nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2022‒01‒24
nineteen papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. Reconciling normative and behavioural economics: the problem that cannot be solved By Guilhem Lecouteux
  2. Building blocks of a heterodox business cycle theory By Robert Calvert Jump; Engelbert Stockhammer
  3. Integrated justice approach to land reform: Why is it important and how? By Bejeno, C.B.
  4. Two scenarios for sustainable welfare: a framework for an eco-social contract By Gough, Ian
  5. Des parasites au paradis ? Revenu universel, minima sociaux et réciprocité By Guillaume Allègre
  6. Strategie di governo e strutture egemoniche in tempo di pandemia By Bellanca, Nicolo'
  7. The fallacy in productivity decomposition By Simon Bruhn; Thomas Grebel; Lionel Nesta
  8. Climate justice, from top to bottom By Éloi Laurent
  9. Are the Supporters of Socialism the Losers of Capitalism? Conformism in East Germany and Transition Success By Max Deter; Martin Lange
  10. People-centric Emission Reduction in Buildings: A Data-driven and Network Topology-based Investigation By Debnath, R.; Bardhan, R.; Mohaddes, K.; Shah, D. U.; Ramage, M. H.; Alvarez, R. M.
  11. Evolutionary Stability of Behavioural Rules By Khan, Abhimanyu
  12. Ecologically unequal exchange and uneven development patterns along global value chains By Althouse, Jeff; Carballa Smichowski, Bruno; Cahen-Fourot, Louison; Durand, Cédric; Knauss, Steven
  13. Other-regarding preferences and pro-environmental behaviour: an interdisciplinary review of experimental studies By Heinz, Nicolai; Koessler, Ann Kathrin
  14. The Wobbly Economy; Global Dynamics with Phase Transitions and State Transitions By Tomohiro HIRANO; Joseph E. Stiglitz
  15. Differentiating Approach and Avoidance from Traditional Notions of Sentiment in Economic Contexts By Jacob Turton; Ali Kabiri; David Tuckett; Robert Elliott Smith; David P. Vinson
  16. Trustors' Disregard for Trustees Deciding Intuitively or Reflectively: Three Experiments on Time Constraints By Antonio M. Espin; Valerio Capraro; Brice Corgnet; Simon Gachter; Roberto Hernan-Gonzalez; Praveen Kujal; Stephen Rassenti
  17. The State and Your Hard-Earned Money: A Survey on Moral Perspectives in Public Finance By Mr. Paolo Mauro
  18. Políticas públicas para la inclusión financiera de las mujeres By Patricia López Rodríguez
  19. Women Who Are Mad By Sanchez Marrugo, Betshy Paola

  1. By: Guilhem Lecouteux (UCA - Université Côte d'Azur, GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis (... - 2019) - COMUE UCA - COMUE Université Côte d'Azur (2015 - 2019) - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Côte d'Azur)
    Abstract: Behavioural economics has challenged the normative consensus that agents ought to choose following their own preferences. I argue that normative economists implicitly defended a criterion of the sovereignty of the autonomous consumer, and that current debates in normative behavioural economics arise from disagreements about the nature of the threats to autonomy that are highlighted by behavioural economics. I argue that those disagreements result from diverging ontological conceptions of the 'self' in the literature. I distinguish between the unitary, psychodynamic, and socio-historical conceptions of the self, and show how different positive theories about preferences and the nature of the agent may determine normative positions in normative behavioural economics.
    Keywords: preference satisfaction,autonomy,welfare,reconciliation problem,socio-historical self
    Date: 2021
  2. By: Robert Calvert Jump; Engelbert Stockhammer
    Abstract: A key characteristic of heterodox theories of the business cycle is their focus on endogenous business cycle mechanisms. This paper provides an overview and comparison of four models in heterodox business cycle theory: multiplier-accelerator models, Goodwin models, Minskyan debt-cycle models, and momentum trader models. A representative model from each theory is formulated as a two-dimensional predator-prey system in continuous time, which allows us to identify the different stabilising and destabilising mechanisms. We argue that the theories are substantially competing, as they posit different mechanisms that explain cycles, but we also argue that these mechanisms are not mutually exclusive. We suggest that heterodox economists work towards a synthesis.
    Keywords: Business cycles; Endogenous cycles; Crises
    JEL: B41 B50 E32
    Date: 2022–01
  3. By: Bejeno, C.B.
    Abstract: The unjust (re)distribution of resources (in this case land) between and amongst classes and gender persists. Justice lens is explored here to better understand and intervene in the agrarian land concern. As oftentimes, gender justice on land is neglected or hardly advanced by the state, the social movement, and even by the women’s movement, the integrated justice approach is found here useful. In many experiences, including the Philippines, while peasant women lead and take the frontline roles in advancing land, the women’s strategic gender interests are, however, often neglected and overshadowed by class-based concerns. This paper argues that the class and gender-based land injustice are interconnectedly shaped by economic maldistribution, cultural misrecognition, and political misrepresentation. Thus, land question requires analyses and interventions that integrate the economic, cultural, and political aspects of justice or here coined as integrated justice approach. This approach becomes more relevant considering the on-going agrarian structure, which is often marred by violence from the opposing landlords and lack of political will from the agrarian program enforcers, operating through an outdated set of gendered norms and values.
    Keywords: Gender, integrated justice, land reform, (social) peasant movement, The Philippines.
    Date: 2021–10–22
  4. By: Gough, Ian
    Abstract: More nation states are now committing to zero net carbon by 2050 at the latest, which is encouraging, but none have faced up to the transformation of economies, societies and lives that this will entail. This article considers two scenarios for a fair transition to net zero, concentrating only on climate change, and discusses the implications for contemporary ‘welfare states’. The first is the Green New Deal framework coupled with a ‘social guarantee’. I argue that expanded public provision of essential goods and services would be a necessary component of this strategy. The second scenario goes further to counteract runaway private consumption by building a sufficiency economy with ceilings to income, wealth and consumption. This would require a further extension of state capacities and welfare state interventions. The article provides a framework for comparing and developing these two very different approaches.
    Keywords: Green New Deal; Universal Basic Services; sufficiency; floors; ceilings; CUP deal
    JEL: J1 N0
    Date: 2021–11–18
  5. By: Guillaume Allègre (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques - Sciences Po - Sciences Po)
    Abstract: Should society feed surfers? The question has arisen in these terms since Van Parijs suggested to Rawls that a basic income would be in line with his theory of justice. Rawls replied that those who surf should find a way to support themselves. Most Western countries have guaranteed minimum incomes which have conditions in terms of social or professional integration efforts, in a logic of reciprocity. The refusal that others live voluntarily at their expense, in a parasitic relationship, is a value widely shared value across countries, religions and belief systems. For Van Parijs, basic income can be justified by the common ownership of exogenous resources (land, raw materials). From a non-perfectionist perspective, respecting everyone's conceptions of what a good life is, the fact that people using one's resources pay income to those who do not use them, maximizes the real freedom of all. It is argued here that this argument uses a specific conception of co-ownership (right equal to the income of the property), but that there is another conception (equal right to the use of the property). This later conception can be seen when co-owners of a tennis court can usually use it at leisure, but not rent the slots to an outside person. The idea of co-ownership of exogenous resources is therefore not a definitive argument for basic income. We conclude by discussing the characteristics of a guaranteed minimum income that would minimize various forms of injustice.
    Abstract: La société doit-elle nourrir les surfeurs ? La question se pose dans ces termes depuis que Van Parijs a suggéré à Rawls qu'un revenu universel serait conforme à sa théorie de la justice et que ce dernier lui a répondu que ceux qui font du surf devraient trouver une façon de subvenir à leurs propres besoins. Comme en France, la plupart des pays occidentaux ont mis en place des revenus minimum garantis sous conditions d'efforts d'insertion sociale ou professionnelle, dans une logique de réciprocité. Le refus qu'autrui vive volontairement à ses dépens, dans une relation de parasitage, est une valeur largement partagée à travers les pays et les religions. Pour Van Parijs, le Revenu universel peut être justifié par la propriété commune de ressources exogènes (la terre, les matières premières). Dans une optique non-perfectionniste, respectant les conceptions de chacun de ce qu'est la vie bonne, le fait que les personnes utilisant ses ressources versent un revenu à ceux qui ne les utilise pas, permet de maximiser la liberté réelle de tous. On argue ici que l'auteur utilise une conception spécifique de la copropriété (droit égal aux revenus de la propriété), mais qu'il existe une autre conception (droit égal à l'utilisation de la propriété), de même que les co-propriétaires d'un tennis peuvent en général l'utiliser à loisir, mais pas louer les créneaux à une personne extérieure. L'idée de copropriété des ressources exogènes n'est ainsi pas un argument définitif en faveur du Revenu universel. Nous discutons en conclusion des caractéristiques d'un revenu minimum garanti qui minimiserait différentes formes d'injustice.
    Keywords: basic income,minimum income schemes,reciprocity,revenu universel,minimum social,réciprocité
    Date: 2021–01–01
  6. By: Bellanca, Nicolo'
    Abstract: The paper discusses pandemic governance strategies and argues that, even in the absence of a single successful model, some indispensable characteristics for an adequate strategy are nevertheless identifiable. On the basis of these characteristics, it is possible to evaluate what the various governments have (or have not) achieved. It then examines a governance perspective that holds together the protection of lives, economic needs and the quality of social relations. It suggests that, facing a pandemic in the 21st century, this perspective is, even if imperfectly, approximable. Finally, the chapter addresses the interpretative category within which to place the pandemic event. The pandemic is usually interpreted as a crisis, within a conception whereby social change occurs through long phases of stability interspersed with sudden and rapid discontinuities. However, this does not appear appropriate in regard to a shock which, in several respects, is becoming chronic, and which is therefore destined to last. Therefore, to better represent the salient aspects of the current phase, the Gramscian notion of “interregnum” is taken up and reworked.
    Keywords: Pandemia, Interregno, Declino italiano, Strategie di governo, Egemonia, Gramsci
    JEL: I12 I18 O38 P17 Z18
    Date: 2021–12–25
  7. By: Simon Bruhn; Thomas Grebel; Lionel Nesta (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques - Sciences Po - Sciences Po)
    Abstract: This paper argues that the typical practice of performing growth decompositions based on log-transformed productivity values induces fallacious conclusions: using logs may lead to an inaccurate aggregate growth rate, an inaccurate description of the microsources of aggregate growth, or both. We identify the mathematical sources of this log-induced fallacy in decomposition and analytically demonstrate the questionable reliability of log results. Using firm-level data from the French manufacturing sector during the 2009-2018 period, we empirically show that the magnitude of the log-induced distortions is substantial. Depending on the definition of accurate log measures, we find that around 60-80% of four-digit industry results are prone to mismeasurement. We further find significant correlations of this mismeasurement with commonly deployed industry characteristics, indicating, among other things, that less competitive industries are more prone to log distortions. Evidently, these correlations also affect the validity of studies that investigate the role of industry characteristics in productivity growth.
    Keywords: productivity decomposition,growth,log approximation,geometric mean,arithmetic mean
    Date: 2021–01–01
  8. By: Éloi Laurent (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques - Sciences Po - Sciences Po)
    Abstract: In this paper, I attempt to give empirical meaning to climate justice by defining simple criteria of allocation of the remaining global carbon budget based on biophysics constraints and recognized justice principles. The originality of the paper, beyond the choice of indicators meeting justice criteria and their empirical incarnation, is to connect global climate justice to national climate justice, showing how a given country (France in this case) can opt for a national strategy of emissions reduction criteria to allocate its national globally determined carbon budget. In this sense, the paper descends from biophysical constraint down to individual allocation. The first section of the paper deals with global climate justice while the second section relates to national climate justice in France.
    Abstract: Dans cet article, je tente de donner un sens empirique à la notion de justice climatique en définissant des critères simples d'allocation du bilan carbone global restant à émettre d'ici à 2050 sur la base de contraintes biophysiques et de principes de justice reconnus dans la littérature académique. L'originalité de l'article, au-delà du choix des indicateurs correspondant à ces critères et de leur incarnation empirique, est de relier la justice climatique mondiale à la justice climatique nationale, en montrant comment un pays donné (la France en l'occurrence) peut opter pour une stratégie nationale de réduction de ses émissions pour allouer son budget carbone national globalement déterminé. En ce sens, l'article permet de descendre de la contrainte biophysique jusqu'à l'allocation individuelle. La première section de l'article traite de la justice climatique mondiale tandis que la deuxième section porte sur les modalités de la justice climatique nationale en France.
    Keywords: climate justice,carbon budget,COP 26,France
    Date: 2021–01–01
  9. By: Max Deter; Martin Lange
    Abstract: The empirical literature is inconclusive about whether a country’s democratization goes hand in hand with a reallocation of economic resources. With newly available individual-level data of former residents of the socialist German Democratic Republic (GDR), we analyse how supporters and opponents of the socialist system performed within the market-based democracy of West Germany after reunification. Protesters, those who helped to overthrow the socialist regime in the Peaceful Revolution show higher life satisfaction and better labor market outcomes in the new economic system. Former members of the ruling socialist party and employees in state-supervised sectors become substantially less satisfied. These results do not seem to be driven by individual reactions to the transition, but rather by the removal of discriminatory practices in the GDR. Additional results indicate that conformism in the GDR also explains political preferences over the almost three decades after the reunification of Germany.
    Keywords: East Germany, state socialism, transition, labor market, life satisfaction
    JEL: H10 N44 P20 D31
    Date: 2021
  10. By: Debnath, R.; Bardhan, R.; Mohaddes, K.; Shah, D. U.; Ramage, M. H.; Alvarez, R. M.
    Abstract: There is a growing consensus among policymakers that we need a human-centric low-carbon transition. There are few studies on how to do it effectively, especially in the context of emissions reduction in the building sector. It is critical to investigate public sentiment and attitudes towards this aspect of climate action, as the building and construction sector accounts for 40% of global carbon emissions. Our methodology involves a multi-method approach, using a data-driven exploration of public sentiment using 256,717 tweets containing #emission and #building between 2009 - 2021. Using graph theory-led metrics, a network topology-based investigation of hashtag co-occurrences was used to extract highly influential hashtags. Our results show that public sentiment is reactive to global climate policy events. Between 2009-2012, #greenbuilding, #emissions were highly influential, shaping the public discourse towards climate action. In 2013-2016, #lowcarbon, #construction and #energyefficiency had high centrality scores, which were replaced by hashtags like #climatetec, #netzero, #climateaction, #circulareconomy, and #masstimber, #climatejustice in 2017-2021. Results suggest that the current building emission reduction context emphasises the social and environmental justice dimensions, which is pivotal to an effective people-centric policymaking.
    Keywords: Emission, climate change, building, computational social science, people-centric transition, Twitter
    JEL: C63 Q54
    Date: 2022–01–05
  11. By: Khan, Abhimanyu
    Abstract: I develop the notion of evolutionary stability of behavioural rules in a game-theoretic setting. Each individual chooses a strategy, possibly taking into account the game's history, and the manner in which he chooses his strategy is encapsulated by a behavioural rule. The payoffs obtained by individuals following a particular behavioural rule determine that rule's fitness. A population is stable if whenever some individuals from an incumbent behavioural rule mutate and follow another behavioural rule, the fitness of each incumbent behavioural rule exceeds that of the mutant behavioural rule. I show that any population comprised of more than one behavioural rule is not stable, and present necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of a population comprised of a single behavioural rule.
    Keywords: behavioural rules, evolutionary stability
    JEL: C73
    Date: 2021–12–30
  12. By: Althouse, Jeff; Carballa Smichowski, Bruno; Cahen-Fourot, Louison; Durand, Cédric; Knauss, Steven
    Abstract: The ecologically unequal exchange (EUE) literature has provided ample empirical evidence for asymmetric transfer of material and energy resources from low-income to high-income countries. However, research has not been able to clearly specify the causal mechanisms driving these processes. This paper relates participation in global value chains (GVCs) to development patterns and ecologically unequal exchange. We conduct a principal components analysis and a clustering analysis along six dimensions (GVC participation, GVC value capture, investment, socioeconomic development, domestic environmental impact and international environmental balance) for 133 countries between 1995 and 2015. We find three social, ecological, productive development and GVC insertion patterns: “curse of GVC marginalization”, “ecologically perverse upgrading” and “reproduction of the core”. While our results confirm the asymmetry in ecological degradation between high-income and low-income economies shown by EUE, they support the existence of alternative mechanisms to account for it. We argue that environmental asymmetries are driven in large part by differences in how countries articulate within GVCs, and therefore cannot be ascribed to relations of ecologically unequal exchange, alone. Countries with a higher capacity to capture value from GVC participation (“reproduction of the core”) are able to displace environmental impacts to countries facing a trade-off between the positive socio-economic impacts of rapid GVC integration and ecological degradation (“ecologically perverse upgrading”). GVC marginalization, in turn, constitutes a barrier to socio-economic benefits and to imported ecological degradation. However, the lack of diffusion of more ecologically-efficient processes through GVCs has a negative impact on domestic ecological degradation for countries of the “curse of GVC marginalization” group.
    Keywords: Global Value Chains; Ecologically unequal exchange; Development patterns
    Date: 2022–01–18
  13. By: Heinz, Nicolai; Koessler, Ann Kathrin
    Abstract: Pro-environmental behaviour (PEB) is often promoted by reinforcing or highlighting own benefits. However, considering that actors also care about the outcomes for others (i.e. they hold other-regarding preferences), PEB may also be encouraged by addressing these other-regarding preferences. In this paper, we review the results from social science experiments where interventions addressing other-regarding preferences were used to promote PEB. Based on our synthesis, we conclude that addressing other-regarding preferences can be effective in promoting (various types of) PEB in some, but not in all instances. Whether an intervention was effective depended inter alia on the pre-established preferences, cost structures and the perceived cooperation of others. Effective interventions included the provision of information on behavioural consequences, perspective-taking, direct appeals, framing and re-categorization. The interventions worked by activating other-regarding preferences, raising awareness about adverse consequences, evoking empathic concern and expanding the moral circle. We propose to take these findings as an impulse to examine policy instruments and institutions in terms of whether they activate and strengthen other-regarding preferences, thereby enabling collective engagement in PEB.
    Keywords: empathic concern; experiments; other-regarding preferences; preference activation; pro-environmental behaviour; review
    JEL: D90 Q56 Y80
    Date: 2021–06–01
  14. By: Tomohiro HIRANO; Joseph E. Stiglitz
    Abstract: This paper develops a model providing a markedly different picture of the dynamics of capitalism from the standard model with infinitely lived individuals with rational expectations. Using the standard life-cycle model with production, we show that under not implausible conditions, we show that starting from any initial conditions, there can be a plethora of rational expectations dynamics, including wobbly macro-dynamics i.e. the macroeconomy can bounce around infinitely without converging depending on peoples beliefs without regular periodicity. As a result, laissez-faire market economies can be plagued by repeated periods of instabilities, inefficiencies, and unemployment. The characteristics associated with wobbly dynamics is that the state of the economy endogenously changes from a state with a unique momentary equilibrium into a state with multiple momentary equilibria, or vice versa, which we call a phase transition. Depending on how phase transitions occur, various patterns of wobbly dynamics can occur. We identify all possible patterns of dynamics (e.g. unique and multiple, stable and unstable, steady states, with or without wobbly dynamics), providing a complete characterization of the parameter values under which each may occur. Moreover, we provide a complete analytic representation of all the possible state transitions, i.e. how a change in some key parameter changes abruptly the set of feasible global dynamics. In some cases, if a stable high output (an economic boom) benefits from an above trend temporary productivity increase, there is a state transition from a stable regime to an unstable one. The economy enters into a situation where there are multiple equilibria, with the boom now being unstable, leading to the possibility of a large-scale collapse; the economy can enter a stagnation trap characterized by involuntary unemployment. In other cases, an increase in productivity shifts the economy from the economy from the stable boom to a completely wobbly economy in which the economy endogenously fluctuates in both full-employment and involuntary unemployment regions. Thus, the economy can exhibit long run hysteresis effects. There are government interventions which can stabilize the economy and increase societal welfare.
    Date: 2021–12
  15. By: Jacob Turton; Ali Kabiri; David Tuckett; Robert Elliott Smith; David P. Vinson
    Abstract: There is growing interest in the role of sentiment in economic decision-making. However, most research on the subject has focused on positive and negative valence. Conviction Narrative Theory (CNT) places Approach and Avoidance sentiment (that which drives action) at the heart of real-world decision-making, and argues that it better captures emotion in financial markets. This research, bringing together psychology and machine learning, introduces new techniques to differentiate Approach and Avoidance from positive and negative sentiment on a fundamental level of meaning. It does this by comparing word-lists, previously constructed to capture these concepts in text data, across a large range of semantic features. The results demonstrate that Avoidance in particular is well defined as a separate type of emotion, which is evaluative/cognitive and action-orientated in nature. Refining the Avoidance word-list according to these features improves macroeconomic models, suggesting that they capture the essence of Avoidance and that it plays a crucial role in driving real-world economic decision-making.
    Date: 2021–12
  16. By: Antonio M. Espin (Department of Social Anthropology, University of Granada and Loyola Behavioral Lab, Loyola Andalucía University); Valerio Capraro (Department of Economics, Middlesex University Business School); Brice Corgnet (Emlyon Business School); Simon Gachter (University of Nottingham and IZA and CESifo); Roberto Hernan-Gonzalez (Burgundy School of Business, Universite Bourgogne Franche-Comte); Praveen Kujal (Department of Economics, Middlesex University); Stephen Rassenti (Economic Science Institute, Chapman University)
    Abstract: Previous studies have shown that women tend to be more egalitarian and less self-interested than men whereas men tend to be more concerned with social efficiency motives. The roots of such differences, however, remain unknown. Since different cognitive styles have also been associated with different distributional social preferences, we hypothesise that gender differences in social preferences can be partially explained by differences in cognitive styles (i.e., women rely more on intuition whereas men are more reflective). We test this hypothesis meta-analytically using data from seven studies conducted in four countries (USA, Spain, India, and UK; n=6,910) where cognitive reflection and social preferences were measured for men and women. In line with our hypothesis, differences in cognitive reflection scores explain up to 41% of the gender differences in social preferences. The mediation is barely affected by variables such as cognitive ability or study-level characteristics. These results suggest that the socio-ecological or cultural pressures that influence gender differences in cognitive styles are also partially responsible for gender differences in social preferences.
    Keywords: gender differences; cognitive reflection; social preferences; self-interest; social efficiency; egalitarianism
    JEL: B55 C91 C93 D31 D63 J16 Z13
    Date: 2021
  17. By: Mr. Paolo Mauro
    Abstract: This note provides an overview of recent studies that have begun to investigate how differing moral perspectives shape attitudes toward tax and spending policies. Recent advances in evolutionary moral psychology and their application to survey-based economic analysis yield promising insights. Understanding the moral underpinnings of various groups’ views may help policymakers design and make the case for measures that can muster broader support.
    Keywords: Moral foundations, moral philosophy, public finance, redistribution, public debt, taxation, political economy, surveys
    Date: 2021–12–10
  18. By: Patricia López Rodríguez (Centro de Estudios Espinosa Yglesias)
    Abstract: El presente reporte muestra que existe una relación positiva entre la inclusión financiera de las mujeres y la movilidad social. Si se logra que las mujeres tengan una participación más activa en el sistema financiero, estarán en mejor posición para poder decidir sobre el uso y destino de sus recursos. Se presentan diversos hechos que ilustran el problema de baja inclusión financiera de las mujeres en México, de la brecha de género que existe al respecto y de los impactos negativos que esto tiene en la movilidad social de la población en general. Los problemas de baja inclusión financiera y de brecha de género, encuentran su origen ?en gran medida? en el mercado laboral. Se presentan varias propuestas, algunas fuera del ámbito del sistema financiero, que ayudarían a la incorporación de las mujeres al mercado laboral formal y a su protección social en la edad adulta.
    Date: 2020
  19. By: Sanchez Marrugo, Betshy Paola
    Abstract: De facto and de jure social injustices are an expression of the id quo. These impulses have a detrimental effect on women’s daily lives, making it a lot more difficult for them to enjoy their human rights. This document has shared data particles of knowledge about current injustices occurring to ‘mad’ and ‘intersectional’ women in the UK, the psychological impact of these injustices (e.g. Borderline Personality Disorder), and the legal framework of international law, which the UK is subject to. De jure and de facto injustices exacerbate mental health problems, and lead to the introjection of maladaptive behaviours, and can corrupt the individual superego. Furthermore, UN Women (2016) recommends that all countries take on board the Istanbul Convention, and the UK is a country member of the UN Security Council. The UK’s Domestic Abuse Act 2021 does not fully cover all the criteria necessary for the prevention and protection of women’s rights, as well as the prosecution of perpetrators of violence against women. Similarly, the Equality Act 2010 only protects some of the many characteristics that elicit discrimination against human beings, and the word ‘dignity’ does not appear once in the Human Rights Act 1998. This seemingly innocuous semantic exception is a malpraxis. All these technical legislative failures lead to very costly consequences for the least advantaged in the status quo. The facts and figures have shown that women in the mental health sector are the most affected group, out of which patients with BPD tend to struggle the most with daily attitudinal obstacles, intersectional discrimination, and de facto impediments.
    Keywords: Forensic psychology, human rights, violence against women
    JEL: I31
    Date: 2021–12–27

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