nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2022‒10‒31
24 papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. Today’s economics: One, No One and One Hundred Thousand. By Ambrosino, Angela; Cedrini, Mario; B. Davis, John
  2. Material conditions and ideas in global history By Motadel, David; Drayton, Richard
  3. An Overview on the Feminism and Its Categories By Mohajan, Haradhan
  4. To Be or Not to Be: The Entrepreneur in Neo-Schumpeterian Growth Theory By Henrekson, Magnus; Johansson, Dan; Karlsson, Johan
  5. Sraffian indeterminacy of steady-state equilibria in the Walrasian general equilibrium framework By Yoshihara, Naoki; Kwak, Se Ho
  6. The general equilibrium effects of localised technological progress : A Classical approach By Yoshihara, Naoki; Veneziani, Roberto
  7. Looking for growth imperatives under capitalism: money, wage labour, and market exchange By Cahen-Fourot, Louison
  8. Ecological Transition and Structural Change: A New-Developmentalist Analysis By Giulio Guarini; Jose Luis Oreiro
  9. A tale of housing cycles and fiscal policy, not competitiveness. Growth drivers in southern Europe By Engelbert Stockhammer; Andre Novas Otero
  10. The Politics of Funding: the Rockefeller Foundation and French Economics, 1945–1955 By Serge Benest
  11. Limits to Profit? A conceptual framework for understanding profit and sustainability By Hinton, Jennifer B.
  12. Profit as a means or an end? A conceptual framework for an ecological economics approach to sustainable business By Hinton, Jennifer B.; Cornell, Sarah E.
  13. Understanding how systemic change happens … By Adam Fforde
  14. Social support and network formation in a small-scale horticulturalist population By Simpson, Cohen R.
  15. El futuro de las relaciones laborales en tiempos de pandemia By Hyman, Richard
  16. A gender perspective on artificial intelligence and jobs- The vicious cycle of digital inequality By Estrella Gomez-Herrera; Sabine Köszegi
  17. Products as Network: An Empirical Approximation of the Manufacturing Production Network in Indonesia By Massie, Natanael Waraney Gerald; Mangunsong, Carlos
  18. Why property matters? New varieties of domestic patriarchy in Turkey By Kocabicak, Ece
  19. Evaluating Transformation – what can we learn from the literature? By Wise, Emily; Arnold, Erik
  20. Buddhist economics as a return to rational model of economic management By Viktor Zinchenko; Mykhailo Boichenko
  21. Comecon Monetary Mechanisms. A history of socialist monetary integration (1949 – 1991) By Faudot, Adrien; Marinova, Tsvetelina; Nenovsky, Nikolay
  22. Inverse Game Theory for Stackelberg Games: the Blessing of Bounded Rationality By Jibang Wu; Weiran Shen; Fei Fang; Haifeng Xu
  23. L'entrepreneuriat peut-il être inclusif en situation de handicap ? Contribution de la théorie des capacités dynamiques By Véronique Csanyi-Virag; Marion Polge
  24. Poverty-Adjusted Life Expectancy : A Consistent Index of the Quantity and the Quality of Life By Baland,Jean-Marie; Cassan,Guilhem; Decerf,Benoit Marie A

  1. By: Ambrosino, Angela; Cedrini, Mario; B. Davis, John (University of Turin)
    Abstract: The paper employs the sense and structure of a famous novel by the Italian writer Luigi Pirandello, One, No One and One Hundred Thousand (Uno, nessuno e centomila), of 1926, to reflect upon the recent past, current status, and possible future appearance of economics. From an open/closed system perspective, the paper explores economics in relation to other social science disciplines in the epoch of economics imperialism (“One”), and then the potential identity crisis (similar to the one experienced by the novel’s protagonist) occurring to economics during a prolonged phase of reverse imperialisms by other social sciences (“No one”). Finally, the article provides elements to imagine a possible future of pluralism (“One Hundred Thousand”) for the discipline.
    Date: 2022–09
  2. By: Motadel, David; Drayton, Richard
    Abstract: Since the rise of a “scientific” historiography in the nineteenth century, the role of ideas in history versus that of material forces has been a key philosophical problem. Thomas Piketty's Capital and Ideology (2019), read as a work of global history, offers a provocative rehearsal of this question. On the one hand, the book is an attempt to provide a narrative historical frame for the hard data of the World Inequality Database. On the other, paradoxically, it offers a defiant conclusion that ideology is, or at least could be, the key driver in social and institutional change towards universal progress. St Simon, Comte and Spencer have found their twenty‐first century heir. How can we historicize Piketty's impetus, both understanding its provenance and making sense of its limitations? One key issue is its roots in the traditions of National Accounts, which leads to an approach to the global which is stresses comparison over connection, and to an uncritical reproduction of the portrait of an egalitarian non‐capitalist Twentieth century painted by Kuznets during the Cold War. Another is its presentism, with the historical argument driven by an attempt to understand the c.1980–2020 conjuncture and its alternatives, and a connected overdependence on the support of a few historians. A third, a consequence in part of the inequalities between the quality of data we have for different parts of the world, and of Piketty's provenance and imagined audience, is a Eurocentric, even Gallocentric approach. A fourth is a very French republican refusal to address how class is complicated by identities of race and nation so that neither egalitarian policies nor ideologies provide remedies for the populist politics of right. None of these criticisms are in contradiction with our view that Capital and Ideology is a work of social theory of world historical importance.
    Keywords: economic history; global history; inequality; intellectual history; social history
    JEL: N0
    Date: 2021
  3. By: Mohajan, Haradhan
    Abstract: This paper tries to analyze the origin and progress of global feminism. Feminism is a mass movement commenced by women of all groups to eradicate all forms of feminist oppressions by men that are prevailing in a patriarchal society. It always fights against all types of oppressions on women. It is a procedure that takes attempts to understand and conceptualize gender roles and advocates for the annexation of women‟s interests in social organization. It tries to explain the phenomenon of gender inequality. It is considered as a politics to achieve gender equality in all spheres of the society. Feminists support of ensuring equal individual rights and liberties for women and men. This study takes attempts to discuss a comprehensive understanding of feminism, and the different variants of feminism. This paper also tries to highlight the major challenges that the feminists are facing and the future goals of the feminist movement should be.
    Keywords: Feminism, female movement, patriarchy, exploitation, gender liberation
    JEL: A2 B41 D1 D64 I3 P2
    Date: 2022–06–20
  4. By: Henrekson, Magnus (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN)); Johansson, Dan (Örebro University School of Business); Karlsson, Johan (Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO))
    Abstract: Based on a review of 700+ peer-reviewed articles since 1990, identified using text mining methodology and supervised machine learning, we analyze how neo-Schumpeterian growth theorists relate to the entrepreneur-centered view of Schumpeter (1934) and the entrepreneurless framework of Schumpeter (1942). The literature leans heavily towards Schumpeter (1942); innovation returns are modeled as following an ex ante known probability distribution. By assuming that innovation outcomes are (probabilistically) deterministic, the entrepreneur becomes redundant. Abstracting from genuine uncertainty implies that central issues regarding the economic function of the entrepreneur are overlooked, such as the roles of proprietary resources, skills, and profits.
    Keywords: Creative destruction; Economic growth; Entrepreneur; Innovation; Judgment; Knightian uncertainty
    JEL: B40 O10 O30
    Date: 2022–10–01
  5. By: Yoshihara, Naoki; Kwak, Se Ho
    Abstract: In contrast to Mandler’s (1999a; Theorem 6) generic determinacy of the steady-state equilibrium, we first show that any regular Sraffian steady-state equilibrium is indeterminate in terms of Sraffa (1960) under a simple overlapping generation economy with a fixed Leontief technique. We also check that this indeterminacy is generic. These results are obtained by explicitly introducing a simple model of every generation’s utility function and individual optimization program to the overlapping generation economy, which also explains the main source of the difference between our results and Mandler (1999a; section 6). We also argue the distinctiveness of our results in comparison with the standard literature, like Calvo (1978), of overlapping generations indeterminacy.
    Keywords: Sraffian indeterminacy, factor income distribution, general equilibrium framework
    JEL: B51 D33 D50
    Date: 2022–09
  6. By: Yoshihara, Naoki; Veneziani, Roberto
    Abstract: We study the general equilibrium effects of localised technical progress à la Atkinson-Stiglitz on income distribution in economies in which capital is a vector of reproducible and heterogeneous goods. We show that there is no obvious relation between ex-ante profitable innovations and the income distribution that actually emerges in equilibrium. Unlike in the standard macroeconomic literature, localised technical progress may lead to indeterminacy in equilibrium factor prices, and individually rational choices of technique do not necessarily lead to optimal outcomes. Innovations may even cause the disappearance of all equilibria.
    Keywords: localised technical progress, income distribution, equilibrium framework
    JEL: O33 D33 D51
    Date: 2022–09
  7. By: Cahen-Fourot, Louison
    Abstract: First, I update and wrap up the discussion on a monetary growth imperative, namely the argument that debt-money bearing interest triggers real GDP growth. I provide a detailed account of the different versions of the argument and show why none of them hold. In all cases, the argument is shown to be inconsistent in macro-accounting terms or to be at odds with the functioning of the monetary system. The general solution to the monetary growth imperative is that a sufficient share of wealth must be put back in circulation, for example via higher consumption out of wealth or taxation. Moreover, I show that a monetary growth imperative could equally well occur in an economy without debt-money or interest. However, the solution to the monetary growth imperative entails a sustainability paradox: more wealth put back in circulation allows to reach a stable full stationary state but may be environmentally unsustainable. I also highlight convergences between the critique of the monetary growth imperative and the monetary circuit literature. Second, I address the criticism that no net wealth accumulation is unrealistic. It requires to explain why there is accumulation in the first place. Building from post-Keynesian and institutionalist perspectives, I argue that we need to locate the analysis at the level of the definitional social relations of capitalism: market exchange and wage labour. Growth imperatives are emerging properties of these two social relations. I develop a critique of steadystate economics and underline the ontological difference between a zero-growth capitalism and a post-growth economy.
    Keywords: growth imperative,capitalism,paradox of profit,ecological macroeconomics,post-growth
    JEL: E21 E24 E43 B52 P1
    Date: 2022
  8. By: Giulio Guarini; Jose Luis Oreiro
    Abstract: The article aims to analyze the ecological transition and the structural change by considering the role of Medium-Income Trap (MIT) with respect to exchange rate overvaluation and (re)industrialization, according to the structuralist-New Developmentalist Approach. The ecological challenges can be faced by an ecological transition based on Ecological Technological Progress and Ecological Structural Change (ESC). The ESC can be represented by the increase of the share of green activities in output for increasing the environmental efficiency of the economy. The theoretical core of the new developmentalism is the tendency of overvaluation of real exchange rate for middle income countries whose sources are the Dutch disease (and the growth with external saving strategy). This fact generates the MIT concerning the negative impact of overvaluation real exchange rate on the industrial development. Thus, we analyze how the ESC interact with the drivers of overvaluation exchange rate by carrying out a post-Keynesian model based the Structuralist-New Developmentalist features. In this perspective, we integrate the issue of the achievement of the environmental targets as indicated by the Climate International Conferences and by the UN initiative of the Sustainable Developments Goals, to the structural change necessary for the economic catching-up of the middle income (and/or developing) countries.
    Keywords: Ecological Transition, Structural Change, Dutch-Disease, New-Developmentalism
    JEL: O11 O14 Q56 Q57
    Date: 2022–10
  9. By: Engelbert Stockhammer; Andre Novas Otero
    Abstract: Southern European countries are widely considered a distinct type of capitalism, but they have experienced a varied growth performance, both over time and across countries. This paper investigates the growth drivers in southern Europe since the mid-1990s. We consider a broad set of potential growth drivers derived from the literature on Mediterranean capitalism and Comparative Political Economy more broadly. On the demand side these include the role of house prices (as the main financial variable; highlighted in parts of the growth models approach); the ‘financial curse’ hypothesis (which posits that financial inflows caused house price booms and crowded out manufacturing activities); and Keynesian arguments on the impact of fiscal policy. On the supply side, these encompass the cost competitiveness argument (consistent with mainstream economics and the Varieties of Capitalism approach), research-led technological change; and neo-structuralist arguments regarding the productive capacity. We find strong evidence for the growth contributions of house prices and fiscal policy. While these findings are generally supportive of extant analysis of these economies as finance-led rather than export-led, they call for a more serious integration of house prices in growth model analysis and for a more systematic analysis of the growth impact of fiscal policy.
    Keywords: Comparative Political Economy, growth models, growth drivers, southern Europe, house price cycles, fiscal policy
    JEL: B20 B50 E12 O43 P51
    Date: 2022–10
  10. By: Serge Benest (CSO - Centre de sociologie des organisations (Sciences Po, CNRS) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Universitat de Barcelona, Department of Economic History, Institutions, Politics and World Economy)
    Abstract: Following World War II, the director of the social sciences division at the Rockefeller Foundation, the industrial economist Joseph H. Willits, thought it important to extend its activities to Europe, especially France. His agenda was to strengthen institutional economics and to create modern research centers with a view to stabilizing the political situation. In the postwar decade, almost all economic research centers in France were funded by the Foundation, which helped provide greater autonomy to French economists within academia but failed to reshape French economic training and research.
    Date: 2022–06–27
  11. By: Hinton, Jennifer B.
    Abstract: This article seeks to unpack how the generation of profit impacts social and ecological sustainability. It begins by framing profit as not necessarily sustainable or exploitative. Social and ecological inputs and impacts are necessary for economic processes and when social and ecological stakeholders are not compensated for their contributions to the process, they can be considered unpaid inputs and, thus, sources of profit. This often overlaps with exploitation of stakeholders, which occurs when one party financially benefits at the expense of another party. The paper examines how profit is generated by several common types of profit-seeking strategies. In doing so, a conceptual framework is developed that clarifies how profit-seeking strategies generate profit from four basic sources: efficiency gains; willing and informed contributions from social stakeholders; exploitation of social stakeholders; and exploitation of nature. The fact that there are a bounded number of sources of benign profit (and that there are limits to those sources) indicates that there are limits to profit. It also indicates that much of the profit generated today comes at the expense of people and nature, which helps explain the global sustainability crisis. This reveals some inherent perils of a profit-driven economy and implies that businesses in a sustainable economy should not pursue profit as an end. Thus, the paper adds clarity to the social and ecological sources and limits of profit. It also gives guidance for how profit should be treated in a sustainable economy.
    Keywords: Profit,Sustainable economy,Sustainable business,Tradeoffs,Exploitation,Value creation
    Date: 2022
  12. By: Hinton, Jennifer B.; Cornell, Sarah E.
    Abstract: This paper examines the implications of the argument that sustainable businesses should see profit as a means, not an end. It develops a heuristic conceptual framework that identifies two main ways in which a business can treat profit as an end: first, through voluntary objectives; and secondly, through private financial rights. To illustrate the usefulness of this framework, these indicators are applied to examine a range of theoretical approaches, incorporation structures, and third-party certifications that have been developed with the aim of making business sustainable. The application of the framework reveals inconsistencies, ambiguities, and shortfalls of these approaches in their treatment of profit, and outlines ways to advance the theory and practice of sustainable business.
    Keywords: Sustainable business,Social enterprise,Sustainable economy,Ecological economics,Degrowth
    Date: 2022
  13. By: Adam Fforde (University of Melbourne)
    Abstract: This paper discusses possible conceptual foundations of formal models of endogenous change processes, understood here as movements between market and non-market transactions at the level of the national economy. It links but does not merge movements of resources with shifts in the pattern of transaction types. In focussing on transaction types, it deploys insights from Commons, Coase, and Godelier, to discuss how framing transaction types as the fundamental 'thing to be explained' points to the value of choices about how activity may best be organised, which requires a general concept, which can be found in Commons' 'going concern', applicable to transactions focussing on markets or not. It entails the possibility of institutional change and shifts in the location of economic resources without formal policy change. It suggests that the main requirement for such change processes are dualistic incentive patterns that operate upon institutional choice and/or development, which derive at root from experienced contrasts between the realities of existing and normatively privileged systems, and others, normatively initially deemed inferior, that offer key actors greater economic efficiency. Moves of institutional activity from one to the other are thus conceptually processes of endogenous systemic change. System in this sense is thus viewed as a coexistence of alternatives. The motivation comes directly from consideration of two very different historical moments: endogenously driven shifts 'from plan to market' in countries attempting central planning, and contemporary pressures in market economies from areas of the economy, such as services, where joint production and/or own consumption imply irremediable market failure and so non-market based economic institutions offer greater economic efficiency and may therefore attract both resources (factors of production) and investment in development of suitable transactions and their organisation.
    Keywords: transition,modelling,structural change,transaction type,Commons' Going Concerns,market failure
    Date: 2022
  14. By: Simpson, Cohen R.
    Abstract: Evolutionary studies of cooperation in traditional human societies suggest that helping family and responding in kind when helped are the primary mechanisms for informally distributing resources vital to day-to-day survival (e.g., food, knowledge, money, childcare). However, these studies generally rely on forms of regression analysis that disregard complex interdependences between aid, resulting in the implicit assumption that kinship and reciprocity drive the emergence of entire networks of supportive social bonds. Here I evaluate this assumption using individual-oriented simulations of network formation (i.e., Stochastic Actor-Oriented Models). Specifically, I test standard predictions of cooperation derived from the evolutionary theories of kin selection and reciprocal altruism alongside well-established sociological predictions around the self-organisation of asymmetric relationships. Simulations are calibrated to exceptional public data on genetic relatedness and the provision of tangible aid amongst all 108 adult residents of a village of indigenous horticulturalists in Nicaragua (11,556 ordered dyads). Results indicate that relatedness and reciprocity are markedly less important to whom one helps compared to the supra-dyadic arrangement of the tangible aid network itself.
    Keywords: British Academy Postdoctoral Fellowship (Grant Number: pf170158)
    JEL: C1
    Date: 2022–09–15
  15. By: Hyman, Richard
    Abstract: In this paper, I offer a reading of the European context in the third decade of the twenty-first century. I discuss, first, how far ‘varieties of capitalism’ persist, and the implications of changes in industrial relations regimes for trade unions. Second, I consider some of the ambiguities of EU regulation. Is ‘Social Europe’ (still) a bulwark against market liberalisation? Third, I draw on Polanyi to examine the rise of precarious work situations, including the emergence of the ‘platform economy’. Fourth, I comment on the impact of Covid-19 and the climate crisis, before some brief final remarks about trade union responses.
    Keywords: Covid-19 and climate crisis; industrial relations; platform economy; precarious work; social Europe; Trade Unions; varieties of capitalism
    JEL: J50
    Date: 2022–07–22
  16. By: Estrella Gomez-Herrera; Sabine Köszegi
    Abstract: How do gender stereotypes and gendered work segregation, and digitalisation and automation, result in a vicious cycle of digital gender inequality?
    Date: 2022–08
  17. By: Massie, Natanael Waraney Gerald; Mangunsong, Carlos
    Abstract: This study aims to characterise and represent the Indonesian manufacturing sector as a production network. We specifically define any relationship between any two products in the network as a relationship that one product is used as input to produce the other, akin to the input-output models but in a much-disaggregated level of 10-digit product level. This study utilises the Indonesian annual survey of manufacturing firms, specifically the 2017 data, to construct a product-level network of industries. Using the constructed network, this study discusses which products and sectors in the Indonesian manufacturing sector are more well-connected to others, using different centrality measures commonly discussed in network theory. We find that, generally, low-to-medium technology products are the more central products in Indonesian manufacturing. We also compare our framework with other well-established product network frameworks and discuss possible further works using our framework.
    Keywords: Product network; manufacturing sector; Indonesia
    JEL: L1 L14 L6 O14
    Date: 2022–08–05
  18. By: Kocabicak, Ece
    Abstract: This article extends theories on varieties of gender regimes by arguing for the significance of property. Drawing on the case study of Turkey, it proposes that gendered property ownership diversifies patriarchal relations of labor. This historical-sociology-based case study method is used to differentiate two forms of domestic patriarchy: premodern and modern. In premodern domestic patriarchy, women’s exclusion from agricultural landownership, in conjunction with the dominance of small landownership, sustains the patriarchal exploitation of labor in agriculture. In modern domestic patriarchy, women’s exclusion from paid employment, along with dispossession and increasing wage dependency, maintains the patriarchal exploitation of labor within the home.
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2022–09–15
  19. By: Wise, Emily (CIRCLE, Lund University); Arnold, Erik (University of Manchester)
    Abstract: The last decade’s rise of the so-called “third frame” (or third generation) of Transformative Innovation Policies (TIP) has shifted focus of research and innovation investments from economic growth and competitiveness to also tackling societal challenges and generating broader environmental and societal impact. The evolution in rationale and aims for policy action also implies a need to adapt and evolve evaluative strategies and practices. As policymakers begin to develop new transformative innovation programmes, a key question arises as to how monitoring, evaluation and learning practices (currently framed around 1st and 2nd generation innovation policies) can be adapted in order to meet 3rd generation innovation policy needs? In shaping a response, one can learn from both theory and practice. This brief (produced within the GReaTr initiative ) aims to provide a synthesis of what recent academic research tells us about evaluating transformation, leveraging a set of 11 seminal articles (and other complementary literature) to answer four questions: For whom and why? What to evaluate? How to evaluate? What unit of analysis? The synthesis points to a relative consensus in the academic literature on the main purposes and uses, the recommended principles and approaches, as well as possibilities for delineating and dealing with multiple scopes and units of analysis in evaluating transformation – yet highlights different conceptual framings of system change. The summary provides inputs to planning an evaluative strategy for TIP and highlights the need to consider new questions related to approaches to reporting across funding agencies, and more active roles for funding and policymaking agencies in dialogues about strategic direction and prioritisation of investments.
    Keywords: Innovation policy; Evaluation; System evaluation; Transformation; Socio-technical transitions
    JEL: O32 O38
    Date: 2022–10–04
  20. By: Viktor Zinchenko (Institute of Higher Education of the National Academy of Educational Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv-city, Ukraine); Mykhailo Boichenko
    Abstract: The concept of Buddhist economics is gaining increased appeal in a world where external factors are once again becoming more of a threat than a salvation. Buddhist economy is a return to the values of agricultural production, but taking into account the experience and achievements of the industrial and post-industrial economy. Care for the environment, personal development, community development, especially spiritual development – these are the priorities of the Buddhist economy. In particular, agricultural production appears as only the most convenient means for achieving these goals. However, Buddhist economics is not a rejection of the achievements of modern and postmodern society – it is an attempt to use these experiences and achievements for a more intelligent and effective implementation of the goals of the economy, which were defined by Aristotle. The rational model of economic management according to these views consists in thrifty but full consumption and restrained production with environmentally friendly aims.
    Keywords: Buddhist economics,optimal consumption,personal development,economic rationality
    Date: 2022–08–24
  21. By: Faudot, Adrien; Marinova, Tsvetelina; Nenovsky, Nikolay
    Abstract: Today's fragmentation of the world economy, the emergence in the near future of large economic blocs operating in different ideological and conceptual models of economy and society, and the fierce struggle for resources and influence, logically lead us turn to history, including the recent one. The issue of the functioning and collapse of the socialist monetary community has another, more specific but also topical meaning. It has to do with understanding the mechanisms of disintegration of the European Union and the euro area, its management and eventual overcoming. In this paper, we focus on the study of monetary mechanisms within the socialist system, and more specifically on its model of integration, the Comecon, which lasted from 1949 to 1991. In the first part we present the basic principles of socialist integration and the role of international socialist money. In the second part we present the main stages in the evolution of the monetary mechanisms of Comecon. The third part is devoted to some technical problems of multilateral payments and the peculiarities of the transfer ruble. Finally, we try to compare with European Payment Union. We present some competing hypotheses, answering the question why the monetary system of Comecon failed.
    Keywords: socialist integration, Comecon, transferable ruble, European Payment Union, Soviet Union, commodity-money relations, multilateral clearing
    JEL: E42 F15 F45 N14 N24 P30
    Date: 2022–07–20
  22. By: Jibang Wu; Weiran Shen; Fei Fang; Haifeng Xu
    Abstract: Optimizing strategic decisions (a.k.a. computing equilibrium) is key to the success of many non-cooperative multi-agent applications. However, in many real-world situations, we may face the exact opposite of this game-theoretic problem -- instead of prescribing equilibrium of a given game, we may directly observe the agents' equilibrium behaviors but want to infer the underlying parameters of an unknown game. This research question, also known as inverse game theory, has been studied in multiple recent works in the context of Stackelberg games. Unfortunately, existing works exhibit quite negative results, showing statistical hardness and computational hardness, assuming follower's perfectly rational behaviors. Our work relaxes the perfect rationality agent assumption to the classic quantal response model, a more realistic behavior model of bounded rationality. Interestingly, we show that the smooth property brought by such bounded rationality model actually leads to provably more efficient learning of the follower utility parameters in general Stackelberg games. Systematic empirical experiments on synthesized games confirm our theoretical results and further suggest its robustness beyond the strict quantal response model.
    Date: 2022–10
  23. By: Véronique Csanyi-Virag (MRM - Montpellier Research in Management - UPVM - Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3 - UPVD - Université de Perpignan Via Domitia - Groupe Sup de Co Montpellier (GSCM) - Montpellier Business School - UM - Université de Montpellier, UM - Université de Montpellier); Marion Polge (UM - Université de Montpellier, MRM - Montpellier Research in Management - UPVM - Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3 - UPVD - Université de Perpignan Via Domitia - Groupe Sup de Co Montpellier (GSCM) - Montpellier Business School - UM - Université de Montpellier)
    Abstract: The concept of diversity, often described as a major social stake, it is placed at the heart of various debates. For several years it has been the focus of academic research, notably as diversity policies came into force. Companies face difficulties implementing the new policies into their practices. Diversity is now often linked to inclusion. Inclusion is a complementary extension of diversity. In this paper, we study the links between both concepts. We choose to use the term "inclusive" and explain why in the paper. We also use English keywords linked with the operationalisation of this concept in the workplace within large organisations. Historically, academic studies on diversity took place in fields such as social care, education and social sciences, however, this study focuses on entrepreneurship and dynamic capacities. In this article, we discuss this new form of entrepreneurship inspired by inclusive approaches based on dynamic capacities through this question: what is the role of dynamic capabilities and their contributions to inclusive entrepreneurship? We rely on the first results of an exploratory qualitative study with the managers of adapted companies (translation for Entreprises Adaptées, EA) in the context of disability.
    Abstract: Le concept de diversité, souvent qualifié d'enjeu social et sociétal, est placé au coeur de nombreux débats. La recherche académique s'en empare depuis plusieurs années, car la mise en oeuvre de politiques de diversité rencontre des difficultés d'opérationnalisation au sein des entreprises. Le concept de diversité est aujourd'hui adossé à un autre concept : l'inclusion, qui sous-tend l'idée de prolongement ou de complémentarité à la diversité. Toutefois, nous formulons plusieurs points à l'emploi du concept d'inclusion. Nous choisissons d'abord, la forme adjective de « inclusif » dont on détaillera les principales raisons. Nous nous appuyons sur des travaux anglo-saxons qui ont traités directement de l'opérationnalisation de ce concept en milieu de travail au sein des grandes organisations. Et enfin, nous mobilisons ce concept inclusif, historiquement traité dans le médico-social, l'éducation, les sciences sociales, dans le champ de l'entrepreneuriat en étudiant spécifiquement les capacités dynamiques. Dans cet article nous nous interrogeons sur cet entrepreneuriat qui se renouvelle par une démarche inclusive en s'appuyant sur les capacités dynamiques. Quel est le rôle des capacités dynamiques et leurs contributions à l'entrepreneuriat inclusif ? Nous nous appuyons sur des premiers résultats obtenus dans l'étude qualitative exploratoire menée auprès des dirigeants des entreprises adaptées (EA) en contexte précis de handicap.
    Keywords: Inclusive,Disability,Entrepreneurship,Dynamic capabilities,Diversity,Diversité,Inclusif,Handicap,Entrepreneuriat,Management,Capacités dynamiques
    Date: 2021–01–01
  24. By: Baland,Jean-Marie; Cassan,Guilhem; Decerf,Benoit Marie A
    Abstract: Poverty and mortality are arguably the two major sources of loss of well-being. Most mainstreammeasures of human development capturing these two dimensions aggregate them in an ad-hoc and controversial way. Thispaper develops a new index aggregating the poverty and the mortality observed in a given period in a consistent way. Itis called the poverty-adjusted life expectancy index. This index is based on a single normative parameter thattransparently captures the trade-off between well-being losses from being poor or from being dead. The paper firstshows that the poverty-adjusted life expectancy index follows naturally from an expected life-cycle utilityapproach a la Harsanyi. The paper then proceeds to empirical comparisons between countries and across time and focuses onsituations in which poverty and mortality provide conflicting evaluations. Once it is assumed that being pooris (at least weakly) preferable to being dead, the analysis finds that about a third of these conflicting comparisonscan be unambiguously ranked by the poverty-adjusted life expectancy index. Finally, the paper shows that this indexnaturally defines a new and simple index of multidimensional poverty, the expected deprivation index.
    Date: 2022–07–29

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