nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2022‒05‒09
thirteen papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. Joan Robinson in 1942, an encounter between Marxian Economics and Macroeconomics By Alves, C.
  2. MANAJEMEN KOPERASI By Arief, A. Anggie Zabrina
  3. Non-equilibrium phase transitions in competitive markets caused by network effects By Andrew Lucas
  4. Worlds beyond capitalism: images of uneven and combined development in Kim Stanley Robinson’s Mars trilogy By Cooper, Luke
  5. Understanding the bitterness of Wassily Leontief: Postwar success and failures of input-output techniques By Vincent Carret
  6. Escrevendo a história do pensamento econômico-ecológico: desafios e perspectivas By Marco P. Vianna Franco; Antoine Missemer
  7. The challenges of digitization and its applications in Islamic Takaful SAAFI as model By Ezzedine Ghlamallah
  8. An agent-based model of (food) consumption: Accounting for the Intention-Behaviour-Gap on three dimensions of characteristics with limited knowledge By Pedro Lopez Merino; Juliette Rouchier
  9. The new paternalism? The workplace as a place to work-and to live By Aurélie Leclercq Vandelannoitte
  10. Essential farmers? Views And Challenges Through Role Strain Perceived By Organic Farmers By Sandrine Benoist
  11. A pragmatist critique of the economic theory of the commons By Philippe Lorino
  12. Barriers to Women's Empowerment: Contribution to the Debate on Women's Empowerment in the Light of the New Development Model By Oussama Benlabbah
  13. Performative Power By Moritz Hardt; Meena Jagadeesan; Celestine Mendler-D\"unner

  1. By: Alves, C.
    Abstract: This paper revisits why Joan Robinson turned to Karl Marx in 1942 and which insights from Marxian economics she sought to incorporate into her later works, while commenting on the legacies of this encounter and how was received by some her of contemporaries. By the end of the 1930s, Robinson wanted to bring academic and Marxian economics together in a search for a more realist theory of the rate of profit and income distribution, and clarifications on Keynes’s concept of full employment, the nature of technical progress and a long-period theory within the Keynesian framework. The result, An Essay on Marxian Economics (1942), was her most important work in terms of laying the foundations of her enduring challenge to the orthodox economics. Here she relied on Marxian insights to escape Marshallian orthodoxy. It is the story of how the originator of imperfect competition pushed further into a theory of exploitation.
    Keywords: Joan Robinson, Marxian Economics, Rate of Profit, Exploitation
    JEL: B2 B22 B24 B31 B40
    Date: 2022–04–11
  2. By: Arief, A. Anggie Zabrina
    Abstract: Cooperative management is a professional activity carried out by cooperatives to assist all cooperative members in achieving their goals. Cooperative management is not based on coercion of authority, but through involvement and participation. Cooperative management in principle refers to modern organizational management. The most decisive point in the course of an organizational organization is the fundamental idea that underlies the establishment of an organization. By unifying cooperative management as part of cooperatives and as a representation of the important principles of cooperatives themselves, we can develop management and democracy within cooperatives. Keywords: Cooperative Management, Cooperative Management
    Date: 2022–04–06
  3. By: Andrew Lucas
    Abstract: Network effects are the added value derived solely from the popularity of a product in an economic market. Using agent-based models inspired by statistical physics, we propose a minimal theory of a competitive market for (nearly) indistinguishable goods with demand-side network effects, sold by statistically identical sellers. With weak network effects, the model reproduces conventional microeconomics: there is a statistical steady state of (nearly) perfect competition. Increasing network effects, we find a phase transition to a robust non-equilibrium phase driven by the spontaneous formation and collapse of fads in the market. When sellers update prices sufficiently quickly, an emergent monopolist can capture the market and undercut competition, leading to a symmetry- and ergodicity-breaking transition. The non-equilibrium phase simultaneously exhibits three empirically established phenomena not contained in the standard theory of competitive markets: spontaneous price fluctuations, persistent seller profits, and broad distributions of firm market shares.
    Date: 2022–04
  4. By: Cooper, Luke
    Abstract: This article explores the implications of uneven and combined development for how system-change is conceptualised. The current moment has featured extensive discussions of how technological transformation is altering the nature of our economy, labour force and environment. Postcapitalists argue that zero cost production undermines the price mechanism in capitalism and opens up new emancipatory possibilities for the construction of the commons. This powerful critique and political vision is let down, however, by a failure to incorporate ‘the international’ dimension into the theory of change. U&CD provides a vitally needed correction to this unilinear thinking. To recover an understanding of how societal multiplicity affects the nature of system-change, this article makes the until-recently unusual step of turning to fictional literature. Specifically, it investigates the dynamics of uneven and combined development within the imagined universe brought to life by Kim Stanley Robinson’s science fiction odyssey the Marstrilogy. Despite the events Robinson describes existing wholly in the realm of imagined fantasy, I argue the three books contain five images of uneven and combined development relevant to real world social struggles. Drawing these out can start to develop a normative, political conception of uneven and combined development for the twenty-first century.
    Keywords: uneven and combined development; historical sociology; postcapitalism Marxism; science fiction
    JEL: J1
    Date: 2020–10–07
  5. By: Vincent Carret (TRIANGLE - Triangle : action, discours, pensée politique et économique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - IEP Lyon - Sciences Po Lyon - Institut d'études politiques de Lyon - Université de Lyon - UJM - Université Jean Monnet [Saint-Étienne] - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon)
    Abstract: Although Leontief was and still is one of the most recognized names in economics, inextricably linked to the development of input-output techniques, he remained fiercely critical of other economists' works and of the state of economic science during his whole life. To understand his bitterness, we go back to the root of the split between Leontief and the rest of the economics profession, through an examination of the debates that took place in the late 1940s. From his input-output model, conceived as an operational theory of economic interdependencies, Leontief drew a specific approach to economic policy and planning which had a lot of success with government agencies, explaining how he could durably sustain his split from the profession.
    Date: 2022–03–09
  6. By: Marco P. Vianna Franco (Konrad Lorenz Institute for Evolution and Cognition Research - Partenaires INRAE); Antoine Missemer (CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: The history of ecological economic thought (EET) has been addressed in different ways and according to multifarious foundations, given the evolving character of conceptions of natural processes and economic phenomena. This article proposes a theoretical framework for understanding EET as the set of ideas bridging the social and the natural worlds by means of shared ontologies and epistemologies. These ideas stand against the human-nature divide which characterizes modern Western thought, contribute to thinking about contemporary sustainability challenges, and offer a more structured intellectual history of the roots of ecological economics. The article argues that writing the history of EET calls for an appraisal of historiographical challenges, in particular the risks posed by presentism and anachronism. It also reviews the literature engaging with the history of EET and, finally, identifies new lines of research, especially in terms of global narratives.
    Abstract: A história do pensamento econômico-ecológico (PEE) tem sido construída de diversas formas e de acordo com diferentes fundamentos, dado o caráter evolutivo de conceitos relacionados a processos naturais e econômicos. Este artigo propõe um arcabouço teórico para se entender o PEE como um conjunto de ideias interligando as esferas social e natural por meio de ontologias e epistemologias compartilhadas. Essas ideias se opõem a dicotomias entre o humano e o natural que caracterizam o pensamento ocidental moderno, contribuindo para a elucidação de desafios contemporâneos no contexto da sustentabilidade e oferecendo uma história intelectual estruturada das raízes da economia ecológica. O artigo defende que escrever a história do PEE requer o escrutínio dos desafios historiográficos, em particular dos riscos associados ao presentismo e ao anacronismo; além disso, ele traz uma revisão da literatura sobre PEE e, finalmente, identifica novas linhas de pesquisa com destaque para narrativas globais.
    Keywords: intellectual history,strong interdisciplinarity,historiography,ecological economics,longue durée,economia ecológica,história intelectual,interdisciplinaridade forte,historiografia
    Date: 2022
  7. By: Ezzedine Ghlamallah (CERGAM - Centre d'Études et de Recherche en Gestion d'Aix-Marseille - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - UTLN - Université de Toulon)
    Keywords: DIgitization,Islamic finance,Takaful
    Date: 2021–05–22
  8. By: Pedro Lopez Merino (LAMSADE - Laboratoire d'analyse et modélisation de systèmes pour l'aide à la décision - Université Paris Dauphine-PSL - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, ECODEVELOPPEMENT - Unité de recherche d'Écodéveloppement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, ADEME - Agence de l'Environnement et de la Maîtrise de l'Energie); Juliette Rouchier (LAMSADE - Laboratoire d'analyse et modélisation de systèmes pour l'aide à la décision - Université Paris Dauphine-PSL - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: EasyChair preprints are intended for rapid dissemination of research results and are integrated with the rest of EasyChair.
    Date: 2021–05–26
  9. By: Aurélie Leclercq Vandelannoitte (LEM - Lille économie management - UMR 9221 - UA - Université d'Artois - UCL - Université catholique de Lille - Université de Lille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This study aims to better understand the modern evolution of the workplace not only as a place to work but also increasingly as a place to live. Current research largely excludes the instrumental aspects of this blurring of personal and professional spheres at work, as manifested in an intentional dissolution of the boundaries between work and non-work activities. To understand the meaning and implications of these new workplaces, which rely on a central tension between care and control and tend to reinterpret paternalism as an organizing principle, this study develops a conceptual framework derived from Michel Foucault's concept of pastoral power. This framework helps make sense of a caring mode of power that marks modern organizations. The application of this framework-using a qualitative case study of a French company's home-like working environment-suggests a processual and constructivist conceptualization of these workplaces as a manifestation of pastoral power, embedded in a broader governmentality strategy. It emphasizes the material and discursive construction of the workplace as a place to live and highlights the emergence of neo-paternalism as a new form of care and control. This critical perspective informs discussion on the implications of this caring mode of control for workers, in a hopeful call to stay alert to modern capitalist intrigues.
    Keywords: Workplace,Michel Foucault,pastoral power,governmentality,home-like workplace,work-life boundary,space,paternalism,care and control
    Date: 2021–05–20
  10. By: Sandrine Benoist (VALLOREM - Val de Loire Recherche en Management - UO - Université d'Orléans - UT - Université de Tours)
    Abstract: The unprecedented health crisis we have been through has highlighted a unique category of women and men: essential workers (Lazar and al., 2020). Among these actors, farmers occupy a special place. Indeed, the tensions observed during the first lockdown highlighted the centrality of their work, between issues of productive sovereignty (Cohen, 2020; De Boissieu, 2020; Dumont, 2020; Gaillard, 2020), place of a local food offer, accessible and available (Neveu, 2020; Rastoin, 2020) and environmental challenges. Covid-19 has put our society in front of the limits of a productivist and intensive agricultural model that has become obsolete, and in this context, organic farmers are an interesting population for several reasons. While it enjoys a generally positive social perception and has benefited from renewed consumer interest (FranceAgriMer, 2020), it is not free from criticism, such as the supposed impossible access to all (scarcity) and for all (high cost) of its products (Kressman, 2021). The analysis of the discourse of these committed actors highlights many role strain (Katz and Kahn, 1966; Perrot, 2000; Djabi and Perrot, 2016; Arras-Djabi and al., 2021), inviting us to consider the agriculture we want at the dawn of a post-covid society. It also questions our expectations and paradoxes of organic farmers.
    Abstract: La crise sanitaire inédite que nous avons traversée a mis en lumière une catégorie singulière de femmes et d'hommes : les travailleuses et les travailleurs essentiels (Lazar et al., 2020). Parmi ces acteurs, les agricultrices et agriculteurs occupent une place à part. En effet, les tensions observées à l'occasion du premier confinement ont mis en lumière la centralité de leur travail, entre enjeux de souveraineté productive (Cohen, 2020 ; De Boissieu, 2020 ; Dumont, 2020 ; Gaillard, 2020), place d'une offre alimentaire de proximité, accessible et disponible (Neveu, 2020 ; Rastoin, 2020) et défis environnementaux. Le Covid-19 a mis notre société face aux limites d'un modèle agricole productiviste et intensif devenu obsolète, et dans ce contexte, les agricultrices et agriculteurs biologiques constituent une population intéressante à plusieurs titres. Si elle jouit d'une perception sociale globalement positive et a bénéficié du regain d'intérêt des consommateurs (FranceAgriMer, 2020), elle n'est pas exempte de critiques, telles le supposé impossible accès à tous (rareté) et pour tous (cherté) de ses produits (Kressman, 2021). L'analyse du discours de ces acteurs engagés met en lumière des tensions de rôle (Katz et Kahn, 1966 ; Perrot, 2000 ; Djabi et Perrot, 2016 ; Arras-Djabi et al., 2021) nombreuses, nous invitant à réfléchir à l'agriculture que nous voulons à l'aube d'une société post-covid. Elle interroge aussi nos attentes et nos paradoxes à l'égard des agricultrices et agriculteurs biologiques.
    Keywords: Covid-19,Role theory,Essential workers,Paradox,Role Strain,Job Strain,Stress professionnel,Organic Farmers,Farmers,Farmer group,Théorie des rôles,Agricultrices biologiques,Agriculteurs biologiques,Bio,HVE,Haute Valeur environnementale,Travailleuses essentielles,Travailleurs essentiels,Ressources adaptatives,Facteurs psychosociaux de risques,Risques psychosociaux,Paradoxe,Tensions de rôle,Modèle agricole,Agriculture biologique,Agriculture,Monde agricole,Exploitants agricoles,Agriculteurs,Agricultrices
    Date: 2022–03–10
  11. By: Philippe Lorino (ESSEC Business School - Essec Business School)
    Date: 2022–01–04
  12. By: Oussama Benlabbah (Faculté des Sciences Juridiques, Economiques et Sociales - Université Mohamed V - Souissi)
    Abstract: This article comes within the framework of the insufficiency of the measures taken by the public authorities withregard to the empowerment of women. Empowerment is a recent concept that has aroused the interest of academics and practitioners for some decades. The ambiguity of agreeing around a universal definition still persists. On the other hand, the main features of a global definition do exist. However, we can define women's empowerment as the ability of women to make strategic decisions about their own lives and to access the resources necessary to ensure their independence and contribute to their well-being and the prosperity of their country. This work aims to highlight the obstacles facing the empowerment of women in Morocco. For this, we considered semi-directive interviews as part of a qualitative methodology in order to focus on these obstacles from the point of view of women. Subsequently, a textual analysis using the Nvivo tool was applied to interpret the results. These show that access to education and its quality, the socio-cultural structure, family influence are among the main obstacles to the overall and effective empowerment of Moroccan women. However, integrating the notion of empowerment into school curricula, guaranteeing equal access to higher education, ICTs, awareness-raising can play a crucial role in making women's empowerment a participatory process, effective, comprehensive and efficient.
    Abstract: Cet article intervient dans le cadre de l'insuffisance des mesures prises par les autorités publiques en ce qui concerne l'empowerment des femmes. L'empowerment est un concept récent qui a suscité l'intérêt des académiciens et praticiens depuis quelque décennie. L'ambigüité de s'accorder au tour d'une définition universelle persiste toujours. Par contre, les principaux traits d'une définition globale existent. Cependant, nous pouvons définir l'empowerment des femmes comme la capacité de la femme à prendre des décisions stratégiques de sa propre vie et d'accéder aux ressources nécessaires pour assurer son indépendance et contribuer à son bien-être et la prospérité de son pays. Ce travail a pour objectif de mettre l'accent sur les obstacles face à l'empowerment des femmes au Maroc. Pour ce, nous avons envisagé des entretiens semi-directifs dans le cadre d'une méthodologie qualitative afin de mettre le point sur ces obstacles du point de vue des femmes. Par la suite une analyse textuelle à l'aide de l'outil Nvivo a été appliquée pour interpréter les résultats. Ces derniers montrent que l'accès à l'éducation et sa qualité, la structure socio culturelle, l'emprise familiale sont parmi les obstacles principaux face à un empowerment global et effectif des femmes marocaines. Cependant, intégrer la notion de l'autonomisation dans les programmes scolaires, garantir l'égalité de l'accès à l'enseignement supérieur, les TIC, la sensibilisation peut jouer un rôle crucial pour faire de l'empowerment des femmes un processus participatif, effectif, global et efficient
    Keywords: Obstacles to women's empowerment,Inclusive development,new development model,Autonomisation des femmes,nouveau modèle de développement,obstacles face à l'empowerment des femmes
    Date: 2022
  13. By: Moritz Hardt; Meena Jagadeesan; Celestine Mendler-D\"unner
    Abstract: We introduce the notion of performative power, which measures the ability of a firm operating an algorithmic system, such as a digital content recommendation platform, to steer a population. We relate performative power to the economic theory of market power. Traditional economic concepts are well known to struggle with identifying anti-competitive patterns in digital platforms--a core challenge is the difficulty of defining the market, its participants, products, and prices. Performative power sidesteps the problem of market definition by focusing on a directly observable statistical measure instead. High performative power enables a platform to profit from steering participant behavior, whereas low performative power ensures that learning from historical data is close to optimal. Our first general result shows that under low performative power, a firm cannot do better than standard supervised learning on observed data. We draw an analogy with a firm being a price-taker, an economic condition that arises under perfect competition in classical market models. We then contrast this with a market where performative power is concentrated and show that the equilibrium state can differ significantly. We go on to study performative power in a concrete setting of strategic classification where participants can switch between competing firms. We show that monopolies maximize performative power and disutility for the participant, while competition and outside options decrease performative power. We end on a discussion of connections to measures of market power in economics and of the relationship with ongoing antitrust debates.
    Date: 2022–03

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