nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2022‒01‒03
29 papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. The importance of global value chains and regional capabilities for the economic complexity of EU-regions By F. Colozza; R. Boschma; A. Morrison; C. Pietrobelli
  2. Pragmatic Behavior: grounding behavioral economics on pragmatism By Pablo Garcés
  3. Baumol's diseases: a subsystem perspective By Adrián Rial Quiroga
  4. The limits of institutional convergence: why public sector outsourcing is less efficient than Soviet enterprise planning By Innes, Abby
  5. Des égalités fondamentales de Marx à la résolution du problème de la transformation COHÈRENCE DU MODÈLE By Norbert Ankri; Païkan Marcaggi
  6. Results from a stakeholder survey on bioeconomy monitoring and perceptions on bioeconomy in Germany By Zeug, Walther; Kluson, Forrest Rafael; Mittelstädt, Nora; Bezama, Alberto; Thrän, Daniela
  7. System-level agency and its many shades: How to shape the system for path development? By Maximilian Benner
  8. Revisiting path-as-process: A railroad track model of path development, transformation, and agency By Maximilian Benner
  9. The apodictic method and the dialogue between theology and science (II) By Fr Petre Comșa; Costea Munteanu
  10. Moroccan cooperative model: Social welfare and inequality By Mustapha Jaad; Najib Bahmani
  11. أهمية المصارف الإسلامية في تفادي الأزمات المالية By Billel Djeghri; Nabila Badis; Karim Zermane
  12. Reconstructing firm-level interactions: the Dutch input-output network By Leonardo Niccol\`o Ialongo; Camille de Valk; Emiliano Marchese; Fabian Jansen; Hicham Zmarrou; Tiziano Squartini; Diego Garlaschelli
  13. European economic policy and the European Green Deal: An institutionalist analysis By Treude, Sibylle
  14. Covid19 and Gender Budgeting: Applying a "gender lens" to Union Budget in India. By Chakraborty, Lekha
  15. Modeling to Inform Economy-Wide Pandemic Policy: Bringing Epidemiologists and Economists Together By Michael Darden; David Dowdy; Lauren Gardner; Barton Hamilton; Karen A. Kopecky; Melissa Marx; Nicholas Papageorge; Daniel Polsky; Kimberly Powers; Elizabeth Stuart; Matthew Zahn
  16. Varieties and interdependencies of demand and growth regimes in finance-dominated capitalism By Prante, Franz; Hein, Eckhard; Bramucci, Alessandro
  17. The middle class in Emerging Asia: Champions for more inclusive societies? By Antoine Bonnet; Alexandre Kolev
  18. Scenario-Free Analysis of Financial Stability with Interacting Contagion Channels By Farmer, J. Doyne; Kleinnijenhuis, Alissa; Wetzer, Thom; Wiersema, Garbrand
  19. Structural change, productive development and capital flows: Does financial “bonanza” cause premature de-industrialization? By Alberto Botta; Giuliano Toshiro Yajima; Gabriel Porcile
  20. Freelancers 4.0: the impacts of freelancers on the adoption of Industry 4.0 under a socio-technical perspective By Emanuele Gabriel Margherita; Jérôme Sulbout
  21. Women's Land Rights and Village Institutions in Tanzania By Garance Genicot; Maria Hernandez de Benito
  22. The Libertarian that Demands Redistribution: An Online Experiment on Redistributive Preferences in Contemporary China By Nora Yuqian Chen; Yucheng Huang; Zhexun Fred Mo
  23. Institutional change through development assistance: The comparative advantages of political and adaptive approaches By Roll, Michael
  24. The Public Private Partnerships of the Social and Solidarity Economy in Brazil - Study of the Recycling Enterprises and their Economic and Legal Relations with the Public Power By Daniel Francisco NAGAO MENEZES; Leandro PEREIRA MORAIS
  25. "Identity and Well-Being in the Skilled Crafts and Trades" By Martin Binder; Ann-Kathrin Blankenberg
  26. Gender-responsive COVID-19 recovery: Strengthening country systems through official development assistance and gender-responsive budgeting By OECD; UN Women
  27. Understanding transformation patterns in different socio-technical systems – A scheme of analysis By Johan Miörner; Christian Binz; Lea Fuenfschilling
  28. カーボンニュートラル実現に向けたイノベーションの可能性 : エネルギーシステム変革の歴史・構造を踏まえたグリーンイノベーション政策の方向, Feasibility of Innovation toward Realization of Carbon-Neutrality: Direction of Green Innovation Policy based on the History and Structure of Energy System Transformation By 市川, 類; Ichikawa, Tagui
  29. An Institutional Perspective on the Economics of the Family By Siwan Anderson; Chris Bidner

  1. By: F. Colozza; R. Boschma; A. Morrison; C. Pietrobelli
    Abstract: This paper combines various literatures on Global Value Chains (GVC), Economic Complexity and Evolutionary Economic Geography. The objective is to assess the role of regional capabilities and GVC participation in fostering economic complexity in 236 NUTS2-regions in Europe. Our results suggest there is no such thing as a common path of economic upgrading across EU regions. Regions with high economic complexity tend to keep their advantageous positions, as they are capable of benefitting from both regional capabilities (as proxied by a high relatedness between local activities) and external linkages in terms of GVC participation. Conversely, low-complex regions do not benefit from GVC participation, unless their regional capabilities (in terms of relatedness density) are also stronger.
    Keywords: Economic Complexity, Evolutionary Economic Geography, Global Value Chains, Relatedness, Economic Upgrading, EU regions
    JEL: B52 F23 O19 O33 R10
    Date: 2021–12
  2. By: Pablo Garcés (Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador)
    Abstract: Behavioral economics offers an account of actual human behavior. Contrasting with the conventional normative approach to rationality, rational choice theory, describes the deviations from optimal decision making. These are attributed to failures in two systems, one in charge of automatic behavior (System 1) and the other responsible for reflective one (System 2). As important as this is, an elaboration of the interaction between them seems to be lacking. Philosophical pragmatism can contribute to address this want. It provides an evolutionary explanation of how people act accounting for the continuity of behavior including habitual and reflective action. The former is captured by habits and the latter directed towards objects. Additionally, it proposes a dialogical self, consisting of an interaction between the 'I', denoting impulse, and the 'me', referring to reflective action. As such, pragmatism can provide fertile ground on which to cultivate behavioral insights.
    Keywords: behavioral economics,pragmatism,rationality,agency,transaction
    Date: 2021
  3. By: Adrián Rial Quiroga (Instituto Complutense de Estudios Internacionales (ICEI), Universidad Complutense de Madrid.)
    Abstract: In his paper “Baumol’s diseases: a macroeconomic perspective”, Nordhaus (2008) applies a new testing framework in order to estimate the six hypotheses that lie at the core of Baumol’s (1967) model, following an industry perspective. In this work, I extend Nordhaus’ testing framework to estimate Baumol’s diseases in the US economy over the period 1999-2018 according to a subsystem perspective, by making use of the US Bureau of Economic Analysis input-output tables. In order to check whether Baumol’s diseases depend on the perspective that is followed, I apply both the usual industry perspective and the novel subsystem framework and compare the results. For both subsystems and industries, I do not find robust evidence in favour of the persistent demand hypothesis and the hypothesis of declining nominal value added shares in the progressive sector, while my results do support the cost and price disease hypothesis, the hypothesis of declining employment shares in the progressive sector and the hypothesis of uniform wage growth. As a result, Baumol’s growth disease does not substantially lower aggregate labour productivity growth over the period across both subsystems and industries. This happens mainly because progressive services increase their real output at a faster rate than the economy’s average, restraining the reallocation of nominal value added towards stagnant subsystems or industries and thereby providing a strong palliative against Baumol’s growth disease.
    Keywords: Baumol’s diseases; Subsystems; Input-output analysis; Labour productivity growth; US economy
    Date: 2021
  4. By: Innes, Abby
    Abstract: This paper explores UK public sector outsourcing to offer a critique of the theory of liberal institutional convergence. The latter argues that NPM is a case of empiricist scientific rationalism but the neoclassical economics that justifies public sector outsourcing operates with a closed-system ontology of the economy that has more affinities with Stalinist central planning than to empirical political economic science, and this has real institutional consequences. The argument sets out the neoclassical logic behind outsourcing, the unanticipated risks in its conception and the deepening problems with its intensification as practice. It shows how, when we put the market rhetoric of NMP to one side, outsourcing necessitates the central planning of private actors, and the success of this venture hinges on the viability of the outsourcing contract as an effective junction of instruction and control. If there is institutional convergence in New Public Management it is with Soviet enterprise planning. It follows that it is not simply ‘second-best-world’ neoclassical theories that can shed light on outsourcing's chronic failures but also the critiques of Soviet central planning. The latter help explain why incomplete contracts in outsourcing are just the start of bargaining games that the state cannot win.
    Keywords: outsourcing; new public management; neoclassical economics; financialization; supply-side reforms
    JEL: J1
    Date: 2020–07–06
  5. By: Norbert Ankri (AMU - Aix Marseille Université); Païkan Marcaggi
    Date: 2021–11–30
  6. By: Zeug, Walther; Kluson, Forrest Rafael; Mittelstädt, Nora; Bezama, Alberto; Thrän, Daniela
    Abstract: Our current economic systems are transgressing planetary boundaries globally and yet societal needs are not sufficiently and equally fulfilled. Fostering the bioeconomy as an economy based on renewable resources can be a transformation towards a sustainable future, to fulfill societal needs within planetary boundaries. However, sustainability is not intrinsic to the bioeconomy and consequently advanced and comprehensive monitoring systems on a national scale are needed. In the systemic modeling and monitoring of the German bioeconomy (SYMOBIO) a comprehensive national monitoring framework in the context of global dynamics was developed, and a first pilot report of monitoring results was published and presented to the public in June 2020. Stakeholder participation plays a role in informing monitoring from the beginning. Consequently, in this study we aim at evaluating the pilot report and monitoring as well as the general perception of the bioeconomy by an open survey. We collected approximately 100 responses, mainly from the stakeholder group "science". Most stakeholders are moderately satisfied with the monitoring and reporting. However, social aspects of the bioeconomy like hunger, poverty and inequalities are considered to be underrepresented, and the socio-economic perspective is viewed as too narrow. Future monitoring efforts should be oriented more on international agreed frameworks like the SDGs and be comparable to other monitoring systems and levels. Regarding general perceptions of the bioeconomy, a majority of stakeholders have a vision of a socio-ecological transformation, in contrast to German and European strategies which are seen as business-as-usual capitalism using additional renewable resources. Even though most stakeholders see the current development of bioeconomy critically, they consider the future development as open and encourage a sustainable bioeconomy that creates sustainable consumption and production patterns, global responsibility and compliance with planetary boundaries, as well as economic and ecological justice and participation shaping the overall economy. Our analysis underpins previous perspectives from stakeholder workshops and is embedded in increasingly polarizing societal mentalities of transformations.
    Keywords: bioeconomy,sustainability,monitoring,stakeholder participation
    Date: 2021
  7. By: Maximilian Benner
    Abstract: Agency has become one of the critical themes in path development and several typologies of agency have been proposed. The notion of system-level agency has attracted particular attention. However, existing typologies of agency suffer from conceptual limitations and the many shades of system-level agency in the system of path development remain largely unclear. This article discusses the limitations of existing typologies of agency in path development, clarifies the notion of the system and its functions, and proposes a multidimensional framework that brings together the multiple shades of how agents shape paths along various angles, system functions, and a multiscalar perspective.
    Keywords: evolutionary economic geography, agency, institutions, path development, regional development
    Date: 2021
  8. By: Maximilian Benner
    Abstract: In the path development literature, the path-as-process perspective conceptualizes the emergence, evolution, transformation, and decline of regional industries in the long term. However, critical questions about the role of agency in and between episodes of path development and transformation remain open. This article argues that we should see path development as a long-term sequence that includes stretches of path development interrupted by occasional switches of transformation that are driven by changing patterns of agency. This railroad track model focuses attention on how and why the mix of agency changes at critical junctures between path development episodes.
    Keywords: evolutionary economic geography, path development, path transformation, agency, tourism, Israel
    Date: 2021
  9. By: Fr Petre Comșa (UVT - Valahia University of Targoviste [Roumanie]); Costea Munteanu (Bucharest University of Economic Studies)
    Abstract: Many present-day scientists think that religion can never come to terms with science. In sharp contrast with this widespread opinion, the authors of this paper consider that, historically, scientific reasoning and religious belief joined hands in their effort to investigate and understand reality. In fact, the presentday divorce between science and religion is nothing else than the final outcome of a gradual, long-term, and deliberately assumed process of the secularization of science. However, especially during the last decades, we have all been equally confronted with the advance of a new concern that some contemporary scientists have, namely reviewing the sphere of problems specific to the domains of investigation in which they are involved while now facing themes that are usually addressed by theological thought. It can be said that this recent development is being captured by an emerging new field of investigation within the modern scientific epistemology, Science and Religion. Against this background, the purpose of this paper is threefold: firstly, to briefly emphasize that one of the defining dimensions of the science and religion dialogue is given by the discontinuity relationship in which the knowledge acquired through scientific reason is placed in relation to the divinely revealed one; secondly, to argue that another defining dimension of the dialogue consists in the hierarchical harmony relationship that mediates the encounter between the two, thus transgressing the discontinuity and making the theology-science dialogue possible and viable; and thirdly to advocate the idea that the apodictic method (based on antinomic logic) can successfully structure such a dialogue. The paper is divided into two parts: the first one addresses the problem of truth in theology and science with particular focus on the antinomic logic, while the second part aims to illustrate how the apodictic method (based on antinomic logic) effectively implements together-workingness between scientific analysis and theological teaching by applying it to the field of economic science, namely the theory of rational behavior, with reference to the issue of wealth and poverty.
    Keywords: science and religion dialogue,discontinuity relationship,apodictic method,antinomic logic,patristic teaching. A logical demonstration of antinomy
    Date: 2021
  10. By: Mustapha Jaad (FSJES Agadir); Najib Bahmani (FSJES Agadir)
    Abstract: The aim of this article is to describe and understand the economic and social role of the Moroccan cooperative model and to present its shortcomings and limitations that hinder sustainable development. We discuss the different approaches and forms of entrepreneurship in social economy, and then we highlight the important role that cooperatives are increasingly occupying. Finally, we present the limitations and obstacles of this model. We adopt the interpretive paradigm, the aim of which is to bring out the deep meaning of the observed phenomenon. However, the empirical model and the national statistics that we will discuss are thus extracted from a comparative report between eight Mediterranean countries (including Morocco), carried out by FEMISE (Euro-Mediterranean Forum of Institutes of Economic Sciences) at the end of 2019.
    Abstract: L'objectif de cet article est de décrire et comprendre le rôle économique et social de modèle coopératif marocain et présenter ses lacunes et limites qui entravent le développement durable. Nous abordons les différentes approches et formes d'entrepreneuriat en économie sociale, ensuite nous mettons en lumière la place importante occupée de plus en plus par les coopératives. En dernier lieu, nous présentons les limites et les obstacles de ce modèle. Nous adoptons le paradigme interprétatif, dont le but est de ressortir le sens profond du phénomène observé. Or, le modèle empirique et les statistiques nationales que nous traiterons, sont ainsi extraits d'un rapport comparatif entre huit pays méditerranéens (dont le Maroc), réalisé par FEMISE (Forum euro-méditerranéen des instituts de sciences économiques) fin 2019.
    Keywords: Modèle coopératif,bien-être social,inégalités sociales
    Date: 2020–07–03
  11. By: Billel Djeghri (Université de Constantine 2 Abdelhamid Mehri [Constantine]); Nabila Badis (Universite Abbes Laghrour [Khenchela]); Karim Zermane (Universite Abbes Laghrour [Khenchela])
    Abstract: نهدف الى ابراز المصارف الإسلامية كظاهرة إقتصادية جديدة ميزت الثلث الأخير من القرن العشرين، حيث اعتبرت رد فعل حضاري واقتصادي للأمة الإسلامية، وإدراك المسلمين قصور النظام المصرفي الغربي في ملائمة المعتقدات الدينية، إضافة لوعيهم أهمية استغلال ثرواتهم من قبل مؤسسات مالية تنطلق من عقيدة الأمة وثقافتها بدل الركون إلى المصارف والمؤسسات المالية التي تتبنى النظام الغربي القائم على الفائدة المصرفية. بينت الدراسة أن المصارف الإسلامية نجحت في توفير قنوات تمويلية واستثمارية لم يعهدها العمل المصرفي من قبل، وعلى أسس ترتكز على مبدأ المشاركة في الأرباح والخسائر وتختلف عن الفائدة الربوية، لكن بالرغم من أهميته إلا أنه واجه الكثير من التحديات التي تركت أثارت على مسيرته وتطور عمله. كلمات مفتاحية: المصارف الإسلامية؛ الأزمات المالية؛ الأثر والعلاج.
    Abstract: Islamic banks emerged as a new economic phenomenon that characterized the last third of the twentieth century as it represented a cultural reaction and an economic need for the Islamic nation, when Muslims realized the shortcomings of the Western banking system on the appropriateness of their religious beliefs as well as their awareness of the importance of exploiting their wealth by financial institutions based on the nation's creed and culture Dependent on Western banks and financial institutions, or those that adopt the Western system based on banking interest. These banks have succeeded in providing financing and investment channels that were not previously entrusted to banking, and on the basis of bank interest and in accordance with the principle of participation in profits and losses. Islamic banking has faced many challenges that left its mark on the process of its inception and the development of this work.
    Keywords: المصارف الإسلامية,الأزمات المالية,الأثر والعلاج,financial crises,Islamic banks,Impact and Treatment
    Date: 2021
  12. By: Leonardo Niccol\`o Ialongo; Camille de Valk; Emiliano Marchese; Fabian Jansen; Hicham Zmarrou; Tiziano Squartini; Diego Garlaschelli
    Abstract: Recent crises have shown that the knowledge of the structure of input-output networks at the firm level is crucial when studying economic resilience from the microscopic point of view of firms that rewire their connections under supply and demand shocks. Unfortunately, empirical inter-firm network data are rarely accessible and protected by confidentiality. The available methods of network reconstruction from partial information, which have been devised for financial exposures, are inadequate for inter-firm relationships because they treat all pairs of nodes as potentially interacting, thereby overestimating the rewiring capabilities of the system. Here we use two big data sets of transactions in the Netherlands to represent a large portion of the Dutch inter-firm network and document the properties of one of the few analysed networks of this kind. We, then, introduce a generalized maximum-entropy reconstruction method that preserves the production function of each firm in the data, i.e. the input and output flows of each node for each product type. We confirm that the new method becomes increasingly more reliable as a finer product resolution is considered and can therefore be used as a generative model of inter-firm networks with fine production constraints. The likelihood of the model, being related to the entropy, proxies the rewiring capability of the system for a fixed input-output configuration.
    Date: 2021–11
  13. By: Treude, Sibylle
    Abstract: The article deals with the influence of the European Commission in the field of economic policy in the European Union (EU) since the beginning of the 21st century. Starting from reflections on the guiding idea of supranationality the question arises if and how the Commission has increased its influence on the economic policies of the EU Member States. The role of the EU's long-term strategies like the European Green Deal are analysed by applying the approach of Evolutionary Institutionalism. Has the European Commission induced institutional change and improved its own institutional fitness? Which role does the European Green Deal play in European economic policy?
    Keywords: European integration,EU,European economic policy,European Green Deal,European integration theory/approaches,Evolutionary Institutionalism
    Date: 2022
  14. By: Chakraborty, Lekha (National Institute of Public Finance and Policy)
    Abstract: Gender budgeting is a public financial management (PFM) tool for transparency and accountability. Against the backdrop of covid-19 pandemic, this paper analyses the Union Budget 2021-22 through a "gender lens" to understand the intensity of gender in the budgetary allocations. The analysis of specifically targeted programmes for women and the intrinsic gender components in the mainstream spending revealed that the gender budgeting hovered around only 5 per cent of total budget. The sectoral analysis revealed that higher budgetary allocations per se do not ensure higher spending. The analysis of fiscal marksmanship - the deviation between what is budgeted and what is actual - revealed significant fiscal slippages in various sectoral spending. The economic stimulus package in India has given significance to gender budgeting in energy infrastructure and increased allocation on gender budgeting in a prima facie gender neutral ministry like Petroleum is welcome. However, the framework of gender budgeting as a PFM tool can be explored further to ensure sustainable gender equality outcomes, when economic stimulus packages are short run and there is fiscal normalization procedure. Given the accommodative fiscal stance in times of pandemic, reflected in the flexibility of deficit thresholds, prioritization of spending on gender budgeting can lessen widening inequalities.
    Date: 2021–12
  15. By: Michael Darden; David Dowdy; Lauren Gardner; Barton Hamilton; Karen A. Kopecky; Melissa Marx; Nicholas Papageorge; Daniel Polsky; Kimberly Powers; Elizabeth Stuart; Matthew Zahn
    Abstract: Facing unprecedented uncertainty and drastic trade-offs between public health and other forms of human well-being, policymakers during the Covid-19 pandemic have sought the guidance of epidemiologists and economists. Unfortunately, while both groups of scientists use many of the same basic mathematical tools, the models they develop to inform policy tend to rely on different sets of assumptions and, thus, often lead to different policy conclusions. This divergence in policy recommendations can lead to uncertainty and confusion, opening the door to disinformation, distrust of institutions, and politicization of scientific facts. Unfortunately, to date, there have not been widespread efforts to build bridges and find consensus or even to clarify sources of differences across these fields, members of whom often continue to work within their traditional academic silos. In response to this "crisis of communication," we convened a group of scholars from epidemiology, economics, and related fields (such as statistics, engineering, and health policy) to discuss approaches to modeling economy-wide pandemics. We summarize these conversations by providing a consensus view of disciplinary differences (including critiques) and working through a specific policy example. Thereafter, we chart a path forward for more effective synergy among disciplines, which we hope will lead to better policies as the current pandemic evolves and future pandemics emerge.
    Keywords: economics; epidemiology; public health; Covid-19; behavior modeling; health outcomes; health-wealth tradeoffs
    JEL: C8 H0 I1 J0
    Date: 2021–11–16
  16. By: Prante, Franz; Hein, Eckhard; Bramucci, Alessandro
    Abstract: We outline and simulate a stylised post-Keynesian two country stock-flow consistent model to demonstrate the interconnection of three of the main features/outcomes of finance-dominated capitalism, namely worsening income distribution for the bottom 90% households, the rise of international imbalances and the build-up of financial fragility. In the model, twobasic regimesemerge, depending on the institutional setting of the respective model economy:the debt-led private demand boom regime (DLPD) and the export-led mercantilist regime(ELM). We demonstrate the complementarity and interdependence of these two regimesand show how this constellation transformed after the crisis into the domestic demand-led regime (DDL) stabilised by government deficits, on the one hand, andELMregimes, on the other, depending ontherequired deleveraging of private household debt, distributional developments and fiscal policy.
    Keywords: post-Keynesian macroeconomics,financialisation,growth regimes,institutions,inequality,debt,stock-flow consistent model
    JEL: B59 E02 E11 E12 E25 E65 F41 O41
    Date: 2021
  17. By: Antoine Bonnet; Alexandre Kolev
    Abstract: As Asian societies continue to undergo rapid economic transformation, income distribution and social stratification are set to change radically. A primary characteristic of this evolution is the emergence of wealthier Asian middle-income classes. While middle-income classes are a heterogeneous group, they often come with new policy expectations, and the extent to which they will call for policy changes that are beneficial to more fragile segments of society remains unclear. This paper investigates the characteristics of different income classes in Asia in order to explore the extent to which the emergence of wealthier Asian middle-income classes could become a driver for more inclusive societies. From this perspective, we assess whether middle-income classes share common characteristics with the poor and the near-poor in six Asian countries, i.e. Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Thailand, Pakistan and Viet Nam. The paper finds that, in some aspects, middle-income classes share a number of similar characteristics with lower income classes. We discuss how this resemblance could result in support for policies that could benefit larger segments of society. We also underline the necessity to better integrate the needs of the poor and the near-poor in policy discussions, especially in areas where the interests of lower and upper income classes do not necessarily converge. La rapide transformation des économies émergentes d’Asie a radicalement modifié leur distribution du revenu et leur structure sociale. Cette évolution est notamment caractérisée par l’augmentation du revenu des classes moyennes. Quoique ces classes moyennes sont fortement hétérogènes, il est généralement admis que leur émergence s’accompagne de nouvelles préférences et demandes sur le plan des politiques publiques, et l’alignement de ses préférences avec celles de segments plus fragiles de la société reste à établir. Cet article évalue la mesure dans laquelle les classes moyennes sont différentes des populations pauvres et quasi-pauvres, et, sur cette base, si elles peuvent apparaître comme des moteurs de croissance inclusive, dans six pays asiatiques émergents : le Cambodge, la Chine, l’Indonésie, la Thaïlande, le Pakistan et le Viet Nam. L’article met en évidence une série de similarités entre leur classes moyennes respectives et des groupes au revenu moindre. Nous observons comment ces similarités peuvent soutenir des politiques bénéficiant à de larges pans de la société. Nous soulignons également la nécessité d’intégrer d’avantage les besoins spécifiques des foyers pauvres et quasi-pauvres dans l’établissement de politiques publiques, en particulier dans des domaines où leurs intérêts divergent de ceux des classes moyennes et supérieures.
    Keywords: Asia, Income distribution, Inequalities, Social Classes
    JEL: D63 N35 O15
    Date: 2021–12–20
  18. By: Farmer, J. Doyne; Kleinnijenhuis, Alissa; Wetzer, Thom; Wiersema, Garbrand
    Abstract: Currently financial stress test simulations that take into account multiple interacting contagion mechanisms are conditional on a specific, subjectively imposed stress-scenario. Eigenvalue-based approaches, in contrast, provide a scenario-independent measure of systemic stability, but only handle a single contagion mechanism. We develop an eigenvalue-based approach that gives the best of both worlds, allowing analysis of multiple, interacting contagion channels without the need to impose a subjective stress scenario. This allows us to demonstrate that the instability due to interacting channels can far exceed that of the sum of the individual channels acting alone. We derive an analytic formula in the limit of a large number of institutions that gives the instability threshold as a function of the relative size and intensity of contagion channels, providing valuable insights into financial stability whilst requiring very little data to be calibrated to real financial systems.
    Keywords: Financial Stability, Systemic Risk, Interacting Contagion Channels, Financial Contagion, Multiplex Networks, Stress Test, Liquidity-Solvency Nexus
    JEL: G01 G17 G18 G21 G23 G28
    Date: 2020–01
  19. By: Alberto Botta; Giuliano Toshiro Yajima; Gabriel Porcile
    Abstract: The outbreak of Covid-19 brought back to the forefront the crucial importance of structural change and productive development for economic resilience to economic shocks. Several recent contributions have already stressed the perverse relation that may exist between productive backwardness and the intensity of the Covid-19 socio-economic crisis. In this paper, we analyze the factors that may have hindered productive development for over four decades before the pandemic. We investigate the role of (non-FDI) net capital inflows as a potential source of premature de-industrialization. We consider a sample of 36 developed and developing countries from 1980 to 2017, with major emphasis on the case of emerging and developing (EDE) economies in the context of increasing financial integration. We show that periods of abundant capital inflows may have caused the significant contraction of manufacturing share to employment and GDP, as well as the decrease of the economic complexity index. We also show that phenomena of “perverse” structural change are significantly more relevant in EDE countries than advanced ones. Based on such evidence, we conclude with some policy suggestions highlighting capital controls and external macroprudential measures taming international capital mobility as useful policy tools for promoting long-run productive development on top of strengthening (short-term) financial and macroeconomic stability.
    Keywords: Structural change; premature de-industrialization; capital Inflows; macroprudential policies
    JEL: F32 F38 O14 O30
    Date: 2021–12
  20. By: Emanuele Gabriel Margherita (Università degli studi della Tuscia [Viterbo]); Jérôme Sulbout (HEC Liège)
    Abstract: In this study, we debate the role of freelancers 4.0 as facilitators of the adoption of Industry 4.0 technologies (I40), under a socio-technical lens. I40 production can be seen as a complex sociotechnical system that requires various change facilitators to be implemented. After a web search, we found that a considerable number of freelancers are involved in I40 adoption, and could be participating in the adoption process, thus acting as facilitators. We label these workers "freelancers 4.0". The socio-technical theory does not primarily consider such workers in the technology adoption, even more down the I40 transition. Hence, we suggest two main research avenues to explore freelancers 4.0 in conjunction with the I40 adoption, framed under the socio-technical perspective.
    Keywords: Industry 4.0,Freelancers,Freelancers 4.0,Independent Contractors,Self-employed workers,Knowledge,Absorptive Capacity,Socio-Technical Approach,Facilitators,Operator 4.0,Industry 5.0
    Date: 2021–10–14
  21. By: Garance Genicot (Department of Economics, Georgetown University); Maria Hernandez de Benito (University of Alicante)
    Abstract: Strengthening women's ownership of and control over land is an important development goal. This paper studies the extent of women's land rights in rural Tanzania and how patrilineal norms affect them. We show that married women in rural Tanzania still own little land without their husbands and have limited rights over the jointly owned land. In Tanzania, an inherent tension lies in the recognition of customary laws that explicitly discriminate against women and statutory laws that establish equal rights for men and women. Customary patrilineal practices persist. In particular, we find that firstborn sons are expected to inherit more land than firstborn daughters, and widows' inheritance rights are affected by the gender of their children. We also show that women's tenure security in case of divorce or inheritance is fragile. In Tanzania, village institutions play a key role in the management of land rights and the mediation of land disputes. We find that members of village institutions have more pro-women views on land rights than the average household respondent. However, using randomized vignettes to measure gender bias, we show they do not always make gender-neutral recommendations in case of land disputes. Classification- O17, O12, D13, K11
    Keywords: Tanzania, Gender, Land Rights, Inheritance, Institutions, Vignettes
    Date: 2021–11–05
  22. By: Nora Yuqian Chen (Harvard University [Cambridge]); Yucheng Huang (PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Zhexun Fred Mo (PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: What are the determinants of redistributive preferences where capitalism meets post-socialism? To examine the sources of conflicting preference combinations of tolerating the income gap and demanding redistributive policies in transitional economies as suggested in previous research, we conduct an online experiment with a nationally representative sample of 2,500 Chinese citizens. We find that Chinese citizens exhibit strong support for real-stake inequality-reducing policies and the government's duty to regulate income distribution. Surprisingly, priming the "unmeritocratic component" of the income generating process in either becoming rich or staying poor makes them significantly less supportive of redistributive policies targeted explicitly at taxing the rich and government duties in regulating the income gap. This effect is mainly driven by those who self-reported to have relatively low economic pressure. We conjecture that such "libertarian" fairness views, and the strong demand for government intervention to "redistribute," could both originate from extreme poverty aversion and wealth aspiration. Wealth aspiration drives a desire for property ownership, making it more likely to justify any means in acquiring property; meanwhile, poverty aversion calls for strong government intervention in lifting the poor up. We argue that such a mechanism could be most saliently exemplified in a post-socialist economic regime with sustained high growth rates and high social mobility.
    Keywords: Redistribution,Fairness Preferences,Income Inequality,Tax Salience,Social Mobility,Government Duty,Beliefs
    Date: 2021–12
  23. By: Roll, Michael
    Abstract: Development assistance often fails to achieve institutional change because of a limited consideration of the political nature of these reforms and the local context. In response, political and adaptive development assistance (PADA) approaches, such as 'Thinking and Working Politically' (TWP) and 'Problem-Driven Iterative Adaptation' (PDIA), have been developed in recent years. Politicians, practitioners and researchers increasingly want to know if these approaches are more effective than mainstream approaches to development assistance. To answer this question, this paper develops a framework by asking three more specific questions about the 'which', the 'where' and the 'what'. First, for which types of development problems is political and adaptive development assistance likely to work betterthan mainstream approaches? Second, where or in which contexts might this be the case? And third, what contributions can be expected from these approaches including, but going beyond, effectiveness? Available evidence is used to answer these questions. This paper finds that political and adaptive approaches have comparative advantages over mainstreamapproaches when either the problem is complex, the context is hard to predict, or the solution is contentious. The overall conclusion is that development policy needs a broader variety of approaches from which to choose based on which fits the problem and the context best.
    Date: 2021
  24. By: Daniel Francisco NAGAO MENEZES (Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie (UPM) (Brazil)); Leandro PEREIRA MORAIS (Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie (UPM) (Brazil))
    Abstract: The objective of this research was to analyze the tender exemption for selective waste collection by associations and cooperatives formed by low-income people with a view to contribute to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which was proclaimed in the 2030 Agenda. As a result, it was discovered that 13 of the 17 SDGs advocated in the 2030 Agenda can be positively affected by the exemption from bidding, especially because they will foster collective organizations, generating reflections on the lives of low-income people who may be involved in those activities. In addition, it was observed that the implementation of this local sustainable development policy creates challenges such as: the interests of local and regional elites, the absence of a balanced environmental development policy and the inability of environmental management, as well as social and economic problems in the institutionalization cycle of these cooperatives and workers associations.
    Keywords: Offer exemption, 2030 Agenda, Sustainable Development
    Date: 2021–06
  25. By: Martin Binder; Ann-Kathrin Blankenberg
    Abstract: We analyze the extent to which occupational identity is conducive to worker well-being. Using a unique survey dataset of individuals working in the German skilled crafts and trades, we use a novel occupational identity measure that captures identity more broadly than just referring to organizational identification and social group membership, but rather comprises personal and relational elements inherent in one's work. The latter are linked to significant social interactions a worker has in their job and the former to specific work characteristics of the work conducted itself. We find that higher job satisfaction is related to a stronger sense of occupational identity in our sample. This relationship is quite sizable and robust across model specifications, whereas income is not associated with job satisfaction in most models. Occupational identity is positively associated with a number of work characteristics, viz. task significance, task and skill variety, as well as social support, and our analysis shows that identity mediates the influence of these characteristics with regard to job satisfaction.
    Keywords: Occupational Identity; Identity Utility; Job Satisfaction; Crafts; Work Characteristics
    JEL: J28 J24 I31 B55
    Date: 2021–12
  26. By: OECD; UN Women
    Abstract: Responding to the gender impacts of COVID-19 – including lost economic opportunities when taking on more domestic and care work in the health sector and at home, and increased violence – requires more tailored policies and resources that support gender equality and women’s empowerment. It also means including women in leadership and decision making in all aspects of the recovery. Official development assistance (ODA) is key to improved gender analysis by donors and development partners, and the broader application of gender-responsive budgeting tools across public finance management (PFM) systems. This paper provides recommendations to better align ODA to gender-sensitive responses in the disbursement of COVID-19 relief and recovery funds, and considers how PFM systems should be strengthened by donors and partner countries to provide for gender-sensitive recoveries.
    Keywords: COVID-19, Gender equality, Gender-responsive bugdet, Official development assistance, Public finance management
    JEL: D63 F35 H51 H52 H53 H61
    Date: 2021–12–23
  27. By: Johan Miörner (Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Switzerland); Christian Binz (Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Switzerland); Lea Fuenfschilling (CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: Transitions literature shows important gaps when it comes to specifying how, and why, transformation processes play out differently in different sectoral contexts. This paper develops a heuristic for analysing a socio-technical system’s inherent transformative potential and for comparing transition trajectories in different socio-technical systems with each other. The framework draws on insights from transition studies and organizational institutionalism to specify three features of a socio-technical system which shape its inherent transformative potential and most likely transition trajectories: the degree of institutionalization of socio-technical configurations, their coherence, as well as spatial characteristics of the system as a whole. The contribution of the paper is threefold: 1) it develops a systematic understanding of the basic characteristics of a sector’s socio-technical system and how they influence the likelihood, nature, and speed of transition processes; 2) it provides insights to whether and how lessons derived from one sector can be used for understanding transitions in others; 3) it guides the identification of places and spatial scales at which transitions unfold and where leverage points for transformative change lie in different sectors. The framework is illustrated with empirical examples from existing literature on the water- and urban mobility sectors.
    Keywords: socio-technical systems, sector transformation, transition potentials, systemness, water, urban mobility
    Date: 2021
  28. By: 市川, 類; Ichikawa, Tagui
    Abstract: 近年、2050年までのカーボンニュートラルの実現は、世界的な最重要関心事項であり 、世界各国においては、その実現のために、成長戦略の一環として、グリーンイノベーシ ョンの推進に取り組んでいる。一般的に、カーボンニュートラルの実現については、多く の困難があることは理解されつつも、イノベーション推進によるその実現への期待は高く 、また、その実現可能性は完全には否定できない。しかしながら、そのカーボンニュート ラルのイノベーションによる実現については、過去の事例を踏まえると社会への普及まで 含めてどの程度の時間を要するのか、再生可能エネルギーの導入普及以外にどのような技 術システムのイノベーションが必要なのか、また、これらのイノベーションを経済成長に つなげるにはどうするかなどといった、イノベーションによる実現可能性やその理論から みた政策の方向については、これまで必ずしも十分に議論はなされていない。このような 問題意識のもと、本ワーキングペーパーにおいては、2050年までのカーボンニュート ラルの実現に向けて、これまでのエネルギー分野とそのシステムにおけるイノベーション に係る歴史と、将来のカーボンニュートラル型エネルギーシステムとのその実現に向けた イノベーションとその政策のあり方の両面から考察を行うことにより、イノベーションに よる実現可能な範囲の輪郭を捉え、その政策の方向を提示することを目的とする。具体的 には、過去のイノベーションによるエネルギーシステム改革の歴史からみると、カーボン ニュートラル実現には過去に前例がない急速でのシステム転換が求められること、近年の 日本を含む先進国でのCO2排出量の減少はエネルギー消費と経済成長とのデカップリン グの進展が大きな要因であり、そのカーボンニュートラルの実現には特に発展途上では大 きな困難があること、日本においても近年再エネの進展は進みつつあるが産業政策的には 必ずしも成功しなかったこと、また、今後再生可能エネルギーの普及拡大のみではカーボ ンニュートラルの実現は困難であり、供給安定性及び供給可能性(エネルギー安全保障) の観点から、システム自体の抜本的な改革とそのための多様な技術のイノベーションをセ ットで推進することが喫緊の課題であること、そのためには、蓄電・水素システムについ て物理化学的視点からの技術的な可能性を見極めるとともに、デジタル技術による全く新 たな分散型調整システムの設計が不可欠であることなどについて考察する。その上で、カ ーボンニュートラル型のエネルギーシステムの特徴を指摘した上で、カーボンニュートラ ルを実現するためのイノベーション政策としては、環境規制として位置付けに加え、長期 的な目標の社会的共有という特徴を踏まえて、バランスの取れたイノベーション政策の構 築の必要性であること、また、経済成長における汎用技術としてのエネルギー技術の位置 付けとその歴史を踏まえると、カーボンニュートラルの実現だけでは必ずしも経済成長は 見込まれず、デジタルイノベーションなどとの連携の下で取り組むことが必要であること などを論点として提示する。
    Date: 2021–11
  29. By: Siwan Anderson (University of British Columbia); Chris Bidner (Simon Fraser University)
    Abstract: An institutional perspective emphasizes the fact that behaviour is shaped by rules that humans superimpose on their economic environment. In the context of the family, such rules govern vital processes such as family formation, dissolution, and inter-generational property transmission. Here we outline such a perspective, showing that it has important implications for policy and represents a relatively under-explored area of research in the economics of the family. We first document the extensive and systematic variation in family rules that exists both contemporaneously and historically. We then show that understanding this variation is important, yet under-appreciated, by drawing together a broad range of research that studies the far reaching consequences of family rules. We proceed with a structured review of existing research that attempts to understand the origins of various family rules. The institutional perspective makes clear that much impor- tant and exciting work remains to be done in terms of understanding the origin of the rules that govern family-related behaviour.
    Date: 2021–11

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