à des niveaux jamais observés, mais également (ii) une absence de limite physique à cette décroissance. Cela laisse supposer que l'approche de la croissance verte est fondamentalement incompatible avec le concept d'économie circulaire.
    Keywords: sustainable development, decoupling, green growth, circular economy, natural resources, ressources naturelles, développement durable, découplage, croissance verte, économie circulaire
    Date: 2021–07
  12. By: Martina Bonazza; Chiara Carini; Margherita Vitali
    Abstract: Da qualche anno il tema dell’economia sociale riveste un crescente interesse nel dibattito pubblico a livello europeo, nazionale e locale. Nella provincia autonoma di Trento le realtà attive in quest’ambito, forti della lunga tradizione cooperativa e dell’intraprendenza della società civile che ha dato il via a numerose organizzazioni di volontariato, associazioni di promozione sociale, fondazioni o altro, ricoprono un ruolo di primaria rilevanza. Rimane però non unanimemente definito quali siano i confini dell’economia sociale e quale sia il suo peso nell’economia sia nazionale che provinciale. Ciò detto, questo paper, dopo averne tracciato i confini, intende approfondire le caratteristiche salienti dell’economia sociale in Trentino attraverso i dati del Censimento permanente delle istituzioni non profit dell’Istat al fine di fornire un quadro dal punto di vista del numero e della tipologia di organizzazioni coinvolte, delle risorse umane impiegate, dei settori interessati e del valore economico generato cosí da poter riflettere sul contributo che l’economia sociale può dare all’economia trentina.
    Keywords: Economia sociale, Contributo economico, Occupati, Profilo lavoratori, Trentino
    JEL: L25 L31 P13
    Date: 2022
  13. By: Coline Serres; Tine De Moor
    Date: 2023–01–16
  14. By: Marco Lomuscio
    Abstract: In Italia, lavoratrici e lavoratori a rischio disoccupazione hanno la possibilità di salvaguardare il proprio posto di lavoro, i livelli occupazionali dell’azienda in crisi ed i rispettivi asset produttivi. Infatti, tali dipendenti possono riavviare ed acquisire le aziende in crisi da cui provengono, trasformandole in aziende democratiche e cooperative, e raggiungendo eccellenti risultati economici e finanziari. Queste aziende sono chiamate imprese recuperate dai lavoratori. Il presente contributo raccoglie i primi risultati della ricerca volta a studiare i processi di avvio e di intrapresa delle imprese recuperate dai lavoratori in Italia. I risultati, ottenuti attraverso la somministrazione di un questionario online, approfondiscono la governance, le risorse e le strategie utilizzate da lavoratrici e lavoratori nel recupero/avvio della propria impresa cooperativa in Italia.
    Keywords: Cooperative, Imprenditorialità , Imprese recuperate dai lavoratori, Governance multi-stakeholder
    JEL: J54 J65 J26 M13
    Date: 2022
  15. By: Sullivan, Dylan; Hickel, Jason
    Abstract: This paper assesses claims that, prior to the 19th century, around 90% of the human population lived in extreme poverty (defined as the inability to access essential goods), and that global human welfare only began to improve with the rise of capitalism. These claims rely on national accounts and PPP exchange rates that do not adequately capture changes in people's access to essential goods. We assess this narrative against extant data on three empirical indicators of human welfare: real wages (with respect to a subsistence basket), human height, and mortality. We ask whether these indicators improved or deteriorated with the rise of capitalism in five world regions - Europe, Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and China – using the chronology put forward by world-systems theorists. The evidence we review here points to three conclusions. (1) It is unlikely that 90% of the human population lived in extreme poverty prior to the 19th century. Historically, unskilled urban labourers in all regions tended to have wages high enough to support a family of four above the poverty line by working 250 days or 12 months a year, except during periods of severe social dislocation, such as famines, wars, and institutionalized dispossession – particularly under colonialism. (2) The rise of capitalism caused a dramatic deterioration of human welfare. In all regions studied here, incorporation into the capitalist world-system was associated with a decline in wages to below subsistence, a deterioration in human stature, and an upturn in premature mortality. In parts of South Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and Latin America, key welfare metrics have still not recovered. (3) Where progress has occurred, significant improvements in human welfare began several centuries after the rise of capitalism. In the core regions of Northwest Europe, progress began in the 1880s, while in the periphery and semi-periphery it began in the mid-20th century, a period characterized by the rise of anti-colonial and socialist political movements that redistributed incomes and established public provisioning systems.
    Keywords: capitalism; extreme poverty; progress; world-systems theory
    JEL: N0
    Date: 2023–01–01
  16. By: Kebede, Selamawit G. (University of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia); Heshmati, Almas (Jönköping University, Sogang University)
    Abstract: This research investigates the Ethiopian economy's sectoral linkages. It examines the forward and backward production and total linkages of the industry with the agriculture and service sectors. The import penetration and export intensity of the agriculture-based industry and the manufacturing industry are also discussed. The study used the Ethiopian Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) database and made a multiplier analysis to explore the linkages and estimate the multiplier coefficients. The results show that agriculture has a relatively strong linkage with other sectors while the agriculture-based industry has weak forward linkages, and the manufacturing industry has weak backward and forward linkages with other sectors of the economy. The multiplier analysis shows that an exogenous shock to the agriculture-based industry has a higher multiplier effect than a shock to the manufacturing industry. Economic policy should focus on agriculture-based industry investments to positively augment the Ethiopian industrialization process and the overall economy.
    Keywords: sectoral linkages, social accounting matrix, multiplier analysis, Ethiopia
    JEL: C60 L60 L70 L80 O14 Q19
    Date: 2023–01
  17. By: Mokbul Morshed Ahmad; Nguyen The Manh
    Abstract: Lack of credit for farming is one of the main obstacles that poor Thai farmers face. Most agricultural credits from commercial banks are given to large agricultural businesses thus leaving out poor farmers who consequently have to borrow from informal sources with high interest rates. The Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives (BAAC), founded in 1966, provides financial assistance and development support for farmers, small business owners and community organizations in rural areas. Its mission is to alleviate farmers’ difficulties caused by debt obligations and low commodity prices and its major achievement is the informal loan reduction. However, BAAC faces some problems, including poor service quality, limited number of service locations that cause lack of access to the poor, populist policies, corruption by politicians, increasing number of non-performing loan. The major suggestions to address these problems are to enhance professional management of the bank, making it more accessible to poor farmers particularly in the remote and disadvantaged areas of the country. The results of this paper are drawn based on secondary data and interviews with some senior bank managers and experts.
    Keywords: Credit, Poor farmers, Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives, Financial services, Thailand
    JEL: G01 G21 G32
    Date: 2022
  18. By: Bryan Campbell; Michel Magnan
    Abstract: Globally, the bioeconomy can be defined as the domain of the economy based on products, services and processes derived from biological resources. In this regard, synthetic biology refers to the characteristics of a field derived from biology that has developed over the past thirty years thanks to advances in applied genetics and bioengineering. Some predict that the future economy will primarily be a bioeconomy based on these emerging techniques, which are consistent with the decarbonization of our economy. We first describe the international reality of the "Bio Revolution" and then aim to assess Quebec's position. Next, we present some government policies following a top-down approach from different jurisdictions. A case study of a Montreal-based company allows us to highlight the problems it faced in attracting the financial capital needed for its growth. Another critical issue in the field is the scalability of production processes. We explore this issue further in agritech, a high potential sector but whose realization faces several socio-economic challenges. This analysis serves as a backdrop to our recommendations to develop a roadmap for government support for synthetic biology. Globalement, la bioéconomie peut être définie comme le domaine de l'économie basée sur les produits, services et processus dérivés des ressources biologiques. À cet égard, la biologie de synthèse réfère aux caractéristiques d’un domaine dérivé de la biologie qui s’est développé au cours des trente dernières années grâce aux progrès de la génétique appliquée et de la bio-ingénierie. Certains prédisent que l'économie future sera principalement une bioéconomie basée sur ces techniques émergentes, lesquelles sont cohérentes avec la décarbonisation de notre économie. Nous décrivons d’abord la réalité internationale de la « Révolution Bio » et tentons d’évaluer la position du Québec. Par la suite, nous présentons des politiques de soutien à la bioéconomie de diverses juridictions. Une étude de cas d’une entreprise de Montréal nous permet de mettre en évidence les problèmes auxquels elle a dû faire face pour attirer le capital financier nécessaire à sa croissance. Outre le financement, un autre enjeu critique dans le domaine est la montée en charge (scalability en anglais) des processus de transformation. Nous explorons davantage cet enjeu en agro-technologie, secteur à haut potentiel mais dont la réalisation comporte plusieurs défis socio-économiques. Cette analyse sert de toile de fond à nos recommandations qui portent sur l'élaboration d'une feuille de route pour le soutien gouvernemental à la biologie de synthèse.
    Keywords: Bioeconomy, biomanufacturing, innovation, agritech, capital, Bioéconomie, biofabrication, innovation, agro-technologie, capital
    JEL: O3 O31 O32 O33 O34 O38 Q16 M13
    Date: 2023–01–11
  19. By: Stéphane Dees; Stefan Gebauer; Thomas Goncalves; Camille Thubin
    Abstract: How does the corporate funding mix affect economic and financial stability in France? To address this question, we develop a model for the financing structure of French non-financial corporations (NFCs) and incorporate it in the Banque de France's semi-structural macroeconomic model (FR-BDF). We document that while on average more than half of external financing for French NFCs is provided by bank credit, the share of bond financing has increased markedly after the great Financial Crisis of 2008/2009. We then use the augmented model to simulate several macro-financial stress scenarios and show that the new macro-financial linkages imply a non-negligible financial accelerator effect that affects corporate investment decisions and matters for the transmission of monetary policy. In particular, corporate leverage plays a key role for investment, and we discuss the relative strength of shocks affecting the leverage ratio via corporate credit and equity.
    Keywords: Semi-Structural Models, Non-Financial Corporation Financing, Corporate Debt.
    JEL: E51 C32
    Date: 2022
  20. By: Sultan Mehmood (University of Paris); Shaheen Naseer (University of Oxford [Oxford]); Daniel L. Chen (TSE-R - Toulouse School of Economics - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Randomizing different schools of thought –via a month-long training– finds that training deputy ministers in effective altruism renders 0.4-0.6 standard deviations increase in altruism. Treated ministers increased mentalizing of others: blood donations doubled, but only when blood banks requested their exact blood type. Perspective-taking in strategic dilemmas improved. Orphanage visits and volunteering in impoverished schools also increased. We then trace the impact of the training on their policymaking: one year after training, amid official duties, ministers were 50-100% more likely to choose social policies and recommend over 4-fold additional funding for them. Overall, our results underscore that effective altruism may be a parsimonious foundation for formation of prosociality, even impacting the behavior of adults in the field and their high-stakes policymaking
    Keywords: Economics, Soft-skills, Prosociality, Altruism, Policymakers
    Date: 2022–12–15
  21. By: Hugo Gaillard (GAINS - Groupe d'Analyse des Itinéraires et des Niveaux Salariaux - UM - Le Mans Université)
    Abstract: Cet article s'intéresse à l'influence du sentiment d'exclusion du marché du travail sur le choix d'entreprendre pour réduire la tension entre religiosité et professionnalité. Grâce à la méthodologie des récits de vie, nous abordons les expériences d'exclusion perçue de salariés musulmans aujourd'hui entrepreneurs. Les résultats mettent notamment en avant la dynamique de généralisation à l'ensemble du marché du travail du sentiment d'exclusion au cours d'une ou plusieurs expériences salariales. Ce travail éclaire les mouvements à l'oeuvre vers des activités de type affinitaire, et met au jour le développement d'activités précaires et non déclarées dans certains cas, après une désillusion professionnelle, sans pour autant nier la dimension opportuniste du choix. Il apporte donc des éléments de compréhension de la mutation marginale du marché du travail vers des structures dites affinitaires, en mobilisant les travaux sur les motivations entrepreneuriales et ceux sur les facteurs contraignants. La nécessité pour les organisations d'engager des démarches en faveur de l'inclusion est discutée. La recherche ouvre finalement la voie à d'autres travaux sur les organisations affinitaires, et sur l'inclusion des personnes qui donnent la priorité à leur religiosité face à leur professionnalité, et ce dans les organisations non affinitaires.
    Keywords: Fait religieux au travail entrepreneuriat nécessité et opportunité contraintes entreprise affinitaire récits de vie, Fait religieux au travail, entrepreneuriat, nécessité et opportunité, contraintes, entreprise affinitaire, récits de vie
    Date: 2021–04–16

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