nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2023‒01‒30
twenty-six papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. Agent-Based Modeling for Studying the Spontaneous Emergence of Money By Mattia Di Russo; Zakaria Babutsidze; Célia da Costa Pereira; Maurizio Iacopetta; Andrea G. B. Tettamanzi
  2. Mission-Oriented Policies and the “Entrepreneurial State” at Work: An Agent-Based Exploration By Giovanni Dosi; Francesco Lamperti; Mariana Mazzucato; Mauro Napoletano; Andrea Roventini
  3. An agent-based model of trickle-up growth and income inequality By Elisa Palagi; Mauro Napoletano; Andrea Roventini; Jean-Luc Gaffard
  4. The meaning of class struggle: Marx and the 1848 june days By Leipold, Bruno
  5. Agent-based modelling of a small-scale fishery in Corsica By Eric Innocenti; Corinne Idda; Dominique Prunetti; Pierre-Régis Gonsolin
  6. Inequality-Constrained Monetary Policy in a Financialized Economy By Luca Eduardo Fierro; Federico Giri; Alberto Russo
  7. Do Economists Replicate? By Ankel-Peters, Jörg; Fiala, Nathan; Neubauer, Florian
  8. Towards integrating social dynamics into climate economic scenarios literature review By Barth, Simon
  9. Assessing the economic impact of lockdowns in Italy: a computational input-output approach By Severin Reissl; Alessandro Caiani; Francesco Lamperti; Mattia Guerini; Fabio Vanni; Giorgio Fagiolo; Tommaso Ferraresi; Leonardo Ghezzi; Mauro Napoletano; Andrea Roventini
  10. Des parasites au paradis ? Revenu universel, minima sociaux et réciprocité By Guillaume Allegre
  11. “She was a sort of Apostle” By Cyrille Ferraton; Ludovic Frobert
  12. Proud to Not Own Stocks: How Identity Shapes Financial Decisions By Luca Henkel; Christian Zimpelmann
  13. fintech-kMC: Agent based simulations of financial platforms for design and testing of machine learning systems By Isaac Tamblyn; Tengkai Yu; Ian Benlolo
  14. Climate change and women’s voice and agency beyond the household: Insights from India By Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Raghunathan, Kalyani; Kosec, Katrina
  15. Conceptualizing women’s empowerment in agrifood systems governance: A new framework By Ragasa, Catherine; Kyle, Jordan; Kristjanson, Patricia; Eissler, Sarah
  16. Ethical publishing: how do we get there? By Fernando Racimo; Nicolas Galtier; Véronique de Herde; Noémie Bonn; Ben Phillips; Thomas Guillemaud; Denis Bourguet
  17. The Digital Transformation (DX) and the Financialization of Japan: A Case Study of Private Equity By Ulrike Schaede
  18. Smarter than humans? Validating how OpenAI's ChatGPT model explains crowdfunding, alternative finance and community finance By Wenzlaff, Karsten; Spaeth, Sebastian
  19. Operation Warp Speed as a “Moonshot”: Some Public Policy Lessons By Nicholas Sowels
  20. The urbanising dynamics of global China: speculation, articulation, and translation in global capitalism By Shin, Hyun Bang; Zhao, Yimin; Koh, Sin Yee
  21. Pour une théorie historique de la financiarisation : droit des sociétés et transformation de l'espace public aux origines du capitalisme financier de masse en France By Christian Pradié
  22. How Law and Economics Was Marketed in a Hostile World : l’institutionnalisation du champ aux États-Unis de l’immédiat après-guerre aux années Reagan By Thierry Kirat; Frédéric Marty
  23. Gender bias in consumer perceptions: The case of agro-input dealers in Uganda By De, Anusha; Miehe, Caroline; Van Campenhout, Bjorn
  24. Close the Gap: Accelerating Post-pandemic Recovery through Social Justice By Domingo, Sonny N.; Ulep, Valerie Gilbert T.; Epetia, Ma. Christina F.
  25. Women in leadership positions in universities: are they really queen bees? By Rebeca da Rocha Grangeiro; Manoel Bastos Gomes Neto; Catherine Esnard
  26. Viability of the Political System: A Neglected Issue in Public Finance By John Komlos

  1. By: Mattia Di Russo (Laboratoire I3S - SPARKS - Scalable and Pervasive softwARe and Knowledge Systems - I3S - Laboratoire d'Informatique, Signaux, et Systèmes de Sophia Antipolis - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis (1965 - 2019) - COMUE UCA - COMUE Université Côte d'Azur (2015-2019) - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Côte d'Azur); Zakaria Babutsidze (SKEMA Business School); Célia da Costa Pereira (Laboratoire I3S - SPARKS - Scalable and Pervasive softwARe and Knowledge Systems - I3S - Laboratoire d'Informatique, Signaux, et Systèmes de Sophia Antipolis - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis (1965 - 2019) - COMUE UCA - COMUE Université Côte d'Azur (2015-2019) - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Côte d'Azur); Maurizio Iacopetta (SKEMA Business School); Andrea G. B. Tettamanzi (WIMMICS - Web-Instrumented Man-Machine Interactions, Communities and Semantics - CRISAM - Inria Sophia Antipolis - Méditerranée - Inria - Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique - Laboratoire I3S - SPARKS - Scalable and Pervasive softwARe and Knowledge Systems - I3S - Laboratoire d'Informatique, Signaux, et Systèmes de Sophia Antipolis - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis (1965 - 2019) - COMUE UCA - COMUE Université Côte d'Azur (2015-2019) - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Côte d'Azur)
    Abstract: A central question in economics is how a society accepts money, defined as a commodity used as a medium of exchange, as an unplanned outcome of the individual interactions. This question has been approached theoretically in the literature and investigated by means of agent-based modeling. While an important aspect of the theory is the individual's speculative behavior, that is, the acceptance of money despite a potential short-term loss, previous work has been unable to reproduce it with boundedly rational agents. We investigate the reasons for the failure of previous work to have boundedly rational agents learn speculative strategies. Starting with an agent-based model proposed in the literature, where the intelligence of the agents is guided by a learning classifier system that is shown to be capable of learning trade strategies (core strategies) that involve short sequences of trades, we test several modifications of the original model and we come up with a set of assumptions that enable the spontaneous emergence of speculative strategies, which explain the emergence of money even when the agents have bounded rationality.
    Keywords: Search and Money Reinforcement Learning Social Simulation, Search and Money, Reinforcement Learning, Social Simulation
    Date: 2022–11–17
  2. By: Giovanni Dosi (LEM - Laboratory of Economics and Management - SSSUP - Scuola Universitaria Superiore Sant'Anna [Pisa]); Francesco Lamperti (UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne); Mariana Mazzucato; Mauro Napoletano (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po); Andrea Roventini
    Abstract: We study the impact of alternative innovation policies on the short- and long-run performance of the economy, as well as on public finances, extending the Schumpeter meeting Keynes agent-based model (Dosi et al., 2010). In particular, we consider market-based innovation policies such as R&D subsidies to firms, tax discount on investment, and direct policies akin to the "Entrepreneurial State" (Mazzucato, 2013), involving the creation of public research oriented firms diffusing technologies along specific trajectories, and funding a Public Research Lab conducting basic research to achieve radical innovations that enlarge the technological opportunities of the economy. Simu- lation results show that all policies improve productivity and GDP growth, but the best outcomes are achieved by active discretionary State policies, which are also able to crowd-in private investment and have positive hysteresis effects on growth dynamics. For the same size of public resources allocated to market-based interventions, "Mission" innovation policies deliver significantly better aggregate performance if the government is patient enough and willing to bear the intrinsic risks related to innovative activities.
    Keywords: Innovation policy, mission-oriented R&D, entrepreneurial state, agent-based modelling
    Date: 2021–01–01
  3. By: Elisa Palagi; Mauro Napoletano (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po, GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis (1965 - 2019) - COMUE UCA - COMUE Université Côte d'Azur (2015-2019) - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Côte d'Azur); Andrea Roventini (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po); Jean-Luc Gaffard (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po)
    Abstract: We build an agent-based model to study how coordination failures, credit constraints and unequal access to investment opportunities affect inequality and aggregate income dynamics. The economy is populated by households who can invest in alternative projects associated with different productivity growth rates. Access to investment projects also depends on credit availability. The income of each house- hold is determined by the output of the project but also by aggregate demand conditions. We show that aggregate dynamics is affected by income distribution. Moreover, we show that the model features a trickle-up growth dynamics. Redistribution towards poorer households raises aggregate demand and is beneficial for the income growth of all agents in the economy. Extensive numerical simulations show that our model is able to reproduce several stylized facts concerning income inequality and social mobility. Finally, we test the impact of redistributive fiscal policies, showing that fiscal policies facilitating access to investment opportunities by poor households have the largest impact in terms of raising long-run aggregate income and decreasing income inequality. Moreover, policy timing is important: fiscal policies that are implemented too late may have no significant effects on inequality.
    Keywords: income inequality, social mobility, credit constraints, coordination failures, effective demand, trickle-up growth, fiscal policy
    Date: 2021–01–01
  4. By: Leipold, Bruno
    Abstract: Karl Marx characterized the 1848 June Days uprising as a class struggle between proletarians and the bourgeoisie. But modern investigations have shown that the insurgents actually consisted primarily of artisans and not proletarians. They have also undermined Marx’s claim that one of the primary forces used to defeat the insur-gency, the Mobile Guard, was recruited from the lumpenproletariat, when in fact they shared the same social background as the insurgents. As a result of these findings, crit-ics have questioned the adequacy of Marx’s class analysis and concluded that he was wrong to describe the June Days as a class struggle. I argue that the empirical findings represent serious shortcomings in Marx’s account and need to be properly incorpo-rated into our understanding of the uprising. However, I challenge the characterisation of Marx’s class analysis and show that though the June Days were not the class struggle that Marx presented, they were still a class struggle in his understanding of what class struggle means.
    Keywords: 1848 french revolution; artisans; class; class struggle; Journées de juin; June days; Karl Marx; lumpenproletariat; mobile guard; petty bourgeoisie; proletarians
    JEL: B14 B24 P2 P3
    Date: 2021–07–01
  5. By: Eric Innocenti (LISA - Lieux, Identités, eSpaces, Activités - UPP - Université Pascal Paoli - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Corinne Idda (LISA - Lieux, Identités, eSpaces, Activités - UPP - Université Pascal Paoli - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Dominique Prunetti (LISA - Lieux, Identités, eSpaces, Activités - UPP - Université Pascal Paoli - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Pierre-Régis Gonsolin
    Abstract: In this work we introduce a new multi-stock, multi-fleet, multi-species and bioeconomic model for the complex system of a small-scale fishery. The objective is to study fisheries in order to ensure the renewal of the stock of biomass. This stock represents both a means of subsistence for fishermen but also contributes to food security. We model the system as a Multi-Agent System using both Cellular Automata Model (CAM) and Agent-Based Model (ABM) computational modelling approaches. CAM are used to describe the environment and the dynamics of resources. ABM are used to describe the behaviour of fishing activities. The main interest of the conceptual model lies in the proposed laws and in its capacity to organize hierarchically all the local interactions and transition rules within the simulated entities. We report preliminary results showing that our modelling approach facilitates software parameterization for the specific requirements implied by the context of a small-scale fishery. The main results of this work consist in the creation of a computer modelling structure CAM and ABM, which constitutes a preliminary for an optimized resources management. In a future development, we will improve the behavior of economic agents in order to consider the complexity of their decision making.
    Keywords: Fishery modelling, Multi-Agent System, NetLogo pattern
    Date: 2022–09–19
  6. By: Luca Eduardo Fierro (Institute of Economics, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna Pisa, Italy); Federico Giri (Department of Economics and Social Sciences, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy); Alberto Russo (Department of Economics and Social Sciences, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy and Department of Economics, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón, Spain)
    Abstract: We study how income inequality affects monetary policy through the inequalityhousehold debt channel. We design a minimal macro Agent-Based model that replicates several stylized facts, including two novel ones: falling aggregate saving rate and decreasing bankruptcies during the household’s debt boom phase. When inequality meets financial liberalization, a leaning against-the-wind strategy can preserve financial stability at the cost of high unemployment, whereas an accommodative strategy can dampen the fall of aggregate demand at the cost of larger leverage. We conclude that inequality may constrain the central bank, even when it is not explicitly targeted.
    Keywords: Inequality, Financial Fragility, Monetary Policy, Agent-Based Model.
    JEL: E21 E25 E31 E52 G51
    Date: 2023
  7. By: Ankel-Peters, Jörg; Fiala, Nathan; Neubauer, Florian
    Abstract: Reanalyses of empirical studies and replications in new contexts are important for scientific progress. Journals in economics increasingly require authors to provide data and code alongside published papers, but how much does the economics profession actually replicate? This paper summarizes existing replication definitions and reviews how much economists replicate other scholars' work. We argue that in order to counter incentive problems potentially leading to a replication crisis, replications in the spirit of Merton's 'organized skepticism' are needed - what we call 'policing replications'. We review leading economics journals to show that policing replications are rare and conclude that more incentives to replicate are needed to reap the fruits of rising transparency standards.
    Keywords: replication, replicability, research transparency, meta-science, generalizability, systematic review
    JEL: A11 C18
    Date: 2023
  8. By: Barth, Simon
    Abstract: Climate policy options are usually elaborated scientifically by Integrated Assessment Models that combine the economic system, the energy system and the climate system in one comprehensive framework. Most of them follow a neo-classical economic paradigm and calculate cost-efficient technological transformation pathways of the energy system. Critique has grown that the real-world problem is more complex especially with regard to the dynamics reigning in human societies. These should be considered in the models in order to derive effective policy recommendations. This literature review presents and structures a list of publications making first steps into this direction, either by delivering promising methodological suggestions, by reporting evidence on social dynamics or by presenting first model integrations. By this, the paper illuminates the scientific challenge of integrating social dynamics into climate economic scenarios and builds a knowledge basis for future research endeavors.
    Keywords: climate economics, social dynamics, energy transitions, integrated assessment
    Date: 2022
  9. By: Severin Reissl; Alessandro Caiani; Francesco Lamperti; Mattia Guerini; Fabio Vanni (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po); Giorgio Fagiolo; Tommaso Ferraresi; Leonardo Ghezzi; Mauro Napoletano (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po); Andrea Roventini (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po)
    Abstract: We build a novel computational input-output model to estimate the economic impact of lockdowns in Italy. The key advantage of our framework is to integrate the regional and sectoral dimensions of economic production in a very parsimonious numerical simulation framework. Lockdowns are treated as shocks to available labor supply and they are calibrated on regional and sectoral employment data coupled with the prescriptions of government decrees. We show that when estimated on data from the first "hard" lockdown, our model closely reproduces the observed economic dynamics during spring 2020. In addition, we show that the model delivers a good out-of-sample forecasting performance. We also analyze the effects of the second "mild" lockdown in fall of 2020 which delivered a much more moderate negative impact on production compared to both the spring 2020 lockdown and to a hypothetical second "hard" lockdown.
    Keywords: input-output, Covid-19, lockdown, Italy
    Date: 2021–01–01
  10. By: Guillaume Allegre (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po)
    Abstract: Should society feed surfers? The question has arisen in these terms since Van Parijs suggested to Rawls that a basic income would be in line with his theory of justice. Rawls replied that those who surf should find a way to support themselves. Most Western countries have guaranteed minimum incomes which have conditions in terms of social or professional integration efforts, in a logic of reciprocity. The refusal that others live voluntarily at their expense, in a parasitic relationship, is a value widely shared value across countries, religions and belief systems. For Van Parijs, basic income can be justified by the common ownership of exogenous resources (land, raw materials). From a non-perfectionist perspective, respecting everyone's conceptions of what a good life is, the fact that people using one's resources pay income to those who do not use them, maximizes the real freedom of all. It is argued here that this argument uses a specific conception of co-ownership (right equal to the income of the property), but that there is another conception (equal right to the use of the property). This later conception can be seen when co-owners of a tennis court can usually use it at leisure, but not rent the slots to an outside person. The idea of co-ownership of exogenous resources is therefore not a definitive argument for basic income. We conclude by discussing the characteristics of a guaranteed minimum income that would minimize various forms of injustice.
    Abstract: La société doit-elle nourrir les surfeurs ? La question se pose dans ces termes depuis que Van Parijs a suggéré à Rawls qu'un revenu universel serait conforme à sa théorie de la justice et que ce dernier lui a répondu que ceux qui font du surf devraient trouver une façon de subvenir à leurs propres besoins. Comme en France, la plupart des pays occidentaux ont mis en place des revenus minimum garantis sous conditions d'efforts d'insertion sociale ou professionnelle, dans une logique de réciprocité. Le refus qu'autrui vive volontairement à ses dépens, dans une relation de parasitage, est une valeur largement partagée à travers les pays et les religions. Pour Van Parijs, le Revenu universel peut être justifié par la propriété commune de ressources exogènes (la terre, les matières premières). Dans une optique non-perfectionniste, respectant les conceptions de chacun de ce qu'est la vie bonne, le fait que les personnes utilisant ses ressources versent un revenu à ceux qui ne les utilise pas, permet de maximiser la liberté réelle de tous. On argue ici que l'auteur utilise une conception spécifique de la copropriété (droit égal aux revenus de la propriété), mais qu'il existe une autre conception (droit égal à l'utilisation de la propriété), de même que les co-propriétaires d'un tennis peuvent en général l'utiliser à loisir, mais pas louer les créneaux à une personne extérieure. L'idée de copropriété des ressources exogènes n'est ainsi pas un argument définitif en faveur du Revenu universel. Nous discutons en conclusion des caractéristiques d'un revenu minimum garanti qui minimiserait différentes formes d'injustice.
    Keywords: basic income, minimum income schemes, reciprocity, revenu universel, minimum social, réciprocité
    Date: 2021–01–01
  11. By: Cyrille Ferraton (UMR ART-Dev - Acteurs, Ressources et Territoires dans le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - UPVM - Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3 - UPVD - Université de Perpignan Via Domitia - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UM - Université de Montpellier); Ludovic Frobert (TRIANGLE - Triangle : action, discours, pensée politique et économique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - IEP Lyon - Sciences Po Lyon - Institut d'études politiques de Lyon - Université de Lyon - UJM - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Étienne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: A former Saint-Simonian, but critical of the elitist direction taken by the school with Prosper Enfantin, Pauline Roland (1805-1852) became close to Pierre Leroux and his doctrine of Humanity. She explored possible alternatives to inegalitarian capitalism and reflected on the links between socialism and the Republic. This text details the characteristics of the democratic and social republic that Pauline Roland envisages within workers' associative practices.
    Abstract: Ancienne saint-simonienne mais critique de l'orientation élitiste prise par l'école avec Prosper Enfantin, Pauline Roland (1805-1852) se rapproche de Pierre Leroux et de sa doctrine de l'Humanité. Elle explore les alternatives possibles au capitalisme inégalitaire et réfléchit aux liens entre socialisme et République. Ce texte détaille les caractéristiques de la République démocratique et sociale qu'entrevoit Pauline Roland au sein des pratiques associatives ouvrières.
    Keywords: association, labour surveys, Republic, socialism, religion, enquêtes ouvrières, République, socialisme
    Date: 2022–06–01
  12. By: Luca Henkel; Christian Zimpelmann
    Abstract: This paper introduces a key factor influencing households' decision to invest in the stock market, how people view stockholders. Using survey data from the US and the Netherlands, we first document that the overwhelming majority of respondents view stockholders negatively – they are perceived as greedy, gambler-like, and selfish individuals. We then provide experimental evidence that such perceptions of identity-relevant characteristics causally influence decision-making: if people view stockholders more negatively, they are less likely to choose stock-related investments. Furthermore, by linking survey and administrative data, we show that negative perceptions strongly predict households’ stock market participation, more so than leading alternative determinants. Beyond investment decisions, perceptions predict individuals’ polarizing behavior towards stockholders, support for taxation and regulation of financial markets, and misreporting in surveys. Our findings provide a novel explanation for the puzzlingly low stock market participation rates around the world, new perspectives on the malleability of financial decision-making, and evidence for the importance of identity in economic decision-making.
    Keywords: Identity, Perceptions, Stock Market Participation, Finacial Decision-Making
    JEL: G41 G51 D14 D83
    Date: 2022–12
  13. By: Isaac Tamblyn; Tengkai Yu; Ian Benlolo
    Abstract: We discuss our simulation tool, fintech-kMC, which is designed to generate synthetic data for machine learning model development and testing. fintech-kMC is an agent-based model driven by a kinetic Monte Carlo (a.k.a. continuous time Monte Carlo) engine which simulates the behaviour of customers using an online digital financial platform. The tool provides an interpretable, reproducible, and realistic way of generating synthetic data which can be used to validate and test AI/ML models and pipelines to be used in real-world customer-facing financial applications.
    Date: 2023–01
  14. By: Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Raghunathan, Kalyani; Kosec, Katrina
    Abstract: Women’s Voice & Agency beyond the household (VABH) has increasingly been recognized as critical to strengthening resilience, increasing women’s access to important resources, improving women’s decision-making power, and facilitating broader social networks (Njuki et al. 2022). Despite rapidly intensifying climate change in recent years, a knowledge gap persists as to how climate change may affect women’s VABH in developing countries. This has been particularly challenging in countries like India, which host one of the largest numbers of the poor and has been increasingly plagued by droughts, floods, cyclones, rising temperatures, and increasing rainfall fluctuations. This study provides a conceptual discussion on the linkages between climate change and VABH and analyzes their empirical relationship using multiple rounds of nationwide household data from India (India Human Development Survey 2005, 2012; World Values Survey 2001, 2006, 2012); climate data; and data on women’s political representation at the district level. Our results suggest that in rural parts of India, adverse climate change and natural disasters, such as cyclones and/or floods, have consistently negative associations with a broad range of VABH-related outcomes. Moreover, in rural areas, greater political representation by women in district assemblies broadly mitigates the potential effects of adverse climate change on VABH-related outcomes. These patterns generally hold across various populations, differentiated by marriage status and age groups, and are more robust in rural compared to urban areas. There are also generally consistent gender differences in these associations. Specifically, results indicate that women’s VABH are disproportionately more negatively affected by adverse CC than men’s VABH, while greater female representation at local district assemblies has greater effects in mitigating adverse CC on VABH among women than men. The results underscore the importance of enhancing women’s political representation as a means to improve women’s VABH.
    Keywords: INDIA, SOUTH ASIA, ASIA, climate change, climatic data, cyclones, data analysis, decision making, developing countries, drought, extreme weather events, gender, gender analysis, gender equality, gender equity in access to land, global warming, household, economic resources, flooding, men, natural disasters, politics, political systems, poverty alleviation, rain, resilience, role of women, rural areas, social networks, social protection, social structure, storms, women's empowerment, voice, weather hazards, women, Women’s Voice & Agency beyond the household (VABH)
    Date: 2022
  15. By: Ragasa, Catherine; Kyle, Jordan; Kristjanson, Patricia; Eissler, Sarah
    Abstract: This paper develops a new framework to measure and track women’s empowerment in governance of countries’ agrifood systems. All too often, women’s needs, priorities, and voices are missing from the policy process, even when women may be disproportionately affected by shocks or have distinct policy preferences. The Women’s Empowerment in Agrifood Systems Governance (WEAGov) is an assessment framework to help countries and stakeholders measure the extent of inclusion and leadership of women in agrifood systems governance and to identify gaps and opportunities for improvement. WEAGov looks across three stages of the policy cycle: policy design, policy implementation, and policy evaluation. At each stage of the policy cycle, WEAGov asks three questions central to women’s empowerment in governance: Are women considered? Are women included? And are women influencing? This paper describes the process of conceptualizing and developing the WEAGov assessment framework by drawing together evidence, experience, and lessons from the literature and from over 30 stakeholder consultations across several countries and sectors to develop a practical and theoretically grounded framework.
    Keywords: gender, women, women's empowerment, empowerment, agrifood systems, food systems, governance, assessmentassessment framework, assessment tool
    Date: 2022
  16. By: Fernando Racimo (UCPH - University of Copenhagen = Københavns Universitet); Nicolas Galtier (UMR ISEM - Institut des Sciences de l'Evolution de Montpellier - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EPHE - École pratique des hautes études - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - Institut de recherche pour le développement [IRD] : UR226 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UM - Université de Montpellier); Véronique de Herde (UCL - Université Catholique de Louvain = Catholic University of Louvain); Noémie Bonn (UHasselt - Hasselt University); Ben Phillips (University of Melbourne); Thomas Guillemaud (ISA - Institut Sophia Agrobiotech - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis (1965 - 2019) - COMUE UCA - COMUE Université Côte d'Azur (2015-2019) - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - UCA - Université Côte d'Azur); Denis Bourguet (UMR CBGP - Centre de Biologie pour la Gestion des Populations - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD [France-Sud] - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier)
    Abstract: The academic journal publishing model is deeply unethical: today, a few major, for-profit conglomerates control more than 50% of all articles in the natural sciences and social sciences, driving subscription and open-access publishing fees above levels that can be sustainably maintained by publicly funded universities, libraries, and research institutions worldwide. About a third of the costs paid for publishing papers is profit for these dominant publishers' shareholders, and about half of them covers costs to keep the system running, including lobbying, marketing fees, and paywalls. The paywalls in turn restrict access of scientific outputs, preventing them from being freely shared with the public and other researchers. Thus, money that the public is told goes into science is actually being funneled away from it, or used to limit access to it. Alternatives to this model exist and have increased in popularity in recent years, including diamond open-access journals and community-driven recommendation models. These are free of charge for authors and minimize costs for institutions and agencies, while making peer-reviewed scientific results publicly accessible. However, for-profit publishing agents have made change difficult, by co-opting open-access schemes and creating journal-driven incentives that prevent an effective collective transition away from profiteering. Here, we give a brief overview of the current state of the academic publishing system, including its most important systemic problems. We then describe alternative systems. We explain the reasons why the move toward them can be perceived as costly to individual researchers, and we demystify common roadblocks to change. Finally, in view of the above, we provide a set of guidelines and recommendations that academics at all levels can implement, in order to enable a more rapid and effective transition toward ethical publishing.
    Keywords: academic publishing, journal, open-access, peer-review, ethics, collective action, recommendation model
    Date: 2022
  17. By: Ulrike Schaede (Full Professor, School of Global Strategy and Policy, University of California, San Diego (E-mail:
    Abstract: This paper argues that Japan is experiencing an increase in " financialization" - a process of marketization where the primary focus in all transaction is on the immediate monetary value earned. Left unregulated, excessive financialization can erode the core architecture and health of an economy. Japan's financialization will be further accelerated by the interrelated forces of the digital transformation (DX), societal and employment system changes, and the need for corporate reinvention and repositioning. To showcase the difficulty of finding a balance between the positive discipline of the market and the dangers of excessive short-termism, this paper introduces Japan's emerging private equity (PE) market. Corporate need for a new market for spinouts and carve-outs meets global investors eager to find alternative investments. Together, they create new pressures for short-term financial results, even for companies not targeted by these investments, thus increasing financialization overall. The paper introduces recent U.S. proposals on regulating the PE industry to ensure long-term value creation while reining in financial schemes that are detrimental to the health of companies and the economy. As Japan shows signs of increasing financialization, it may warrant attention to the current discussion regarding the PE industry in the U.S.
    Keywords: Japan, financialization, marketization, private equity, digital transformation, corporate reorganization
    JEL: G30 L10 K20
    Date: 2022–12
  18. By: Wenzlaff, Karsten; Spaeth, Sebastian
    Abstract: The ChatGPT model of OpenAI allows users to ask questions, which are answered through an artificial intelligence trained through supervised, reinforced machine-learning. The answers depend on the input which the algorithm receives from the users, as well as from the content it has been given. The paper explores how answers to definitions about crowdfunding, alternative finance and community finance deviate or correspond to answers given by real human-beings in academic scholarship. Crowdfunding, alternative finance and community finance are chosen because academic literature does not provide consistent definitions on each of these terms, but some definitions are accepted by more scholars. By addressing the research gap concerning the accuracy of answers generated by an artificial intelligence, the paper contributes to the growing literature of implications of textual artificial intelligence on academia.
    Keywords: Crowdfunding, Alternative Finance, Community Finance, Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence
    Date: 2022
  19. By: Nicholas Sowels (CREW - CREW - Center for Research on the English-speaking World - EA 4399 - Université Sorbonne Nouvelle - Paris 3, PHARE - Philosophie, Histoire et Analyse des Représentations Économiques - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne)
    Abstract: This article presents Operation Warp Speed (OWS), a federal government project launched by the Trump administration in May 2020 to develop a vaccine against COVID-19. In contrast with the often incoherent and sometimes reckless behaviour of President Trump during the pandemic, OWS was a focussed and largely successful initiative to support vaccine research, manufacture, and delivery. It contributed to the discovery and early deployment of several vaccines within a year and paved the way for a comparatively effective vaccination campaign in the United States in 2021, which later met popular resistance along partisan lines. The article examines OWS as a public-private partnership to achieve a "moonshot", drawing on Mariana Mazzucato's work on Mission Economics which calls for more pro-active government action to tackle major economic, environmental, and social challenges. The article then qualifies the success of OWS as a moonshot, pointing to the competitive market elements built into the project which also helped ensure its success. Finally, this research strives to examine OWS and the US vaccination rollout using complexity analysis, to give some perspective to the emergence of vaccine resistance behaviour as of spring 2021.
    Abstract: Cet article présente l'Opération Warp Speed (OWS), un programme fédéral lancé par l'administration Trump en mai 2020 pour développer un vaccin contre le COVID-19. Contrairement à la réponse souvent incohérente et parfois irresponsable du Président Trump pendant la pandémie, l'OWS fut un programme très ciblé et réussi pour soutenir la recherche, la fabrication et la livraison de vaccins, qui a contribué à la découverte et au déploiement rapides de plusieurs vaccins en moins d'un an. De même, l'OWS a ouvert la voie à une campagne de vaccination relativement réussie aux États-Unis en 2021, qui par la suite s'est heurtée à une obstruction partisane au sein de la population. L'article examine ensuite l'OWS en tant que partenariat public-privé avec un « objectif lune » en s'inspirant des travaux de Mariana Mazzucato sur L'économie de mission qui prône des politiques publiques plus volontaristes pour aborder des problèmes économiques, environnementaux et sociaux majeurs. Cette contribution avance aussi quelques mises en garde contre une approche aussi ambitieuse, soulignant que le fonctionnement de l'OWS s'appuya aussi sur les lois du marché pour le développement de vaccins. Enfin, l'article cherche à examiner l'OWS et le programme de vaccination aux États-Unis à la lumière de la théorie de la complexité qui fournit des pistes pour comprendre l'émergence de la résistance partisane au programme de vaccination qui s'est développé à partir du printemps 2021.
    Keywords: Operation Warp Speed,COVID-19,coronavirus,vaccines,moonshots,disciplined pluralism,complexity theory,public policy,Trump Donald,Mazzucato Mariana,Kay John,vaccins,pluralisme discipliné,théorie de la complexité,politique publique
    Date: 2021–02–02
  20. By: Shin, Hyun Bang; Zhao, Yimin; Koh, Sin Yee
    Abstract: The assembled papers in this special issue jointly explore the urban manifestation of “Global China” at different scales and involving diverse actors, discussing the ways in which the urban has been reconfigured by China’s global expansion and uncovering the differentiated modes of speculative and spectacular urban production at present. Observing from Ghana, India, Malaysia and China, these papers collectively make theoretical, methodological, and empirical contributions to recognise the dynamics of speculation, articulation and translation in global capitalism, where China plays an increasingly significant role. In this introduction, we first set out to explain our standing point with China as method, which is an attempt to situate China in our comparative studies endeavour and to make self-reflection on what it means to study China as both an optic and a process. We then introduce the three main themes that have guided our interrogation of what global China implies. These include: (a) transplanting models and urbanism; (b) multi-scalar construction of temporality; and (c) situating the urban China model in global capitalism. These aspects are at the core of our engagement with the contributing papers in this special issue that together extend the critique of our changing urban conditions at present.
    Keywords: global China; China as method; urbanisation; global capitalism; China; urbanism; Tackling the UK’s International Challenges Programme (Grant Number IC3\100155).
    JEL: J1 N0 R14 J01
    Date: 2022–12–12
  21. By: Christian Pradié (UPHF - Université Polytechnique Hauts-de-France, IRMÉCCEN - Institut de Recherche Médias, Cultures, Communication et Numérique - Université Sorbonne Nouvelle - Paris 3 - LABEX ICCA - UP13 - Université Paris 13 - Université Sorbonne Nouvelle - Paris 3 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UPCité - Université Paris Cité - Université Sorbonne Paris Nord)
    Date: 2022–10–06
  22. By: Thierry Kirat (IRISSO - Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire en Sciences Sociales - Université Paris Dauphine-PSL - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Frédéric Marty (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po, GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis (1965 - 2019) - COMUE UCA - COMUE Université Côte d'Azur (2015-2019) - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Côte d'Azur, CIRANO - Centre interuniversitaire de recherche en analyse des organisations - UQAM - Université du Québec à Montréal = University of Québec in Montréal)
    Abstract: This article discusses the institutionalization of the field of Law and Economics in the United States from the post-war period to the Reagan administration. It emphasizes the role of pro-market corporate foundations in the development of Law and Economics. It analyses individual and collective trajectories, including research projects, judges training programs, and leading academics contributions and judicial and administrative careers. It ultimately focuses on the impact of this institutionalization on judging methods.
    Abstract: Cet article traite de l'institutionnalisation du champ de la Law and Economics aux Etats-Unis de l'après-guerre aux années Reagan. Il met l'accent sur le rôle de fondations d'entreprises pro-marché dans l'essor de la Law and Economics et s'appuie sur l'analyse de trajectoires individuelles ou collectives, qu'il s'agisse de projets de recherche, de programmes de formation des juges ou encore de travaux académiques et de carrières judiciaires et administratives de théoriciens de premier plan. Il s'attache in fine à l'impact de cette institutionnalisation sur les manières de juger
    Keywords: conservatism, antitrust, foundations, law and economics, fondations, économie du droit, conservatisme
    Date: 2021–03–08
  23. By: De, Anusha; Miehe, Caroline; Van Campenhout, Bjorn
    Abstract: Faced with incomplete and imperfect information, economic actors rely predominantly on perceptions and often base decisions on heuristics prone to bias. Gender bias in perceptions favoring men has been found in a wide variety of settings and may be an important reason why some sectors remain dominated by men and gender gaps persist. Using ratings of agro-input dealers provided by smallholder farmers in their vicinity, we test if farmers perceive male-managed agro-input shops differently than agro-input shops managed by women. After controlling for observable characteristics at the input dealer level and including fixed effects to account for farmer-level heterogeneity, we find that farmers rate male-managed agro-input outlets higher on a range of attributes related to the dealership in general, as well as when farmers are asked to consider the quality of inputs sold by the dealer. Our results suggest that consumers' biased perceptions continue to be an important entry barrier for women in the subsector, and we conclude that policies and interventions designed to challenge gender norms and customs are needed to correct bias in perceptions.
    Keywords: UGANDA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; gender; consumer attitudes; farmers; gender norms; discrimination; agro-inputs; agro-input dealer; perceptions
    Date: 2022
  24. By: Domingo, Sonny N.; Ulep, Valerie Gilbert T.; Epetia, Ma. Christina F.
    Abstract: Socioeconomic disparities run deep in the Philippines, but the COVID-19 pandemic further exacerbated these inequities. Globally, there is a renewed sense of urgency to break these inequities and place social justice at the front and center of the post-COVID recovery. Social justice is about redressing power imbalances, assuring the protection of equal access to liberties, rights, and opportunities, and distributing the benefits, risks, and costs among peoples across generations. This paper examined the disproportionate impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic in the following sectors: health, labor and education, and environment, as well as the deep-seated structural and systems challenges that could explain these disparities. Avenues for insightful discourses and genuine reforms are needed to address concerns on human capital development and social protection and environment resilience and climate change. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: social justice;inequality;COVID-19;social protection;labor;education;health;environment;resilience
    Date: 2022
  25. By: Rebeca da Rocha Grangeiro (UFC - Universidade Federal do Cariri); Manoel Bastos Gomes Neto (UFC - Universidade Federal do Cariri); Catherine Esnard (CeRCA - Centre de Recherches sur la Cognition et l'Apprentissage - Université de Poitiers - UT - Université de Tours - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the adherence to the traits of the queen bee phenomenon (QBP) for women who hold leadership positions in Brazilian higher education institutions (HEIs) and to compare their responses with those of women without leadership positions and of men on the same dimensions. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 703 academics from 88 HEIs participated in this study. The data were analyzed using a statistical package to calculate descriptive and inferential statistics. For these, 2 × 2 analysis of variance tests were performed to compare leader women vs nonleader women and leader women vs leader men. Findings: The results indicate that leader women do not fit to all dimensions of the QBP. They report high averages to commitment, agency traits and personal sacrifices to career (Male self-description) and to meritocratic discourse. However, leader women assess their junior counterparts with higher averages to commitment and agency traits than women without leadership positions and leader men assess their junior counterparts. Women in leadership positions report superior identification with same gender colleagues and declare to be more supportive with affirmative policies for women's professional development than nonleader women and leader men. Practical implications: This study reinforces that same gender conflict in the work environment is not a female characteristic and also promotes reflections on the influence of organizational culture, men hostility toward quotas and gender stereotypes for female progression in the academic context. Originality/value: This study provides an empirical analysis of the QBP to academic women in Brazilian HEIs and compares its dimensions to nonleader women and leader men. The analysis of a sexist culture enabled original results, as nondistancing of the self-group, even if leader women presented some QB traits.
    Keywords: Gender, Higher Education Institutions, Queen Bee Phenomenon, Leadership, Academic career, Female career
    Date: 2022
  26. By: John Komlos
    Abstract: The textbook theory of public finance delineates three primary functions of government: 1) to provide for public goods, 2) to provide for an equitable distribution of income, and 3) to stabilize the economy. However, it has become evident with the rise of right-wing populism especially, but not exclusively, in the U.S., that this conceptualization contains a crucial oversight of historic proportions because the gap between the haves and have-nots in a society is not merely a question of equity but also a question of the maintenance of political stability. The January 6, 2021 insurrection against the U.S. Congress by an angry mob made it evident that the distribution of income has bounds beyond which social forces exert such pressure on the political system that the whole edifice of liberal democracy is seriously threatened. Hence, democratic governments must consider income distribution also from the vantage point of sustaining itself.
    Date: 2022

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