nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2022‒09‒12
23 papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. Harrodian Instability: A Marxian Perspective By Chatzarakis, Nikolaos; Tsaliki, Persefoni
  2. About Statistics on Cooperatives in Argentina By Mirta VUOTTO; Alfonso ESTRAGÓ
  3. Market paternalism: Do people really want to be nudged towards consumption? By Braganza, Oliver
  4. The end of motivational theories (part 1): critical and open questioning of the scientific claim of these theories By Mathias Naudin
  5. Markets, market algorithms, and algorithmic bias By van Basshuysen, Philippe
  6. Is there cross-fertilization in macroeconomics? . Version 2 By Muriel Dal-Pont Legrand; Martina Cioni; Eugenio Petrovich; Alberto Baccini
  7. Induced innovation, the distributive cycle, and the changing pattern of labour productivity cyclicality: a SVAR analysis for the US economy By Stamegna, Marco
  8. Inclusive Welfare: On The Role of Islamic Public-Social Finance and Monetary Economics By Juhro, Solikin M.; Syarifuddin, Ferry; Sakti, Ali
  9. Theorizing dollar hegemony, Part 1: the political economic foundations of exorbitant privilege By Thomas Palley
  10. Institutional change according to the theory of regulation By Samir Bellal
  11. Growth, Degrowth or Post-growth? Towards a synthetic understanding of the growth debate By Xhulia Likaj; Michael Jacobs; Thomas Fricke
  12. Challenges of impact measurement in an emergent social economy. An exploratory research in Romania By Cristina BARNA; Adina REBELEANU
  13. Landscape-scale effects of farmers’ restoration decision making and investments in central Malawi: an agent-based modeling approach By Djenontin, Ida N.S.; Ligmann-Zielinska, Arika; Zulu, Leo C.
  14. Systemic-risk and evolutionary stable strategies in a financial network By Indrajit Saha; Veeraruna Kavitha
  15. Who defends our employees? Typology of worker representative’s profiles in Morocco between 2009 and 2021 By Younes El Ansari
  17. Authoritarian liberalism that goes through the teaching of management By Jean-Luc Moriceau
  18. From planetary emergency to regenerative economies - Accounting for nature in measures of sustainable development By Jana Stoever; Andre Reichel
  19. Cooperative Dynamics in Morocco and New Development Model By Khalid Didi; Hicham Attouch
  21. Fritz Helmedags saldenmechanisches Modell: Eine kommentierte Rekonstruktion der aktuellen Version By Quaas, Georg
  22. Sexual objectification of women in media and the gender wage gap: Does exposure to objectifying pictures lower the reservation wage? By Carlsson, Fredrik; Kataria, Mitesh; Lampi, Elina
  23. The Great Resignation, Unemployment, and Underemployment in the US: A Study of Labor Market Segmentation By Lambert, Thomas

  1. By: Chatzarakis, Nikolaos; Tsaliki, Persefoni
    Abstract: The analysis of a sustained long-run equilibrium path of economic growth goes back to Marx’s discussion of the schemes of reproduction and capital accumulation. In this paper, we indicate that the Harrodian ‘knife edge’ instability is a feature of the inner nature of the capitalist mode of production that is explained by the evolution of the rate of surplus-value. A fundamental category in Marx’s analysis, which is not restricted to income distribution, but also has further repercussions, which we grapple with in our analysis. In particular, we argue that the unbalanced economic growth path is the macroeconomic manifestation of the consequent antithesis between productive forces and productive relations formed during the process of capital accumulation and confined by the evolution of the rate of surplus-value.
    Keywords: Economic Growth; Capital Accumulation; Rate of Surplus-Value; Knife-Edge Instability
    JEL: E11 E12 E32 P16
    Date: 2022–07–22
  2. By: Mirta VUOTTO (Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)); Alfonso ESTRAGÓ (Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina))
    Abstract: The aim of the article is to analyze the information on cooperatives generated and published by official sources since the origins of Argentine cooperativism to examine its characteristics, usefulness and limitations. The idea is to provide an overview of current cooperativism based on statistical sources available at the National Institute of Associativism and Social Economy -the body that regulates the activity of cooperatives. The article systematizes the data from a register based on information provided to the agency by registered cooperatives. Referring to the official statistical source, the sector for the year 2021 is classified according to the main economic activity of the cooperatives, and other indicators that allow us to identify the distribution and weight of the various branches of Argentine cooperativism, both in terms of the number of associates and in terms of the jobs created.
    Keywords: Statistics, Cooperative Entreprises, Employment, Worker-members
    JEL: J18 L2 P13 C15 D02
    Date: 2021–08
  3. By: Braganza, Oliver
    Abstract: Modern societies, almost unequivocally, pursue the goal of economic growth. The central normative reason for this has recently been called the 'consumerist claim', namely the standard economic claim that increases in consumption (i.e. growth), by and large entail welfare increases. However, the consumerist claim does not take account of behavioral economics. Specifically, it disregards that consumption increases can also be achieved by nudging, as practiced e.g. in marketing or advertising. Remarkably, proponents of the consumerist claim are often vocal critics of governmental nudging, which is decried as manipulative and paternalistic, but are simultaneously dismissive or apologetic about market-derived nudging. Here we argue, that in light of behavioral economics Adam Smiths 'invisible hand' will often produce outcomes as if it belonged to an 'invisible paternalist', who systematically and efficiently nudges individuals towards ever increasing consumption. Specifically, we develop the notion of 'market paternalism' (MP), based on a synthesis of behavioral and evolutionary economic reasoning. MP entails three central properties: First, unregulated markets naturally give rise to pervasive nudges, modifying our behavior, preferences and beliefs in ways beyond our conscious awareness and control. Second, these nudges will coalesce towards an emergent system-level end, that cannot be derived from any coherent notion of individual preferences. Third, MP operates in part by a cultural evolutionary mechanism, implying that it will occur with computational and coordinative power far beyond any individual (or government). To assess the potential practical relevance of MP, we survey the literature, finding clear evidence that MP drives or exacerbates numerous pressing societal problems, including rampant obesity, mass surveillance and the climate crisis. It does so by covertly and incessantly nudging not only our behavior, but also our preferences, values and beliefs towards the single goal of increasing consumption. The surprising consequence is that, in light of behavioral economics, unregulated markets should be expected to systematically subvert individual autonomy and rationality, the very values typically invoked to defend the consumerist claim.
    Date: 2022
  4. By: Mathias Naudin (CEDAG (URP_1516) - Centre de droit des affaires et de gestion - UPCité - Université Paris Cité)
    Abstract: How do theories of motivation fit into a research movement that claims to be scientific? For a theory to be relevant and interesting, it must be able to give a better account of the world, to make it more intelligible and understandable, and ideally it must enable us to interact with it better. The central concept of the theory must meet the same expectations. On what elements are those theories based? What observations? What ontological, dialectical, epistemological and phenomenological foundations and postures? What doxography? What demonstrations? Have the research methods been adapted to the research object or subject? Are there tangible results that allow the founding hypotheses to be held true and justify the practical interest of these theories? Our aim is to question theories of motivation (in the sense of Husserl, 1962), i.e., in a certain way, to see what might be behind the mirror of false pretenses and fine speeches, and to better identify the historical genesis and methodical approaches on which these theories are based. Through this first part of our interrogation, we question and expose the fragility and 'scientific' flaws of motivation theories. From a scientific point of view, theories of motivation appear to be based on an empirical-formal vision without any empirical basis and an ignorance of the unconscious and of hermeneutic approaches that seek to shed light on the meaning of human behaviour; this may raise questions when we are interested in motivation. They appear to be solely projective, focusing on the instrumental transformation of an ignored life and reified individuals. In so doing, they participate fully in a social movement of freely consented submission of the working masses to the service of an economic growth with relatively unevenly distributed benefits.
    Abstract: De quelle manière les théories de la motivation s'inscrivent-elles dans un mouvement de recherche qui se veut scientifique ? Pour qu'une théorie soit pertinente et intéressante, elle doit permettre de mieux rendre compte du monde, de le rendre plus intelligible et compréhensible, et idéalement elle doit nous permettre de mieux interagir avec lui. Le concept central de la théorie doit répondre aux mêmes attentes. Sur quels éléments ces théories se fondent-elles ? Quelles observations ? Quels fondements et postures ontologique, dialectique, épistémologique et phénoménologique ? Quelle doxographie ? Quelles démonstrations ? Les méthodes de recherche ont-elles été adaptées à l'objet ou au sujet de recherche ? Des résultats tangibles permettent-ils de tenir pour vraies les hypothèses fondatrices et de justifier l'intérêt pratique de ces théories ? Notre propos va consister à questionner-en-retour (au sens de Husserl, 1962) les théories de la motivation, c'est-à-dire, d'une certaine manière, à aller voir ce qu'il pourrait y avoir derrière le miroir des faux semblants et beaux discours, et de mieux cerner la genèse historique et les approches méthodiques qui fondent ces théories. A travers ce premier volet d'interrogations, nous mettons au jour la fragilité et des failles « scientifiques » des théories de la motivation. D'un point de vue scientifique, les théories de la motivation s'avèrent en effet reposer sur une vision empirico-formelle sans empirie et une ignorance de l'inconscient et des approches herméneutiques qui cherchent à éclairer le sens des comportements humains; ce qui peut poser question lorsque l'on s'intéresse à la motivation. Elles apparaissent uniquement projectives, portant sur la transformation instrumentale d'une vie ignorée et d'individus réifiés. Ce faisant, elles participent pleinement à un mouvement social de soumission librement consentie des masses laborieuses au service d'une croissance économique aux bénéfices relativement inégalement répartis.
    Keywords: motivation,theories of motivation,Epistemology,Epistemology of management sciences,Phenomenology,Critical management studies CMS,critique des sciences de gestion,management,critique du management,Motivation,Motivation autodéterminée,Théorie de la motivation,épistémologie,épistémologie des sciences de gestion,Phénoménologie
    Date: 2021–06–04
  5. By: van Basshuysen, Philippe
    Abstract: Where economists previously viewed the market as arising from a ‘spontaneous order’, antithetical to design, they now design markets to achieve specific purposes. This paper reconstructs how this change in what markets are and can do came about and considers some consequences. Two decisive developments in economic theory are identified: first, Hurwicz’s view of institutions as mechanisms, which should be designed to align incentives with social goals; and second, the notion of marketplaces – consisting of infrastructure and algorithms – which should be designed to exhibit stable properties. These developments have empowered economists to create marketplaces for specific purposes, by designing appropriate algorithms. I argue that this power to create marketplaces requires a shift in ethical reasoning, from whether markets should reach into certain spheres of life, to how market algorithms should be designed. I exemplify this shift, focusing on bias, and arguing that transparency should become a goal of market design.
    Keywords: markets; algorithms; market design; bias; transparency; T&F deal
    JEL: J1
    Date: 2022–08–01
  6. By: Muriel Dal-Pont Legrand; Martina Cioni (University of Sienna); Eugenio Petrovich (University of Sienna); Alberto Baccini (University of Sienna)
    Abstract: This paper compares Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium (DSGE) and Macro Agent-Based Models (MABMs) by adopting mainly a distant reading perspective. A set of 2,299 papers is retrieved from Scopus by using keywords related to MABM and DSGE domains. The interactions between the two streams of DSGE and MABM literature are explored by considering a social axis (co-authorship network), and an intellectual axis (cited references and bibliographic coupling). The analysis gave results that are neither consistent with a unitary structure of macroeconomics, nor with a simple dichotomic structure of alternative paradigms and separated academics communities. Indeed, the co-authorship network shows that DSGE and MABM form fragmented communities still belonging to two different larger MABM and DSGE communities rather neatly separated. Collaboration insists mainly inside the smaller groups and inside each of the two larger DSGE and MABM communities. Moreover, the co-authorship network analysis does not show evidence of systematic collaboration between MABM and DSGE authors. From an intellectual point of view, data show that DSGE and MABM articles refer to two different sets of bibliographic references. When a measure of paper-similarity is adopted, it appears that DSGE literature is fragmented in 4 groups while the MABM articles are clustered together in a unique group. Hence, DSGE approach is less monolithic than at the time of the New Synthesis: indeed, a large and a growing literature has developed at the margins of the core DSGE approach which includes elements of heterogeneous agent modelling, social interactions, experiments, expectations formation, learning etc.. The analysis gave no evidence of cross-fertilization between DSGE and MABM literature whilst it rather suggests a totally dissymmetric influence of DSGE over MABM literature, i.e. only MABM modelers look at DSGE but not vice-versa. The paper questions the capacity of the current dominant approach to benefit from cross-fertilization.
    Keywords: Macroeconomics,DSGE,macro agent-based models,heterogeneity,New Synthesis,crossfertilization,hybrid models,co-authorship network,co-citation analysis,bibliographic coupling,paper similarity
    Date: 2022–07–01
  7. By: Stamegna, Marco
    Abstract: The empirical literature on induced technical change has explored the long-run relationship between real wages and labour productivity but still lacks an explicit treatment of the implications of the wage-productivity nexus for the business cycle. The present paper aims to fill this gap. By employing a four-dimensional structural vector autoregressive (SVAR) model for the US economy (1948-2019), we test an extended version of the Goodwin model that includes aggregate demand and decomposes the labour share into real wages and labour productivity. This paper adds to the existing literature in some respects. First, it contributes to the induced innovation literature, by showing that wage shocks have positive and persistent effects on labour productivity at business cycle frequencies. Second, it adds to the debate and empirical evidence on the distributive cycle. Impulse response functions show that, even when decomposing the labour share, empirical evidence supports the Goodwin pattern, although the profit-led regime turns out to be driven more by technology than distributive shocks. Finally, we address two relevant cyclical stylized facts of the US economy: since the mid-1980s, the procyclical pattern of labour productivity has vanished, and real wages have no longer been correlated with employment over the business cycle. We explore the hypothesis that the two changes are linked. In light of the theory of induced innovation, we argue that the decline in the cyclical correlation between output and labour productivity can be explained by a lessened incentive to invest in labour-saving innovations due to missing wage growth in the upturn of the business cycle. Impulse response functions qualitatively support this intuition.
    Keywords: Labour productivity; endogenous technical change; income distribution; SVAR
    JEL: E12 E24 E25 E32
    Date: 2022–07–21
  8. By: Juhro, Solikin M.; Syarifuddin, Ferry; Sakti, Ali
    Abstract: The concept of inclusive economic development has gained traction among researchers due to the failure of old concepts to solve poverty and social inequality. Shifting of the economic development is needed, from the focus on good and service value to increasing economic participation of communities. To shed a light on the solution, this study aim to examine the lesson learned from Islamic social-public finance and monetary economics role in realizing inclusive welfare. Based on in-depth observation, we found that economic inclusion and inclusive growth are fully in line with the spirit and goals of the Islamic economy in terms of creating equitable welfare for all. There is also an existing linkage between the role of Islamic social-public finance and monetary economics.
    Keywords: Islamic economy, Public and social finance, Monetary economics, Economic development, Inclusive welfare
    JEL: D63 E50 H50 O10
    Date: 2022–03–01
  9. By: Thomas Palley
    Abstract: This paper explores dollar hegemony, emphasizing it is a fundamentally political economic phenomenon. Dollar hegemony rests on the economic, military, and international political power of the US and is manifested through market forces. The paper argues there have been two eras of dollar hegemony which were marked by different models. Dollar hegemony 1.0 corresponded to the Bretton Woods era (1946-1971). Dollar hegemony 2.0 corresponds to the Neoliberal era (1980-Today). The 1970s were an in-between decade of dollar distress during which dollar hegemony was reseeded. The deep foundation of both models is US power, but the two models have completely different economic operating systems. Dollar hegemony 1.0 rested on the trade and manufacturing dominance of the US after World War II. Dollar hegemony 2.0 rests on the Neoliberal reconstruction of the US and global economies which have made the US the center of global capitalism and the most attractive place to hold capital. It is a financial model and intrinsically connected to Neoliberalism. Consideration of dollar hegemony leads to two further questions. One is whether there is a better way of organizing the world monetary order, which is associated with debate about the possibility of a new Bretton Woods. The other is what is the future of dollar hegemony?
    Keywords: Dollar hegemony, Neoliberalism, power, currency competition, capital mobility, Bretton Woods
    JEL: F00 F02 F30 F33
    Date: 2022–08
  10. By: Samir Bellal (UMMTO - Université Mouloud Mammeri [Tizi Ouzou])
    Abstract: This paper briefly describes how the question of institutional change is approached by the theory of regulation. It allows us to situate the contribution of this current in the analysis of institutional change and to underline its affiliations and specificities.
    Abstract: Ce papier décrit brièvement la manière dont la question du changement institutionnel est abordée par la théorie de la régulation. Il nous permet de situer l'apport de ce courant dans l'analyse du changement institutionnel et d'en souligner les filiations et les spécificités.
    Keywords: Efficiency,Accumulation regime,Regulation.,Institution,Efficacité,Régime d'accumulation,Régulation.
    Date: 2022
  11. By: Xhulia Likaj (Forum New Economy); Michael Jacobs (University of Sheffield (SPERI)); Thomas Fricke (Forum New Economy)
    Abstract: Arguments about the possibility and desirability of exponential economic growth have animated the environmental movement for half a century, since the publication of the Club of Rome report The Limits to Growth in 1972. The debate has been revived in recent years as the climate crisis has reached centre-stage. This paper seeks to unpick the different strands in the debate and the different kinds of arguments - philosophical, empirical, and policy-prescriptive - used by different writers and institutions. It suggests that the contemporary debate is best understood as a disagreement between political strategies, in which the character of public and academic discourse plays a key role.
    Keywords: economic growth, green growth, degrowth, post-growth, wellbeing, GDP
    JEL: O4 O44 Q56
    Date: 2022–05
  12. By: Cristina BARNA (Faculty of Management, The National University of Political Studies and Public Administration (Romania)); Adina REBELEANU (Faculty of Sociology and Social Work, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (Romania))
    Abstract: The social impact measurement theory and practice is an early emergent field in Romania, despite all the recent significant advances and of the maturation of the topic at the international level. However, even if the size and dynamics of the social economy sector are not yet comparable with European countries with tradition in the sector, Romania faces a trend of discovery, re-discovery, and development of the social economy, present in a diversity of organizations and fields and models of classic or highly innovative social enterprises. Advancing social impact measurement in Romania becomes imperative for public authorities and also the whole society to understand how much positive social change can be attributed to the social economy organizations. The main objective of this paper is to test the effectiveness of the impact indicators proposed by the Ministry of Labor and Social Justice (MLSJ) in the indicative guidelines, which were elaborated after the adoption of the Methodological Norms for applying the Law of the Social Economy by Government Decision no. 585, on 10 August 2016, and which represents the first official regulatory attempt of impact measurement. Applicative research will be carried out in two social economy organizations active in the social services field (Heart of Child Foundation from Galati county, and Charitable Foundation Sf. Daniel from Cluj county, Romania) for analysing the current metrics used in measuring the social impact in the last three years (2017 – 2019), and the relevance of the indicators proposed in the indicative ministerial framework for their organizations. After reviewing various international approaches and frameworks of impact measuring, testing the indicative impact indicators proposed by the MLSJ, and having in-depth interviews with the managers of the analysed social enterprises, the article concludes with a set of recommendations for the development of a more effective impact measurement framework.
    Keywords: social impact, impact measurement, social enterprise, social services, social and solidarity economy, Romania
    JEL: L31 B55
    Date: 2021–07
  13. By: Djenontin, Ida N.S.; Ligmann-Zielinska, Arika; Zulu, Leo C.
    Abstract: Local farmers’ engagement and contributions are increasingly underscored in resources restoration policy. Yet, empirical context-situated understanding of the environmental impacts of farmer-led restoration remains scant. Using six Agent-based Modeling (ABM) simulations that integrate multi-type data, we explore the potential spatial-temporal aggregate patterns and outcomes of local restoration actions in Central Malawi. Findings uncover a 10-year positive trend and spatially explicit potential restoration extent and intensity, greenness, and land productivity, all varying by farmer’s participation level. Landscape regreening is modestly promising with fluctuating greenness levels and low, slightly incremental, then steady land-productivity levels. Findings also show appropriate incentives, restoration knowledge, and inspiring local leadership as propitious management options for boosting local restoration. Bundling these enabling management and policy options would maximize local restoration. Findings suggest empowering bottom-up restoration efforts for enhanced environmental impacts. We also demonstrate the potential of using ABM to offer insights for spatially targeted, evidence-based restoration policy implementation and monitoring.
    Keywords: Forest Landscape Restoration (FLR); greenness; participation; productivity; Space-time patterns
    JEL: Q15
    Date: 2022–05–24
  14. By: Indrajit Saha; Veeraruna Kavitha
    Abstract: We consider a financial network represented at any time instance by a random liability graph which evolves over time. The agents connect through credit instruments borrowed from each other or through direct lending, and these create the liability edges. These random edges are modified (locally) by the agents over time, as they learn from their experiences and (possibly imperfect) observations. The settlement of the liabilities of various agents at the end of the contract period (at any time instance) can be expressed as solutions of random fixed point equations. Our first step is to derive the solutions of these equations (asymptotically and one for each time instance), using a recent result on random fixed point equations. The agents, at any time instance, adopt one of the two available strategies, risky or risk-free investments, with an aim to maximize their returns. We aim to study the emerging strategies of such replicator dynamics that drives the financial network. We theoretically reduce the analysis of the complex system to that of an appropriate ordinary differential equation (ODE). Using the attractors of the resulting ODE we showed that the replicator dynamics converges to one of the two pure evolutionary stable strategies (all risky or all risk-free agents); one can have mixed limit only when the observations are imperfect. We verified our theoretical findings using exhaustive Monte Carlo simulations. We established that the dynamics avoid the emergence of the systemic-risk regime (where majority default).
    Date: 2022–06
  15. By: Younes El Ansari (Université Mohammed V)
    Abstract: It is undeniable that the quality of an advocacy depends on the one hand, on the capacity of its supporters to convince, to «struggle», to affirm their positions, to involve their detractors. This observation is even more true if we are in the logic of the labor relationship, this «antagonistic» relationship between a labor force, which claims more recognition for the use-value it produces, and what the capitalist appreciates in it, what he puts into it, what he supposes to be able to use, in this force, to realize his surplus-value. In Morocco, following the advent of labor law in 2003 a new social dynamic emerged, creating new forms of regulation of social relations in productive spheres. This balance of power, makes and breaks the equilibrium, redefines, sometimes even in the opposite direction, the rights and the obligations of each part of the wage relationship. Consequently, it is particularly interesting to consider the quality of the institutions participating in this "negotiation". This article aims at analyzing the evolution of institutions charged with defending the interests of employees according to what the Moroccan law (labor law) defines. we are of the mind of the institution of employee delegates and the institution of union representation. We want to learn how this institution has evolved over a decade (or more) following the establishment of this new regulatory framework for industrial relations. We take a confirmatory approach that defines a positivist epistemological positioning (Henning, Van Rensburg and Smit, 2004, p. 17). The stakeholder theory is our corpus. we position ourselves in a "neo-institutional" vision. this vision tries to understand productive organizations, which are institutions made up of a set of contracts. Fashion of reasoning is the deduction. we will use the official databases in this area to explain the causal relationship between the new framework for regulating industrial relations in the company in Morocco and the emergence of a form of «technocracy». the latter has the objective of establishing power in favor of the labor force, in the sense of a stakeholder as proposed by Freeman (1984). Freeman defines a stakeholder as "any individual or group that may affect or be affected by the achievement of the organization's objectives". We have noted that this institution has generally been able to make a quantitative and qualitative place for itself to act on social dialogue. when it has a trade union membership, it remains contrasted by the membership of one central or another.
    Abstract: Il est indéniable que la qualité d'un plaidoyer dépend, en premier, de la capacité de ses teneurs à convaincre, à se « battre » jusqu'au bout, pour faire valoir leurs positions, pour faire adhérer leurs détracteurs. Ce constat est encore plus vrai si on se situe dans la logique de la relation salariale, cette relation « antagoniste » entre une force de travail, qui revendique plus de reconnaissance à la valeur d'usage produite, et ce que la capitaliste apprécie en elle, ce qu'il y met, ce qu'il suppose capable d'user, dans cette force, pour réaliser sa plus-value. Dans le contexte marocain, depuis l'avènement, en 2003, du code du travail, de nouvelles dynamiques sociales se sont émergées, engendrant ainsi de nouvelles formes de régulation de la relation sociale dans les sphères productives. Ce rapport de forces, fait et défait les équilibres, redéfinit, parfois même en contresens, les droits et les obligations de chaque partie de la relation salariale. Dès lors, se poser la question de la qualité des institutions qui sont parties prenantes de cette « négociation » revêt, pour nous, un intérêt particulier. Cet article vise à mettre la lumière sur l'évolution des institutions chargées de défendre les intérêts des salariés, du moins dans une acceptation de ce que le droit marocain (le code du travail) définit, nous pensons à l'institution de délégués des salariés et l'institution de la représentation syndicale. Nous voulons savoir comment à évoluer cette institution durant une décennie (ou plus) après l'instauration de ce nouveau cadre de régulation des relations sociales. Nous tentons de suivre une approche confirmatoire qui définit un positionnement épistémologique positiviste (Henning, Van Rensburg et Smit, 2004, p. 17). Le corpus théorique mobilisé est celui de la théorie des parties prenantes, nous acceptons de se positionner dans une vision « néo-institutionnelle », qui cherche à comprendre les organisations productives, comme des institutions reposant sur un ensemble de contrats. Le mode de raisonnement est la déduction. Nous allons exploiter les bases de données officielles dans ce domaine pour expliquer la relation entre la mise en place d'un cadre de régulation des relations sociales dans l'entreprise au Maroc et l'émergence d'une forme de « technocratie » dont l'objectif est d'assoir un pouvoir en faveur de l'émergence d'une force de travail dans le sens d'une partie prenante telle que proposée par Freeman (1984). Freeman définit une partie prenante comme « tout individu ou groupe qui peut affecter ou être affecté par la réalisation des objectifs de l'organisation ». Nous avons constaté que généralement cette institution a su se faire une place tant au niveau quantitatif que qualitatif dans le l'action du dialogue social, tandis que, lorsqu'elle adhère à une étiquette syndicale, elle reste contrastée par l'appartenance à une centrale ou une autre.
    Date: 2022–05–01
  16. By: Khalid Didi (UM5 - Université Mohammed V de Rabat [Agdal]); Hicham Attouch
    Date: 2022–03–15
  17. By: Jean-Luc Moriceau (IMT-BS - Institut Mines-Télécom Business School - IMT - Institut Mines-Télécom [Paris], LITEM - Laboratoire en Innovation, Technologies, Economie et Management (EA 7363) - UEVE - Université d'Évry-Val-d'Essonne - Université Paris-Saclay - IMT-BS - Institut Mines-Télécom Business School - IMT - Institut Mines-Télécom [Paris])
    Abstract: Authoritarian liberalism that goes through the teaching of management Abstract : Grégoire Chamayou's book, La Société ingouvernable, can only leave us intranquil. We read it as an invitation to realize that, in what we write and transmit, there are many ideas and arguments of neoliberalism that we must learn to decipher. This was well known for theories such as the agency theory or financial optimization, but more troublingly, the book uncovers them at work, for example, in the dialogue with stakeholders. The consequences of such authoritarian liberalism act far beyond the economic domain: they imprint subjectivities and forms of life, they increase inequalities and inequities. Let's not underestimate these effects. Let's ask ourselves what we can do to prevent them from passing through us.
    Abstract: Le livre de Grégoire Chamayou, La Société ingouvernable, ne peut que laisser intranquille. Nous le lisons comme une invitation à nous rendre compte que, dans ce que nous écrivons et transmettons, se glissent incognito nombre idées et arguments du néolibéralisme. Il nous faut apprendre à les décrypter. On le savait pour des théories comme celles de l'agence ou liées à l'optimisation financière mais, plus troublant, le livre les montre à la manœuvre par exemple dans le dialogue avec les parties-prenantes. Les conséquences d'un tel libéralisme autoritaire agissent bien au-delà de la sphère économique : elles impriment les subjectivités et les formes de vie, elles accroissent inégalités et iniquités. Ne sous-estimons pas ces effets. Demandons-nous que faire pour qu'il ne passe pas par nous.
    Keywords: Authoritarian liberalism,neoliberalism,management education,stakeholder theory,Libéralisme autoritaire,Néolibéralisme,Enseignement de la gestion,Théorie des parties-prenantes
    Date: 2022–07–20
  18. By: Jana Stoever (Kiel University); Andre Reichel (International School of Management (ISM) Stuttgart)
    Abstract: Starting from a world in which resources have become scarce and planetary boundaries have been reached or exceeded, the paper discusses how these changes affect our understanding of (economic) progress and sustainable development. In doing so, the paper addresses three important points in the discussion on sustainability. Firstly, the question of "means" and "ends", secondly, the visualization of this reality in the measurement of sustainable development, taking into account the specific characteristics of the environment/nature, and thirdly, the question of whether a concept that maps "regenerative development" could be suitable to account for the current state of natural systemsthat have already exceeded their (planetary) limits.
    Keywords: Sustainable development, planetary boundaries, well-being, wealth, means and ends, social and economic progress, conservation & restoration, regeneration
    JEL: Q01 Q2 Q3 Q5
    Date: 2022–07
  19. By: Khalid Didi (Université Mohamed V - Souissi); Hicham Attouch (Université Mohamed V - Souissi)
    Keywords: Coopérative,Dynamique,Economie Sociale,Action publique,Développement.
    Date: 2022–07–15
  20. By: Silas Nkundumpaye; Jean De Dieu Dushimimana
    Abstract: Rwanda"s economy is basically dependent on the performance of agriculture which contributes highly in the development of other sectors. However, the performance of many agricultural projects in Rwanda is still being low level in the sense that some projects remain hindered while others get accomplished late with low incomes. Indicate that a project performance is prejudiced by many management practices jointly then many studies fail to provide a holistic assessment of all the project management practices jointly that influence performance agricultural projects. This study, therefore, sought to investigate project management practices and performance of agricultural cooperative. The specific objectives of the study were; To explore the relationship between monitoring and evaluation and performance of agricultural cooperative in Gakenke district, To examine the relationship between the influence of stakeholders and performance of agricultural cooperative in Gakenke District and to analysis the relationship between project leadership experience and performance and agricultural cooperative in Gakenke District.. The study was based on five theories which included the theory of constrains, management theory of project management, resource based theory. The study used descriptive research designs. It targeted 1122 of COTUMU. The study used Random sampling to COTUMU and Yamane method was used to select 295 respondents. Primary data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Interviews were also conducted on 10 staff members. Descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentages, mean and standard deviation were used to describe the characteristics of the variables whereas multiple correlation model was used to establish the relationships between the variables. All the analysis was done using SPSS version 22. Qualitative data were analyzed through content analysis. The results showed that all the variables, monitoring and evaluation, influence of stakeholders and project leadership experience were significant performance of agricultural cooperatives. The study recommended that in order to have the desired project performance the government should ensure that there is well outlined planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation, and communication methods. The study also recommended that 1) Government and donors should improve the services to support in providing continuous professional development to the famers in their society based institutions for good production, they must augment contact time with the cooperatives members and put them through baseline survey and situation of merchandise marketing by making advertisement apart from field trips and providing professional development. This will alarm farmers and expose them to learning for better cooperative learning, Key words: Cooperatives, COTUMU, monitoring, project management practices and stakeholders.
    Date: 2022–06
  21. By: Quaas, Georg
    Abstract: Der vorliegende Beitrag analysiert Helmedags neuste Version des Saldenmechanischen Modells (SM), mit dessen Hilfe eine angeblich langfristig bestehende, relative Konstanz der Lohnstückkosten erklärt werden soll. Die realen Lohnstückkosten steigen jedoch in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland spätestens seit 1970 kontinuierlich an, mit kurzfristigen Dellen 1996-1997, 2003-2007 und 2009-2010. Jene relative Konstanz kann nur behauptet werden, wenn die Lohnstückkosten anhand der nominalen Entwicklungen berechnet werden. Dem entspricht, dass innerhalb des Modells keine Möglichkeit besteht, zwischen Real- und Nominalgrößen zu unterscheiden. Trotzdem wird der Versuch unternommen, die relative Machtlosigkeit einer Zentralbank gegenüber der Inflation nachzuweisen. Neben einigen Vereinfachungen weist das Modell die gleichen Mängel wie frühere Versionen auf: Rein theoretisch postulierte, analytisch wahre Aussagen werden als empirische Kausalbeziehungen interpretiert, um daraus Empfehlungen für die Politik abzuleiten. Hinzu kommt, dass wesentliche Annahmen, die dem SM zugrunde liegen, nicht berichtet werden.
    Keywords: Saldenmechanik,Geldpolitik,Fiskalpolitik,Modellbau
    JEL: B59 E12 E58
    Date: 2022
  22. By: Carlsson, Fredrik (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University); Kataria, Mitesh (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University); Lampi, Elina (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University)
    Abstract: Using an online experiment, we investigate the influence of sexual objectification in media on economic decision making. In the experiment, subjects are asked to evaluate advertisements in women’s magazines. In the treatment groups, the ads portray women in sexually objectifying poses, while the poses are neutral in the control group. The main research hypothesis is that sexual objectification tends to make women self-objectify, i.e., they internalize the view of the objectifying images, and as a result, they lower their reservation wage. We find that women in the treatment groups do self-objectify: Women who were exposed to the objectifying images described themselves with words related to body shape or size significantly more often than women in the control group. Adding a warning text about the fact that photoshopped images can create unrealistic body ideals did not mitigate the self-objectification. However, we do not find any effect of the sexual objectification on women’s reservation wages. If we take the results at face value, they do suggest that the objectification of women in media, while having important psychological and emotional effects, does not seem to affect women’s economic behavior, at least not directly.
    Keywords: online experiment; sexual objectification; media; economic decision making
    JEL: C91 J16
    Date: 2022–08
  23. By: Lambert, Thomas
    Abstract: During 2021 and 2022 many news media outlets have been reporting that millions of workers in the US have been quitting their jobs in record numbers. In a global economy rebounding from the economic downturn caused by the Covid-19 outbreak and demanding more workers, a high rate of resignations has exacerbated labor shortages and may be aggravating underemployment rates if many workers are choosing not to be part of the labor force or only to work part time. Many reasons have been offered to explain this “Great Resignation” including high day care costs for working parents which may in turn be causing the trend of lower female labor force participation; the liberating experience of not working at all or to work from home instead of having to work from one’s usual work place during the Covid-19 quarantine/lockdown periods; stagnant/low wages and greater job tenure uncertainty which make working less attractive and more stressful; and the feeling by many of not wanting to work further for bad bosses or management who create bad work environments so that resignation becomes a means of escape from such conditions. This paper does data analysis on US labor trends since 2003 and during and after the Great Recession of 2008-2009 and demonstrates that resignations have been trending upward in the US aggregate economy and that quit rates mostly have been trending higher within many US industries. These phenomena can best be explained by the concept of labor market segmentation, high unemployment and underemployment rates that exist even in good economic times among certain industries, minority group composition, wage stagnation, and type of managerial supervision. Some of these same factors help to explain labor under-utilization greater than national/aggregate rates within these industries as well.
    Keywords: Great Resignation, Great Recession, labor market segmentation, managers
    JEL: B50 B51 J1 J21 J24 J31 J42 J53 J63 L21 M54
    Date: 2022–08–05

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