nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2022‒09‒19
twenty papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. "We need to offer something better to the scholars of the future": Some thoughts on the "Hodgson debate" By Heise, Arne
  2. Sheila Dow's Open Systems By Davis, John B.
  3. Проблема потребительского рыночного спроса в экономической теории и её разрешение: методология, теория, верификация By Gorbunov, Vladimir
  4. A simple learning agent interacting with an agent-based market model By Matthew Dicks; Tim Gebbie
  5. Agent-Based Models for Climate Change Adaptation in Coastal Zones. A Review By Jlenia Di Noia
  6. Racial platform capitalism: empire, migration and the making of Uber in London By Gebrial, Dalia
  7. The economies of sexuality By Jean Finez; Pierre Brasseur
  8. Caring in times of COVID-19: A global study on the impact of the pandemic on care work and gender equality By -
  9. Recentring the margins: theorizing African capitalism after 50 years By Breckenridge, Keith; James, Deborah
  10. Public and dynamic action of cooperatives in Morocco By Khalid Didi; Hicham Attouch
  11. The Interactions of Social Norms about Climate Change: Science, Institutions and Economics By Antonio Cabrales; Manu Garc\'ia; David Ramos Mu\~noz; Angel S\'anchez
  12. Green & non-green relatedness: challenges and diversification opportunities for regional economies in Argentina By Belmartino, Andrea
  13. Time is limited on the road to asymptopia By Ivonne Schwartz; Mark Kirstein
  14. Motivate the crowd or crowd-them out? The impact of local government spending on the voluntary provision of a green public good By Lara Bartels; Martin Kesternich
  15. What is wellbeing for rural South African women? Textual analysis of focus group discussion transcripts and implications for programme design and evaluation By Ferrari, Giulia
  16. The evolution of new forms of work in Moroccan companies following the application of the new labor code, statistical analysis of trends between 2009 and 2015 By Younes El Ansari
  17. Patronage and power in rural India: a study based on interaction networks By Anindya Bhattacharya; Anirban Kar; Sunil Kumar; Alita Nandi
  18. Disposition Effect and its outcome on endogenous price fluctuations By Cafferata, Alessia; Tramontana, Fabio
  19. The rise and fall of social housing? Housing decommodification in long-run perspective By Kholodilin, Konstantin A.; Kohl, Sebastian; Müller, Florian
  20. Deudas, cuidados y vulnerabilidad: el caso de las mujeres de hogares de clases populares en la Argentina By Partenio, Florencia

  1. By: Heise, Arne
    Abstract: After the global financial crisis, hopes were high that there would be a pluralisation of the economics discipline and a boost for heterodox economics that challenged dominant economic models. However, mainstream economics once again proved its enormous resilience and the future of alternatives to this mainstream is anything but certain. Geoffrey Hodgson's new book on this issue has sparked fresh discussions about the stunted development of heterodox economics and proposals for possible ways forward. This article will argue that the crucial factor for the future of heterodox economics is not converging on a single unified paradigm or raising the quality of research, but rather gaining access to different kinds of capital, first and foremost professorial positions at universities. Such access is severely restricted under present conditions as a result of epistemological and ontological discrimination. Heterodox economics can only flourish if the epistemic community of economists embraces paradigmatic pluralism as part of their academic culture, or if regulations are put in place to secure access to such capital and so to academic freedom.
    Keywords: heterodox economics,pluralism,orthodox economics
    JEL: B50 B51 B52
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Davis, John B. (Department of Economics Marquette University)
    Abstract: This paper reviews Sheila Dow’s contributions to open systems thinking as a form of methodological argument and as an important foundation for pluralism in economics. It reviews the origins of her thinking in connection with her distinction between Cartesian/Euclidian and Babylonian thinking in the history of economics, discusses the further development of her views regarding open and closed systems in her 2002 Economic Methodology book and in connection with her ‘structured pluralism’ concept, discusses the 2005 paper co-authored with Victoria Chick, “The Meaning of Open Systems.†examines Dow’s and Chick’s view and critique of critical realism in regard to the relationship between models and theorizing and uses Piero Sraffa’s 1930s the open-closed distinction to provide a similar understanding of such boundaries and the relationship between models and theorizing, and finally comments on Dow’s contribution to openclosed systems thinking and pluralism in economics.
    Keywords: open systems, Babylonian, Euclidian, structured pluralism, critical realism, Samuels, Sraffa
    JEL: B41 B50
    Date: 2022–08
  3. By: Gorbunov, Vladimir
    Abstract: The problem of multi-product consumer demand in modern neoclassical economic theory is that this theory contains a formal normative mathematical theory of individual demand, but does not contain a positive theory of market demand– an object of real interest for economists-practitioners and governments. The consequence of this failure is the lack of a positive theory of value / price, based on the theory of economic equilibrium, and reasonable methods for analysing market demand, in particular, the calculation of economic (analytical) demand indices reflecting consumer preferences of the population. The demand problem is analysed substantively and formally within the framework of general scientific methodology. It is shown that Deaton's "aggregation over consumers" condition, introduced in Stone's heuristic analysis of market demand, is superfluous. The paper presents basics of the author’s scientific holistic theory of market demand, based on the rejection of the unrealistic theory of the individual maximizing his (ordinal) utility function, and the non-parametric method of its verification, within the framework of which analytical indexes of prices and quantities of consumption of market demand are being built. Recent articles confirming the work of the theory on real, high-dimensional data are point-ed out.
    Keywords: Economics crisis; market demand; methodological individualism; heterodox Economics, scientific methodology; verification; economic indexes
    JEL: B41 B50 C43 D11
    Date: 2022–08–19
  4. By: Matthew Dicks; Tim Gebbie
    Abstract: We consider the learning dynamics of a single reinforcement learning optimal execution trading agent when it interacts with an event driven agent-based financial market model. Trading takes place asynchronously through a matching engine in event time. The optimal execution agent is considered at different levels of initial order-sizes and differently sized state spaces. The resulting impact on the agent-based model and market are considered using a calibration approach that explores changes in the empirical stylised facts and price impact curves. Convergence, volume trajectory and action trace plots are used to visualise the learning dynamics. This demonstrates how an optimal execution agent learns optimal trading decisions inside a simulated reactive market framework and how this in turn generates a back-reaction that changes the simulated market through the introduction of strategic order-splitting.
    Date: 2022–08
  5. By: Jlenia Di Noia (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei)
    Abstract: Worldwide, with different frequencies and magnitudes, coastlines are increasingly being affected by climate change hazards. The high urbanization rate, due to economic opportunities and natural amenities, further exacerbates vulnerabilities in these areas, requiring prompt and effective adaptation to climate induced events –from gradual sea level rise to abrupt storms and floods. The ability of different actors (households, firms, financial entities and Government) to cope with such events can be addressed and studied through the use of agent-based models, which allow for an heterogeneous treatment of agents’ behaviour, from individual risk perceptions’ modelling to decision-making rules on the adaptation option to be put into practice (whether related to coastal management or to coastal defense). Since the natural system needs to be considered together with the socio-economic human system, if we are willing to enhance sustainable practices, integrated-assessment models can be used as a tool to account for these interrelated complexities. A comprehensive review on integrated-assessment agentbased models on climate change adaptation in coastal zones, thus, is here provided to investigate the current state of the art.
    Keywords: Agent-based models, Integrated-assessment models, Review, Climate change, Adaptation, Coastal zones
    JEL: C63 Q01 Q26 Q54
    Date: 2022–08
  6. By: Gebrial, Dalia
    Abstract: The critical platform studies literature has built a compelling picture of how techniques like worker (mis)classification, algorithmic management and workforce atomisation lie at the heart of how ‘work on-demand via apps’ actively restructure labour. Much of this emerging scholarship identifies that platform workforces are predominantly comprised of migrant and racially minoritised workers. However, few studies theorise migration and race as structuring logics of the platform model and the precarity it engenders. This paper addresses this gap by exploring how the platform economy – specifically work on-demand via apps – both shapes and is shaped by historically contingent contexts of racialisation, and their constitutive processes such as embodiment and immigration policy/rhetoric. Beyond identifying the over-representation of racial minorities in the platform economy, it argues that processes of racialisation have been crucial at every stage of the platform economy's rise to dominance, and therefore constitutes a key organising principle of platform capitalism – hence the term ‘racial platform capitalism’. In doing so, this paper draws on the racial capitalism literature, to situate key platform techniques such as worker (mis)classification and algorithmic management as forms of racial practice, deployed to (re-)organise surplus urban labour-power following the 2008 financial crisis. This framework will be explored through an ethnographic study of Uber's rise in London. Through this, the paper demonstrates a co-constitutive relationship, where the conditions of minoritised workers in a global city like London post-2008, and the political economy of platform companies can be said to have co-produced one another.
    Keywords: Racial capitalism; migration; platform labour; precarity; urbanism; Sage deal
    JEL: R14 J01 J1
    Date: 2022–08–01
  7. By: Jean Finez (PACTE - Pacte, Laboratoire de sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - IEPG - Sciences Po Grenoble - Institut d'études politiques de Grenoble - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Pierre Brasseur (PACTE - Pacte, Laboratoire de sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - IEPG - Sciences Po Grenoble - Institut d'études politiques de Grenoble - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes)
    Abstract: Studying sexuality from a socio-economic perspective is difficult, which is probably why it is not so common. Politically and morally contested, as well as invisibility, activities related to sexuality are problematic. It is not easy to see them as legitimate economic activities, even from a scientific point of view. It is, therefore, necessary to fully consider the articulation between sexuality and the economy, going beyond the traditional antagonisms between these 'hostile worlds'. Studying the socio-economic dimension of sexual activities is all the more beneficial as it generally occupies a marginal place in social science research on sexuality. The analysis of sexual activities in exchange for compensation thus benefits from the contributions of (new) economic sociology and, more specifically, from the market literature. Human sexuality is part of social structures that frame practices, representations, and a set of affective and sentimental commitments. Favouring a socio-economic approach to sexuality makes it possible to challenge an individual's vision floating in social space and propose an alternative, more 'realistic' framework of interpretation. This RFSE dossier includes four research articles based on original empirical investigations. It also includes a research note and synthesis on the interest of economic sociology in the study of sexuality and a debate and controversy on the theme of the 'digital economies of sexuality. The dossier ends with an interview. The questions posed by the contributors to this issue, most of whom come from disciplinary traditions other than socio-economics, shed new light on classic themes such as work, money, the market and organisation and reveal some unthought. Their reflections contribute to lifting sexuality out of its exceptionality. The introduction is organised into three sections. The categories of 'work', 'money and market' and 'organisation' are successively mobilised to question the contributions and limits of social science research on sexuality and to show how the articles in this issue enrich the debate on the economies of sexuality.
    Abstract: Étudier la sexualité sous l'angle socio-économique est une démarche difficile, et c'est sans doute ce qui explique qu'elle n'est pas si courante. Politiquement et moralement contestées, mais aussi invisibilisées, les activités ayant trait à la sexualité posent problème. Elles peinent à être considérées comme des activités économiques légitimes, y compris d'un point de vue scientifique. Il convient dès lors de penser pleinement l'articulation entre sexualité et économie, en dépassant les antagonismes traditionnels entre ces « mondes hostiles ». Étudier la dimension socio-économique des activités sexuelles est d'autant plus utile que celle-ci occupe généralement une place marginale dans les travaux en sciences sociales sur la sexualité. L'analyse des activités sexuelles contre compensation gagne ainsi à s'enrichir des apports de la (nouvelle) sociologie économique, et plus spécifiquement de la littérature sur les marchés. La sexualité humaine s'inscrit dans des structures sociales qui cadrent les pratiques et les représentations et dans un ensemble d'engagements affectifs et sentimentaux. Privilégier une entrée socio-économique de la sexualité permet de contester la vision d'un individu flottant dans l'espace social et de proposer un cadre d'interprétation alternatif plus « réaliste ». Ce dossier de la RFSE comporte quatre articles de recherche rédigés à partir d'enquêtes empiriques originales. Il comporte aussi une note et synthèse de recherche portant sur l'intérêt de la sociologie économique pour l'étude de la sexualité et un débat et controverse sur la thématique des « économies numériques de la sexualité ». Le dossier se clôt enfin par un entretien. Les questionnements des contributeurs et contributrices de ce numéro, issus majoritairement d'autres traditions disciplinaires que la socioéconomie, éclairent sous un nouveau jour des thèmes classiques comme le travail, l'argent, le marché et l'organisation, et en révèlent certains impensés. Ils contribuent par leurs réflexions à sortir la sexualité de son exceptionnalité. L'introduction est organisée en trois sections. Les catégories « travail », « argent et marché » et « organisation » sont successivement mobilisées pour questionner les apports et limites des recherches en sciences sociales sur la sexualité et montrer en quoi les articles réunis dans ce numéro enrichissent le débat sur les économies de la sexualité.
    Keywords: Sexuality,Socio-economic,Work,Sex work,Pornography,Political aspects,21st century
    Date: 2020–11–24
  8. By: -
    Abstract: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, and the response to it, have brought to light the importance of care for the sustainability of life, and the central role that care plays in the functioning of our economies and societies. The pandemic has exacerbated existing care needs, transformed conditions of paid and unpaid care work and, ultimately, increased the volume of women’s unpaid care work, deepening the associated gender gaps. This study brings together evidence from across the globe on how the pandemic has impacted women’s unpaid care work, as well as exploring measures implemented by governments and the degree to which these mainstream a gender perspective. As the pandemic moves into its third year, these different experiences point to an opportunity to incorporate unpaid work and gender into recovery efforts, highlighting the care sector as an important driving force for building back better with more equality.
    Date: 2022–08–01
  9. By: Breckenridge, Keith; James, Deborah
    Abstract: This introduction to our special issue addresses scholars’ failure, in recent times, to consider and analyse the forms of capitalism that have developed on the African continent. To redress the balance, it takes up the study of economic arrangements on the continent—property, infrastructure, debt, financialisation, regulation—as well as exploring the history and politics of the scholarly field of African economics as an intellectual and institutional project. In the process it considers the advantages (and drawbacks) of seeing Africa as part of the ‘global south’. Central to the special issue is the question of how to marry an analysis of intimate and smaller-scale economies centred on household, family and (often informal) labour regimes, on the one hand, with a recognition of large-scale processes such as the central banking systems imposed by states, the increasing prevalence of high-tech finance, the emergence of continent-wide regulation, and the influence of multilateral development agencies and the international publication industry, on the other. How, we ask, can the importance of these institutions, so unlike in size and scale, be reckoned without assuming that the bigger and more powerful ones always prevail?
    Keywords: African capitalism; central banks; development; debt; economics; finance; Global South; heterodox; informalisation; publishing; regulation
    JEL: N0 J1
    Date: 2021–02–10
  10. By: Khalid Didi (Université Mohammed V); Hicham Attouch (Université Mohammed V)
    Abstract: In Morocco, the state public action has long been a lever for the promotion of cooperative entrepreneurship and the creation of conducive environment to the development of the Moroccan cooperative sector. As a result, several support and accompaniment measures have been taken by the public authorities to boost the dynamics of this sector. This research work consists of analyzing the impact of state public action on the dynamics of cooperatives in Morocco. Our methodology is based on the mapping of the various programs and sector strategies that have greatly contributed to the dynamics of the cooperative sector. The results of this analysis have enabled to demonstrate the importance of supporting the State in revitalizing cooperatives, by giving it not only demographic performance, but also an entrepreneurial and participatory dynamic in development. On the other hand, several shortcomings have been identified which negatively impact the performance of cooperatives, in particular: the lack of convergence between the various public programs and the limitations of the financial and technical resources dedicated to the proximity support of cooperatives.
    Abstract: Au Maroc, l'action publique de l'État a constitué depuis longtemps un levier pour la promotion de l'entrepreneuriat coopératif et la création d'un environnement propice au développement du secteur coopératif marocain. De ce fait, plusieurs mesures d'appui et d'accompagnement ont été prises par les pouvoirs publics pour booster la dynamique de ce secteur. Ce travail de recherche consiste à analyser l'impact de l'action publique de l'État sur la dynamique des coopératives au Maroc. Notre méthodologie s'est basée sur la cartographie des différents programmes et stratégies sectoriels ayant fortement contribué à la dynamique du secteur coopératif. Les résultats de cette analyse a permis de démontrer l'importance de l'accompagnant de l'Etat dans la redynamisation des coopératives, en lui donnant non seulement une performance démographique, mais aussi une dynamique entrepreneuriale et participative au développement. En revanche plusieurs insuffisances ont été identifiées impactent négativement la performance des coopératives, notamment : le manque de convergence entre les différents programmes publics et les limites des moyens financiers et techniques dédiés à l'appui de proximité des coopératives.
    Keywords: Public action,Cooperative,Social Entrepreneurship,Human Development,Action publique,Coopérative,Entrepreneurial social,Développement humain
    Date: 2021
  11. By: Antonio Cabrales; Manu Garc\'ia; David Ramos Mu\~noz; Angel S\'anchez
    Abstract: We study the evolution of interest about climate change between different actors of the population, and how the interest of those actors affect one another. We first document the evolution individually, and then provide a model of cross influences between them, that we then estimate with a VAR. We find large swings over time of said interest for the general public by creating a Climate Change Index for Europe and the US (CCI) using news media mentions, and little interest among economists (measured by publications in top journals of the discipline). The general interest science journals and policymakers have a more steady interest, although policymakers get interested much later.
    Date: 2022–08
  12. By: Belmartino, Andrea
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the role of relatedness in the development of new green specializations for the Argentinean provinces between 2008-2019. The development of products with environmental benefits (called green products) is considered one step towards a sustainable transition. These products present a growing demand that may provide an opportunity in terms of green development. The empirical strategy draws on the evolutionary economic geography through indices that capture knowledge bases in the region. The aim is to analyze the role of green and non-green relatedness in the development of new green specializations and to identify potential diversification opportunities. Empirical results show that the green economy has an uneven spatial distribution across the country, that remains stable over time. Furthermore, the development of a new green specialization is positively related to the productive knowledge bases present in the region (proxied by relatedness density). Both, green and non-green relatedness are relevant to develop new specializations in green products. Potential diversification opportunities are also in favor of wealthier regions. Finally, the results reveal a path dependence process on the development of new specialization in green products.
    Keywords: Diversificación de la Producción; Economía Regional; Economía Verde; Argentina; 2008-2019;
    Date: 2022–07
  13. By: Ivonne Schwartz; Mark Kirstein
    Abstract: One challenge in the estimation of financial market agent-based models (FABMs) is to infer reliable insights using numerical simulations validated by only a single observed time series. Ergodicity (besides stationarity) is a strong precondition for any estimation, however it has not been systematically explored and is often simply presumed. For finite-sample lengths and limited computational resources empirical estimation always takes place in pre-asymptopia. Thus broken ergodicity must be considered the rule, but it remains largely unclear how to deal with the remaining uncertainty in non-ergodic observables. Here we show how an understanding of the ergodic properties of moment functions can help to improve the estimation of (F)ABMs. We run Monte Carlo experiments and study the convergence behaviour of moment functions of two prototype models. We find infeasibly-long convergence times for most. Choosing an efficient mix of ensemble size and simulated time length guided our estimation and might help in general.
    Date: 2022–08
  14. By: Lara Bartels (University of Kassel); Martin Kesternich (University of Kassel)
    Abstract: Cities are increasingly hold accountable for climate action. By demonstrating their pro-environmentality through own climate-related activities, they not at least aspire to encourage individual climate protection efforts. Based on standard economic theory there is little reason to assume that this is a promising strategy. Financed by taxpayers’ money, cities’ contributions are considered as substitutes that crowd-out private contributions to the same public good. Inspired by research on providing information on reference group behavior, we challenge this argument and conduct a framed-field experiment to analyze the impact of reference group information on the voluntary provision of a green public good. We investigate whether information on previous contributions by fellow citizens or the city affect individual contributions. We do not find statistical evidence that city-level information crowds-out additional individual contributions. A reference to fellow citizens significantly increases the share of contributors as it attracts subjects that are not per-se pro-environmentally oriented.
    Keywords: Voluntary provision of environmental public goods; Social Norms; Crowding-out; Willingness to pay; Framed-field experiment
    JEL: C93 C83 D9 H41 Q54
    Date: 2022
  15. By: Ferrari, Giulia
    Abstract: Policy makers’ ultimate goal is to deliver the highest possible level of population welfare. Economists investigate the effect of socio-economic dimensions on wellbeing using unidimensional measures of life satisfaction or happiness as proxies for welfare. However, social psychologists have shown that wellbeing is a much broader construct and that an intervention may have opposite effects on its components. Unidimensional measures may hide these patterns. Most literature focuses on high-income countries. The growing evidence from low- and middle-income countries also largely relies on standard unidimensional measures. This study tests the validity of this reliance by exploring the wellbeing construct of South African women, quantitatively analysing textual data from focus group discussions to investigate whether unidimensional measures are appropriate in this context. It provides evidence against the indiscriminate use of unidimensional wellbeing measures. Cluster and correspondence analysis of the transcripts show that relevant domains of women’s wellbeing include relations with others, autonomy, and a perception of control over their environment (environmental mastery). Results also reveal that participants have a relational view of themselves, distinct from the individuated view predominant in the US and Europe and the collectivist view found in East Asia. Such relational self-perception modifies study participants’ wellbeing construct in ways that are important for policy implementation and evaluation. For example, women’s autonomy and environmental mastery rely on shared peer-identity to redefine rules and meet challenges. Wellbeing measures for policy evaluation would benefit from incorporating these insights to meaningfully measure progress towards Sustainable Development Goal 3 on ‘good health and wellbeing’ in South Africa and other contexts that exhibit similar concepts of wellbeing.
    JEL: J1
    Date: 2022–07–25
  16. By: Younes El Ansari (Université Mohammed V)
    Abstract: "عقب إصدار المدونة الجديدية للشغل بالمغرب قي سنة 2003، كان من المنتظر تطور الاشكال الجديدية للتعاقد من أجل العمل و التي أسس لها الاطار المرجعي الجديد حيث كان من المنتظر ان تتطور نسبة اللجوء الى عقود الشغل المحددة المدة و التشغيل المؤقت بشكل يحد من اللجوء الى النمط الكلاسيكي للتعاقد و هو العقد الغير المحدد المدة. لقد حلل خبراء علم الاجتماع هاته الظاهرة في دول الشمال و التي تتسم بتطور شكل جديدي من العلاقات التعاقدية في المقاولات و التي يصعب توصيفها بأنها علاقة شغل كلاسيكية بالرغم من ان الاجراء المعنيين بها يعتبرون من الاكثر مردودية و هو ما دفع الاخبراء الى توصيف هته العلاقات الشغلية ب ""المواضع الرمادية للتشغيل"". يتجه هذا العمل للوقوف على تطور طبيعة العلاقات الشغلية بالمقاولة المغربية بين فترة 2009 و 2015 ويخلص في الاخير الى انه ، على عكس المنتظر، تم ترسيخ العقد الغير محدد المدة كالالية الاساسية للتعاقد في المقاولات المغربية في هذه الفترة."
    Abstract: In 2003, a new labour law was promulgated in Morocco, new forms of labour relations were to emerge, resulting in atypical forms of contractualisation to the detriment of the traditional permanent contract (CDI). The emergence of these atypical forms of work, at the frontier of the informal, is what the sociologists of the organizations described as the «grey zone of employment» where workers are highly active despite the fact that their contract managers refer instead to a fixed-term contract. This article analyzes the dynamics of labour relations that have recomposed themselves in a period between two moments 2009 and 2015. the study shows that the new forms of work in Morocco have not experienced the expected evolution notably the Fixed-Term Contracts or the contracts of employment in the form of temporary. On the contrary, we are left with a pattern of consolidation of the Indefinite contract as the predominant form of contractualization.
    Abstract: Depuis la promulgation en 2003 du nouveau code du travail au Maroc, de nouvelles formes de relations de travail devaient émerger engendrant ainsi des formes atypiques de contractualisation au détriment du traditionnel contrat à durée indéterminée (CDI). L'émergence de ces formes atypiques de travail, à la frontière de l'informel, constituent ce que les sociologues des organisations qualifiaient de « zone grise d'emploi » où des travailleurs sont fortement actifs malgré que leurs cadres de contractualisation renvoient plutôt vers un contrat de type à durée déterminée. Cet article met la lumière sur les dynamiques des relations de travail qui se sont recomposées dans une période située entre deux moments phares 2009 et 2015. l'étude montre que les nouvelles formes de travail au Maroc n'ont pas connu le développement attendu notamment en ce qui concerne le développement des CDD ou des contrats de travail sous la forme d'intérim comme ce qui s'est passé dans les pays de Nord. Au contraire, on se retrouve avec un schéma de consolidation de la CDI comme forme prédominante de contractualisation.
    Keywords: labor code,labor relations,gray area of employment,fixed-term contract,indeterminate contract,acting,code de travail,relations de travail,Zone grise d’emploi,CDD,CDI,Interim
    Date: 2021
  17. By: Anindya Bhattacharya; Anirban Kar; Sunil Kumar; Alita Nandi
    Abstract: This work has two intertwined components: first, as part of a research programme it introduces a new methodology for identifying `power-centres' in rural societies of developing countries in general and then applies that in the specific context of contemporary rural India for addressing some debates on the dynamics of power in rural India. We identify the nature of `local' rural institutions based on primary data collected by ourselves (in 2013 and 2014). We took 36 villages in the states of Maharashtra, Odisha and Uttar Pradesh - 12 in each of these states - as the sites for our observation and data collection. We quantify nature of institutions from data on the day-to-day interactions of households in the spheres of economy, society and politics. Our household survey shows that there is substantial variation in power structure across regions. We identified the presence of `local elites' in 22 villages out of 36 surveyed. We conducted a follow-up survey, called `elite survey', to get detailed information about the identified elite households. We observe that landlordism has considerably weakened, land has ceased to be the sole source of power and new power-centres have emerged. Despite these changes, caste, landownership and patron-client relation continue to be three important pillars of rural power structure.
    Date: 2022–08
  18. By: Cafferata, Alessia; Tramontana, Fabio
    Abstract: We develop a financial market model where a group of traders is af- fected by Disposition Effect, namely they are reluctant to realize losses. In particular, we present a set of stylized facts of financial markets (fat tails, volatility clustering, etc...) that can also be caused by the DE when the trading behaviour of agents are consistent with the findings of Ben-David and Hirshleifer (2012). In order to do that, we show that the version of the model where a class of agents is endowed with a high degree of Dispo- sition Effect, permits to obtain simulated time series whose features are closer to those of real financial market with respect to the version of the model where traders are not affected by it. This happens both for the deterministic version and the stochastic one.
    Keywords: Disposition Effect; Behavioural finance; Heterogeneous agents; Financial Markets.
    JEL: C62 D84 G12
    Date: 2022–04
  19. By: Kholodilin, Konstantin A.; Kohl, Sebastian; Müller, Florian
    Abstract: The comparative study of housing decommodification lags behind classical welfare state research, while housing research itself is rich in homeownership studies but lacks comparative accounts of private and social rentals due to missing comparative data. Building on existing works and various primary sources, this study presents a new collection of up to forty-eight countries' social housing shares in stock and new construction since the first housing laws around 1900. The interpolated benchmark time series generally describe the rise and fall of social housing across a residual, a socialist, and a Northern-European housing group. The decline was steeper than for the classical welfare state, but the degree of erosion was surprisingly small in some countries where public housing associations remained resilient. Within the broader housing welfare state, social housing correlates positively with rent regulation and allowances, but negatively with homeownership subsidies and liberal mortgage regulation. A multivariate analysis shows that social housing is rather explained by housing shortages and complementarities with rental and welfare policies than by typical welfare state theories (GDP, political parties). Generally, the paper shows that conventional housing typologies are difficult to defend over time and argues more generally for including housing decommodification in welfare state research.
    Keywords: housing tenure,social housing,welfare state,Sozialwohnungsbau,Wohlfahrtsstaat,Wohneigentumsformen
    Date: 2022
  20. By: Partenio, Florencia
    Abstract: En este documento se analizan las formas de endeudamiento en los hogares de las mujeres de clases populares en la Argentina, asociado al aumento y la diversificación del cuidado en el contexto de la pandemia de enfermedad por coronavirus (COVID-19). Se trata de una investigación cualitativa, basada en entrevistas a mujeres del Gran Buenos Aires. En relación con los impactos de la vulnerabilidad financiera en los hogares de clases populares, se constata que son precisamente las múltiples gestiones monetarias del cuidado las que sostienen la reproducción social de la vida, ensamblando infraestructuras, activando redes comunitarias y de parentesco, y, al mismo tiempo, evitando caer en nuevos ciclos de endeudamiento. En el contexto de la pandemia, un alto porcentaje de las gestiones monetarias del cuidado han caído en dinámicas de endeudamiento, principalmente bajo el circuito informal. El estudio muestra cómo la desigualdad en la organización del cuidado se reproduce y se retroalimenta de las disparidades en la gestión de las deudas del cuidado. Asimismo, se plantean una serie de padecimientos y efectos subjetivos de las obligaciones crediticias que pesan sobre las mujeres, limitando su autonomía y postergando las prácticas de autocuidado.
    Date: 2022–07–25

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