nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2022‒03‒21
twenty-one papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. Global dynamics and country-level development in academic economics: An explorative cognitive-bibliometric study By Aigner, Ernest
  2. Impact of COVID-19 Crisis, Global Transformation Approaches and Emerging Organisational Adaptations: Towards a Restructured Evolutionary Perspective By Vlados, Charis; Chatzinikolaou, Dimos
  3. Re-reading Carl Menger’s Grundsätze. A Book That “Cries Out To Be Surpassed” By Kurz, Heinz D.
  4. Towards a restructured theorization of development and adaptability for the post-COVID-19 era: The Stra.Tech.Man approach By Vlados, Charis; Chatzinikolaou, Dimos
  5. Evolutionary Transformation of the Global System and the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Search for a New Development Trajectory By Vlados, Charis; Chatzinikolaou, Dimos
  6. Aux Ouvrières!: socialist feminism in the Paris Commune By Muldoon, James; Müller, Mirjam; Leipold, Bruno
  7. Rethinking capacity utilization choice: the role of surrogate inventory and entry deterrence By Thomas I. Palley
  8. Change Management, Organizational Adaptation, and Labor Market Restructuration: Notes for the Post-COVID-19 Era By Vlados, Charis; Koutroukis, Theodore; Chatzinikolaou, Dimos
  9. Οικονομική ανάπτυξη έναντι οικονομικής μεγέθυνσης: Η συμβολή του Γ. Χατζηκωνσταντίνου στην ανάδειξη και στον εμπλουτισμό της πολυδιάστατης και κρίσιμης σημασίας προβληματικής By Vlados, Charis; Chatzinikolaou, Dimos
  10. Whatever happened to the 'Goodwin pattern'? By Mark Setterfield
  11. The Role of Agribusiness in Polish Economy: An Analysis Based on the Input-Output Tables By Ambroziak, Łukasz
  12. Labour market trajectories and conciliation efforts among female Uber drivers By Marina Luz GARCÍA
  13. Four levers of reciprocity across human societies: concepts, analysis and predictions By Lehmann, Laurent; Powers, Simon T.; van Schaik, Carel P.
  14. Who claims the rights to livestock? Exploring gender patterns of asset holdings in smallholder households in Uganda By Hillesland, Marya; Doss, Cheryl; Slavchevska, Vanya
  15. The post-Keynesian "crowding-in" policy meme: Government-Led Semi-Autonomous Demand growth By Brett Fiebinger
  16. Nouvelle crise et vieux débats : la résurgence des difficultés de l’économie administrée sous la Covid-19 By Antoine Gentier
  17. ECONOMICS IN WORDS By Vera Komarova
  18. Scarcity By Daoud, Adel
  19. A 2D Levy-flight model for the complex dynamics of real-life financial markets By Hediye Yarahmadi; Abbas Ali Saberi
  20. Qowaidh Al-amr alaa saii’ nahii an diddhi dalam Bertransaksi dengan Bank Konvensional dan Efeknya terhadap Pertumbuhan Perbankan Syariah By Ula, Fiskiatul; Kurniawan, Rachmad Risqy
  21. La démocratie en entreprise : construire la décision collective, le cas de 3 PME dans le secteur économique des services By Distler Frédéric

  1. By: Aigner, Ernest
    Abstract: The structure of academic economics has received a fair amount of attention within and beyond the discipline. Less focus has been given the interdependencies of country and global dynamics. Building and advancing this tradition, this explorative study examines geographic variation and country specific developments in research practices in academic economics. More specifically I investigate the interdependencies of global dynamics with country-level developments in the US, Germany, UK, France, Switzerland and Austria. To that purpose the study investigates a large-scale data set using inequality measures and social network analysis. The dataset analysed in this study comprises 453,863 articles published in 477 journals citing each other a total of 3,807,289 times. This exploratory study confirms the high level of concentration and finds similar trends on the country level. Further, an international convergence in the discipline can be observed, possibly limiting the place-specific relevance of knowledge created in academic economics.
    Keywords: economic sociology, academic economics, citation analysis, heterodox economics, concentration, geography of economics
    Date: 2021
  2. By: Vlados, Charis (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics); Chatzinikolaou, Dimos (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: The pandemic crisis of COVID-19, despite its unforeseen and explosive spread, constitutes a structural disturbance of global socio-economic balances. Through the fourth industrial revolution and amid the unexpected and profound recessionary economic pressures on a global scale, our world is heading towards a “new globalisation.” Exploring the economic and social implications of the COVID-19 crisis through several theoretical tools for interpreting the current global transformation, we conclude that the global economy is facing a severe threat. A renewed evolutionary theoretical interpretation seems imperative, and any perseverance to simplified and strictly fragmentary past approaches can only be ineffective. In this context, the long-term and sustainable exit of this crisis seems to require multiform organisational adaptations, at all levels of operation and by all actors, that can come only with the joint dynamics of innovation and effective change management.
    Keywords: COVID-19; organisational adaptation; innovation; evolutionary economics; digital transformation; new globalisation; change management
    JEL: B52 F69 M19 O30
    Date: 2021–12–01
  3. By: Kurz, Heinz D. (University of Graz)
    Abstract: The paper reconsiders Menger’s Grundsätze (1871). It recalls, first, that the theory of marginal utility was developed by representatives of the so-called “German Use Value School”; secondly, that Menger’s criticism of the theories of value and distribution of the classical economists is based on severe misunderstandings; third, that his alternative construction is marred with difficulties spotted by Böhm-Bawerk and Wieser; fourth, that relative prices reflect inter alia the substances that “transmigrate” into commodities in the course of production. The Grundsätze are nevertheless a “great” work, because it invites to correct what is problematic in it and develop what is sound.
    Keywords: Classical economics; Essentialism; German Use Value School; Imputation problem; In-come distribution; Marginalism; Menger; Carl; Production; Rau; Karl Heinrich; Ricardo; David; Smith; Adam; Subjectivism; Successivism; Value
    JEL: A12 B12 B13 B31 D11 D24 D33 D42 D46 D51 D80 N00 O10
    Date: 2022–03–16
  4. By: Vlados, Charis (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics); Chatzinikolaou, Dimos (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: It becomes progressively understood that the health crisis (and the deriving socioeconomic crisis) of COVID-19 drives the global system towards radical transformations. The successful adaptation of the various socioeconomic actors in this emerging reality probably constitutes the most significant challenge ahead. This chapter suggests a restructured theorization of socioeconomic development for the post-COVID-19 era, focused on the prerequisite organizational adaptation. This conceptual research examines fundamental evidence concerning current developments globally, arriving at a repositioning in evolutionary and interdisciplinary terms by adopting the strategy-technology-management synthesis to change management and innovation (Stra.Tech.Man).
    Keywords: Adaptability; Change Management; Economic Growth; Evolutionary Management; Fourth Industrial Revolution; Innovation; Interdisciplinarity; Post-COVID-19 Era; Socioeconomic Development; Stra.Tech.Man Approach
    JEL: M19 O10 O12 O30
    Date: 2021–11
  5. By: Vlados, Charis (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics); Chatzinikolaou, Dimos (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: In this study, we aim to determine how the global turmoil of COVID-19 acts as a catalyst for global transformations. After examining recent sociological and economic implications of this pandemic crisis, we analyse specific theoretical frameworks that can be helpful to illuminate some of the features of the current global evolutionary readjustment from an elliptic point of view. These theoretical approaches are the techno-economic paradigm shift, the notion of ‘endless transition’, the fourth industrial revolution analytical framework, and the approach of ‘new globalisation’. Finally, we identify that the current pandemic crisis has caused a ‘stroke’ to the world economy that accelerates developments and radically intensifies the pre-existing challenges. Especially for the less developed, stable, and resilient socio-economic systems and organisations (the case study of Cyprus is examined, respectively), we conclude that their survival and growth depends primarily upon their potential for adaptiveness, innovation, and on building efficient change management aptitudes and mechanisms.
    Keywords: evolutionary global transformation; COVID-19 pandemic; economic development; techno-economic paradigm shift; endless transition; fourth industrial revolution; new globalisation; Cypriot socio-economic system; adaptiveness; change management
    JEL: B52 F63 F69 M19 O10
    Date: 2021–11–16
  6. By: Muldoon, James; Müller, Mirjam; Leipold, Bruno
    Abstract: Feminist and socialist movements both aim at emancipation yet have often been at odds. The socialist feminists of the Paris Commune provide one of the few examples in late nineteenth-century Europe of a political movement combining the two. This article offers a new interpretation of the Commune feminists, focusing on the working-class women’s organisation the Union des femmes. We highlight how the Commune feminists articulated the specific form of oppression experienced by working-class women as both women and workers, which consequently required a joint, yet differentiated, struggle to overcome. We explore three aspects of this framework. First, the Commune feminists offered a vision of the transformation of the social through reforms to girls’ education, the family and women’s work. Second, they practised a politics of coalition building by connecting their struggle with those of other oppressed groups, such as male workers, peasants and workers of other nations. Third, these ideas were instantiated in the Union des femmes’ novel proposal for women’s worker co-operatives as part of a socialist re-organisation of the economy.
    Keywords: commune feminism; feminism; France; Paris Commune; socialism; socialist feminism
    JEL: B14 B24 P2 P3
    Date: 2022–01–31
  7. By: Thomas I. Palley
    Abstract: This paper presents a macroeconomics-friendly Post Keynesian model of the firm describing both an inventory theoretic approach and an entry deterrence approach to choice of excess capacity. The model explains why firms may rationally choose to have excess capacity. It also shows the two approaches are complementary and reinforcing of each other. Analytically, the paper makes three principal contributions. First, it provides a simple framework for understanding the microeconomics of capacity utilization choice. Second, it reframes the Post Keynesian discussion of capacity utilization by making excess capacity choice the key to understanding normal capacity utilization. Third, it implicitly challenges Neo-Kaleckian wage-led growth theory as the model shows choice of the optimal excess capacity rate is independent of the level of demand.
    Keywords: Capacity utilization, excess capacity, surrogate inventory, entry deterrence, wage-led growth
    JEL: D21 D24 E12
    Date: 2021
  8. By: Vlados, Charis (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics); Koutroukis, Theodore (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics); Chatzinikolaou, Dimos (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: The recent transformation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic crisis drives the world economy to an accelerated mutation. This chapter focuses on how the current developments affect the various socioeconomic organizations and systems and how they can adapt to this new emerging reality. To this end, relevant forecasts on the current pandemic crisis are examined. Τhis crisis seems to cause the acceleration of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, functioning as a catalyst of the structural changes also observed in the working environment. The chapter suggests that all socioeconomic organizations (irrespectively of their size, spatial reach, and sectorial focus) are called upon nowadays to readjust themselves and that innovation is the fundamental generator for exiting the ongoing structural crisis. However, innovation unavoidably creates significant changes that socioeconomic organizations must manage effectively in the foreseeable future, according to a new way of perceiving organizational resilience and adaptability for the post-COVID-19 era.
    Keywords: Fourth Industrial Revolution; Post-COVID-19 Era; Evolutionary Organizational Adaptation; Neo-Schumpeterian Innovation; Post-COVID-19 Change Management; Post-COVID-19 Working Environment
    JEL: E24 F66 M19 O10
    Date: 2021–11
  9. By: Vlados, Charis (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics); Chatzinikolaou, Dimos (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: Greek Abstract: Το έργο του Γ. Χατζηκωνσταντίνου παρέχει έναν σημαντικό κόμβο στη μελέτη της έννοιας της οικονομικής ανάπτυξης στην ελληνική βιβλιογραφία της οικονομικής επιστήμης. Ο Γ. Χατζηκωνσταντίνου έχει ασκήσει, σε μια μακρά σειρά ετών διδακτικού και συγγραφικού έργου, πολύπλευρη κριτική στη συμβατική αντίληψη της οικονομικής μεγέθυνσης. Συγκεκριμένα, αναφέρεται στην έννοια της οικονομικής ανάπτυξης ως κάτι το ευρύτερο και πολύ πιο σύνθετο από τη στενά οριζόμενη οικονομική μεγέθυνση, καθώς περιλαμβάνει στην προσέγγιση του ηθικές, αξιακές και ιδεολογικές διαστάσεις μη δυνάμενες να «αφοπλιστούν». Υπ’ αυτήν την έννοια, το ζητούμενο της ανάπτυξης στην οπτική του καθίσταται συγχρόνως ένα αντικείμενο φιλοσοφικού στοχασμού και αδιαίρετης ιδεολογικοπολιτικής εμβέλειας. Στο παρόν κεφάλαιο επιχειρούμε να διαλευκάνουμε ελλειπτικά τη συμβολή του στην οικονομική σκέψη, εστιάζοντας σε αυτήν την εννοιολογική αντιπαραβολή μεταξύ μεγέθυνσης και ανάπτυξης. Στις επιμέρους ενότητες αναδεικνύονται και σχολιάζονται αυτούσια αποσπάσματα από το έργο του, καθώς παρουσιάζονται και σημαντικές συνεισφορές άλλων μελετητών επί της συγκεκριμένης προβληματικής, με σκοπό τη διαπίστωση της θεωρητικής σύγκλισης ή απόκλισης τους, της διαγονιμοποίησης και της συμπληρωματικότητάς τους. Η έρευνά μας καταλήγει στο συμπέρασμα πως η συμβολή του Γ. Χατζηκωνσταντίνου και η σχετική πρωτοτυπία του έργου του έγκειται στο γεγονός ότι καταφέρνει να αναλύει με διαρκή μεθοδολογική συνέπεια το φαινόμενο της οικονομικής ανάπτυξης μέσα από μία ολοκληρωμένη και συνεκτική, κοσμοθεωρητικού τύπου κοινωνικοοικονομική προσέγγιση. Καταφέρνει και αξιοποιεί τη μεθοδολογική ενότητα της συνολικότερης εκδίπλωσης των σύγχρονων κοινωνικών και φυσικών επιστημών, ασκώντας εντονότατη κριτική σε οποιαδήποτε διεκδίκηση αναλυτικής πρωτοκαθεδρίας, θεωρητικής και πρακτικής, του «οικονομισμού» και του μονοδιάστατου «οικονομικού ανθρώπου» στη σύγχρονη οικονομική επιστήμη. Υπ’ αυτήν την έννοια, εμπλουτίζει τον ενιαίο και αδιαίρετο κοινωνικοοικονομικό προσανατολισμό της επιστήμης μας.
    Keywords: Γ. Χατζηκωνσταντίνου; οικονομική ανάπτυξη; οικονομική μεγέθυνση; οικονομική εξέλιξη
    JEL: B15 B52 O10 O40
    Date: 2021–10–06
  10. By: Mark Setterfield (New School for Social Research)
    Abstract: The 'Goodwin pattern' - an anti-clockwise rotation in real activity x wage share space recurring at intervals that correspond roughly to the duration of business cycles - is an enduring feature of high-frequency dynamics in capitalist economies. It is well known that the centre or focus of this rotation shifts over time. More recently, however, the Goodwin pattern seems to have broken down, the wage share no longer increasing as the real economy improves over the course of short-term booms. In this paper, the breakdown of the Goodwin pattern is associated with the consolidation of an `incomes policy based on fear' that is part-and-parcel of neoliberalism. As a result of this incomes policy based on fear, the institutional structure of the labour market disciplines labour at any rate of unemployment. This decouples wage-share dynamics from the state of the real economy, with the result that as recently witnessed, the wage share is rendered invariant to tightening of the labour market in the course of short-term cyclical booms.
    Keywords: Goodwin pattern, distributional conflict, worker insecurity, incomes policy based on fear
    JEL: E11 E12 E25 E64
    Date: 2021
  11. By: Ambroziak, Łukasz
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to evaluate changes in the role of agribusiness in the Polish economy, the relationships between various spheres of agribusiness and its links with othersectors of the national economy. The research was conducted on the basis of the input-output tables for 2005, 2010, and 2015 published by Statistics Poland. The analysis also confirmed most of the relationships formulated so far between the agribusiness development path and the level of economic development of a given country. From 2005-2015, the share of agri-business in creating the gross value added of the Polish economy decreased, similarly as the role of internal turnover in the material supply of agriculture, while the food sector became the leading link in the agri-food sector. The agri-business sector also showed strong links with the other sectors of the economy. The changes in the food economy were caused by the intensified relations of this sector with the other countries, which translated into benefits from the international division of labor.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2021–09–23
  12. By: Marina Luz GARCÍA
    Abstract: This article examines female Uber drivers’ labour trajectories, paying attention to the way in which gender-based occupational segregation is reproduced and/or challenged in the context of the platform. It also asks how female drivers balance between paid labour and care responsibilities. The analysis focuses on the impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic on platform female drivers work-life balance. The article uses qualitative interviews with Uber female drivers, finding that the entry of female drivers into Uber comes with a significant challenge to the gender division of labour. With respect to the Argentinian context, their participation defies the idea that occupations involving driving or circulating in public spaces are inappropriate for women. However, these women’s conquests finds strong limits. In particular, the daily efforts to reconcile paid work (and its implications in terms of earnings levels and health) together with domestic care activities expose the omnipresent nature of a gender order that still needs to be systematically questioned and confronted.
    Keywords: Argentine
    JEL: Q
    Date: 2022–03–08
  13. By: Lehmann, Laurent; Powers, Simon T.; van Schaik, Carel P.
    Abstract: This paper surveys five human societal types -- mobile foragers, horticulturalists, pre-state agriculturalists, state-based agriculturalists, and liberal democracies -- from the perspective of three core social problems faced by interacting individuals: coordination problems, social dilemmas, and contest problems. We characterize the occurrence of these problems in the different societal types and enquire into the main force keeping societies together given the prevalence of these. To address this, we consider the social problems in light of the theory of repeated games, and delineate the role of intertemporal incentives in sustaining cooperative behaviour through the reciprocity principle. We analyze the population, economic and political structural features of the five societal types, and show that intertemporal incentives have been adapted to the changes in scope and scale of the core social problems as societies grew in size. In all societies, reciprocity mechanisms appear to solve the social problems by enabling lifetime direct benefits to individuals for cooperation. Our analysis leads us to predict that as societies increase in complexity, they need more of the following four features to enable the scalability and adaptability of the reciprocity principle: nested grouping, decentralized enforcement and local information, centralized enforcement and coercive power, and formal rules.
    Date: 2022–02–18
  14. By: Hillesland, Marya; Doss, Cheryl; Slavchevska, Vanya
    Abstract: This study investigates the gendered patterns of livestock ownership in rural households in Uganda using a detailed data set with information on ownership, management, and decision-making across different types of livestock. Drawing on the bundle of rights frameworks developed by Schlager and Ostrom (1992) and Benjaminsen and Ba (2009), the analysis demonstrates the importance of going beyond considering ownership to also consider these other rights. We find that people may claim to be owners, but not to have the management or fructus rights, but also people may have these latter rights without claiming ownership. Using interviews from both the husband and wife in the household, we analyze the patterns of disagreement regarding claims to these rights and find substantial disagreement.
    Keywords: UGANDA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; gender; livestock; smallholders; rural areas; households; ownership; gender asset gap; intrahousehold dynamics
    Date: 2021
  15. By: Brett Fiebinger
    Abstract: A recent literature has explored the role of semi-autonomous demand growth. This paper builds on the literature by incorporating a Lernerian government semi-autonomous demand function and an endogenous supply-side. Our main purpose is threefold. First, we wish to contribute to the case for crowding-in effects, especially in the long-run. Second, we confirm the Keynesian/Kaleckian pedigree of the capital stock adjustment principle. Third, we contrast core post-Keynesian ideas on demand-led supply-side endogeneity with the alternative neo-Marxian neo-Harrodian proposition of an exogenously-given natural growth rate, and find the latter lacking.
    Keywords: Fiscal policy, Crowding-in, Semi-autonomous demand, Capital stock adjustment principle
    JEL: B22 B50 E11 E20 E60 O42
    Date: 2021
  16. By: Antoine Gentier (AMSE - Aix-Marseille Sciences Economiques - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - École Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Austrian Economics and Public Choice are used to analyze the erratic administrative decision-making process during the Covid-19 crisis. Lockdowns policies had added a new page to the economic planning debate. The paper focus on the centralization/decentralization level of the decision and on the actors' incentives. We use an Hayekian perspective on knowledge spreading in order to explain the crucial needs of human interactions. Lockdowns had pushed social organization toward more autarkist schemes. These measures confront heavily with the core organization of open societies, creating worry economic consequences without any proved positive effect on public healthcare.
    Abstract: Les difficultés de la décision administrative durant la crise de la Covid-19 sont mises en perspective par les approches de l'École autrichienne et de l'analyse du Choix public. Cette crise et l'encadrement de l'économie par les mesures de confinement ajoutent une page originale au débat sur le calcul économique dans une économie planifiée. L'article propose une réflexion sur le niveau de la prise de décision (centralisation/décentralisation) et de la nécessaire implication des acteurs dans le processus. La diffusion de la connaissance est envisagée selon le point de vue hayékien, ce qui permet d'expliquer que les interactions humaines sont essentielles au fonctionnement des sociétés. Le retour partiel à l'autarcie provoqué par les mesures de confinement heurte de manière frontale l'organisation des sociétés ouvertes avec des conséquences émergentes préoccupantes sans nécessairement avoir des résultats probants sur le plan sanitaire.
    Keywords: Public choice,Austrian school,Knowledge,Choix public,Ecole autrichienne,Connaissance
    Date: 2021–05–07
  17. By: Vera Komarova (Daugavpils University)
    Abstract: The interdisciplinary study "ECONOMICS IN WORDS. Terminology Consistency in Translations of Economic Texts" is aimed to assess terminology consistency within corpora of Latvian and Russian textbooks on economics of "three generations" (1990s, 2000s and 2010s) (n = 61 textbook), and in addition to them – bilingual and multilingual dictionaries of economic terms issued in Latvia and Russia since 1990 (n = 9 dictionaries). In the framework of this study, terminology consistency is conceptually understood as a component of the overall quality of terminology in translations of economic texts. Results of the empirical research show that terminology consistency in textbooks on economics statistically significantly increased in the 2010s compared to the 1990s and 2000s. Using the methodology of linguistic discourse analysis, which includes both quantitative and qualitative methods, the author concluded that translation studies are able to discern social asymmetries behind linguistic ones. Considering the experience of socio-economic metamorphoses both over the past 30 years and in earlier periods, the author emphasizes the special importance of critical thinking in the creation, translation and perception of modern economic texts. The work is positioned by the author as a scientific research in the field of economic linguistics, which covers the relationship between economic reality and the language of economic texts.
    Abstract: Starpdisciplinārā pētījuma "EKONOMIKA VĀRDOS. Terminoloģijas konsekvence ekonomi-kas tekstu tulkojumos" mērķis ir novērtēt terminoloģijas konsekvenci "trīs paaudžu" (1990. gadu, 2000. gadu un 2010. gadu) ekonomikas mācību grāmatās latviešu un krievu valodā (n = 61 mācību grāmata), kā arī bilingvālajās un multilingvālajās ekonomikas terminu vārdnīcās, kas izdotas Latvijā un Krievijā kopš 1990. gada (n = 9 vārdnīcas). Šī pētījuma ietvaros terminoloģijas konsekvence konceptuāli tiek saprasta kā terminoloģijas kopējās kvalitātes sastāvdaļa ekonomikas tekstu tulko-jumos. Empīriskās izpētes rezultāti rāda, ka terminoloģijas konsekvence ekonomikas mācību grā-matās statistiski nozīmīgi palielinājās 2010. gados salīdzinājumā ar 1990. gadiem un 2000. gadiem. Pielietojot lingvistiskās diskursanalīzes metodoloģiju, kas ietver sevī gan kvantitatīvās, gan kvalita-tīvās metodes, autore secināja, ka tulkošanas pētījumi spēj noteikt sociālās asimetrijas, pamato-joties uz lingvistiskajām asimetrijām. Ņemot vērā sociāli ekonomisko metamorfožu pieredzi gan pēdējo 30 gadu laikā, gan iepriekšējos periodos, autore uzsver kritiskās domāšanas īpašo nozīmību mūsdienu ekonomikas tekstu veidošanā, tulkošanā un uztverē. Šo darbu autore pozicionē kā zināt-nisko pētījumu ekonomiskajā lingvistikā, kas pētā attiecības starp ekonomisko realitāti un ekono-mikas tekstu valodu.
    Abstract: Междисциплинарное исследование "ЭКОНОМИКА В СЛОВАХ. Единообразие терминологии в переводах экономических текстов" посвящено оценке единообразия терминологии в корпусах учебников экономики "трёх поколений" (1990-х, 2000-х и 2010-х годов) на латышском и русском языках (n = 61 учебник) и в дополнение к ним – билингвальных и мультилингвальных словарей экономических терминов, вышедших в свет в Латвии и России после 1990 года (n = 9 словарей). В рамках данного исследования единообразие терминологии концептуально понимается, как структурный элемент общего качества терминологии в переводах экономических текстов. Результаты эмпирического исследования показали, что единообразие терминологии в словарно-учебных экономических текстах статистически значимо повысилось в 2010-х годах по сравнению с 1990-ми и 2000-ми годами. Используя методологию лингвистического дискурсивного анализа, включающую как количественные, так и качественные методы, автор пришла к выводу о том, что переводоведение способно за языковыми асимметриями разглядеть социальные. Учитывая опыт социально-экономических метаморфоз как в течение последних 30 лет, так и в более ранние периоды, автор подчёркивает особую значимость критического мышления при создании, переводе и восприятии современных экономических текстов. Данная работа позиционируется автором как научное исследование в области экономической лингвистики, анализирующее взаимосвязь между экономической реальностью и языком экономических текстов.
    Keywords: economics in words,economic texts,economic terminology,linguistic discourse analysis,translation studies,economic discourse,ekonomika vārdos,ekonomikas terminoloģija,tulkošanas pētījumi,ekonomikas diskurss,ekonomikas teksti,ekonomiskā lingvistika,lingvistiskā diskursanalīze,экономика в словах,экономические тексты,экономический дискурс,экономическая терминология: дингвистический дискурсивный анализ,экономическая лингвистика,переводоведение
    Date: 2022–02–17
  18. By: Daoud, Adel
    Abstract: This chapter defines what scarcity is in ecology and neoclassical economics. It also gives an overview of key literature and developments on the research of scarcity.
    Date: 2021–12–05
  19. By: Hediye Yarahmadi; Abbas Ali Saberi
    Abstract: We report on the emergence of scaling laws in the temporal evolution of the daily closing values of the S\&P 500 index prices and its modeling based on the L\'evy flights in two dimensions (2D). The efficacy of our proposed model is verified and validated by using the extreme value statistics in random matrix theory. We find that the random evolution of each pair of stocks in a 2D price space is a scale-invariant complex trajectory whose tortuosity is governed by a $2/3$ geometric law between the gyration radius $R_g(t)$ and the total length $\ell(t)$ of the path, i.e., $R_g(t)\sim\ell(t)^{2/3}$. We construct a Wishart matrix containing all stocks up to a specific variable period and look at its spectral properties over 30 years. In contrast to the standard random matrix theory, we find that the distribution of eigenvalues has a power-law tail with a decreasing exponent over time -- a quantitative indicator of the temporal correlations. We find that the time evolution of the distance of a 2D L\'evy flights with index $\alpha=3/2$ from origin generates the same empirical spectral properties. The statistics of the largest eigenvalues of the model and the observations are in perfect agreement.
    Date: 2022–02
  20. By: Ula, Fiskiatul; Kurniawan, Rachmad Risqy
    Abstract: Abstract In this article, we will discuss the commands and prohibitions in transacting with conventional banks and their impact on the growth of Islamic banking. In the Qur'an, it has been explained that Muslims are prohibited from doing usury and it is God's rule to leave his servants in the transaction of usury and don't even approach him. Therefore, Islamic banks are banks that have securities that carry out business activities based on sharia principles, or Islamic legal principles regulated in the fatwa of the Indonesian ulema Council such as the principles of justice and balance, benefit, universalism, and do not contain gharar, maysir, usury, tyranny and unlawful object. While conventional banks are banks that carry out conventional business activities which in their activities provide services in payment traffic based on established procedures and provisions. Abstrak Dalam artikel ini akan membahas tentang perintah dan larangan dalam bertransaksi dengan bank konvensional dan dampaknya terhadap pertumbuhan perbankan syariah. Dalam Al-quran sudah dijelaskan bahwasanya umat muslim dilarang melakukan riba dan itu sudah peraturan Allah untuk meninggalkan hambanya dalam bertransaksi riba bahkan jangan sampai mendekatinya. Maka dari itulah Bank syariah merupakan bank yang memepunyai efek yang menjalankan kegiatan usaha berdasarkan prinsip syariah, atau prinsip hukum islam yang diatur dalam fatwa Majelis Ulama Indonesia seperti prinsip keadilan dan keseimbangan, kemaslahatan, universalisme, serta tidak mengandung gharar, maysir, riba, zalim dan obyek yang haram. Sedangkan bank konvensional yaitu bank yang melaksanakan kegiatan usaha secara konvensional yang mana dalam kegiatannya memberikan jasa dalam lalu lintas pembayaran berdasarkan prosedur dan ketentuan yang telah ditetapkan.
    Date: 2021–11–28
  21. By: Distler Frédéric (CEREFIGE - Centre Européen de Recherche en Economie Financière et Gestion des Entreprises - UL - Université de Lorraine)
    Abstract: L'entreprise serait-elle un îlot au sein d'une société politique qui se veut être démocratique et dans laquelle les principes de liberté, d'égalité et de fraternité seraient suspendus au nom de la raison économique et de la subordination contractuelle au détenteur de l'autorité légitime ? Nous observons que quelque soit les formes de management mise en œuvre, l'individu dans le collectif tend à exprimer son point de vue de multiples manières et souvent le collectif d'appartenance agit de même. Aussi c'est par les formes de résistances, d'opposition, de passivité, contestations...que se loge la possibilité d'expression et de contribution à la décision. C'est ainsi à partir des dynamiques d'opposition que nous avons souhaité aborder les conditions de possibilité de la démocratie en entreprise. Gérer l'opposition, la contradiction, c'est apporter de la richesse et de la diversité dans le processus de décision managérial. C'est à une généalogie de la production de la décision collective que cette recherche s'attelle à partir de l'étude de trois cas d'entreprise du secteur tertiaire.
    Keywords: participation,Democracy,power,decision,Démocratie,opposition,pouvoir,décision
    Date: 2021

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