nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2021‒09‒20
23 papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. Surveillance capitalism – a new techno-economic paradigm? By Falch, Morten
  2. Global dynamics and country-level development in academic economics: An explorative cognitive-bibliometric study By Ernest Aigner
  3. Simple Matching Protocols for Agent-based Models. By Andrea Borsato
  4. William J. Baumol: Innovative Contributor to Entrepreneurship Economics By Henrekson, Magnus; Stenkula, Mikael
  5. Economía de la complejidad: contribuciones para la paz con un enfoque sostenible By à ngela Isabel Giraldo Suárez
  6. Exploring women’s empowerment using a mixed methods approach By Doss, Cheryl; Rubin, Deborah
  7. Some Reflections on Financial Instability in Macro Agents-Based Models. Genealogy and objectives 1 By Muriel Dal-Pont Legrand
  8. Churning and profitability in the U.S. Corporate Sector By Leila Davis; Joao de Souza
  9. Visions of the future – a socialist departure from gloom? By Peter Skott; Paul Auerbach
  10. The Neoclassical Theory of Aggregate Investment and its Criticisms By Daniele Girardi
  11. Labor-Management Relations and Varieties of Capitalism By Schneider, Martin R.
  12. The multilayer architecture of the global input-output network and its properties By Rosanna Grassi; Paolo Bartesaghi; Gian Paolo Clemente; Duc Thi Luu
  13. Narratives in economics By Michael Roos; Matthias Reccius
  14. Waste Valorisation: Between the Private Interest and the Social Benefit By Luisa Fernanda Tovar Cortés
  15. Tests of Bayesian Rationality By Pooya Molavi
  16. Qualifiziert für die Zukunft? Zur Pluralität der wirtschaftsjournalistischen Ausbildung in Deutschland By Sagvosdkin, Valentin
  17. Did a microfinance ‘plus’ programme empower female farmers and pastoralists and improve intrahousehold equality in rural Ethiopia? Evidence from an impact evaluation using a Project-Women’s Empowerment in Agricultural Index (pro-WEAI) survey tool By Hillesland, Marya; Kaaria, Susan; Mane, Erdgin; Alemu, Mihret; Slavchevska, Vanya
  18. Global Value Chains and Unequal Exchange- Market Power and Monopoly Power By Deepankar Basu; Ramaa Vasudevan
  19. Economía Evolutiva By José Romero
  20. Construcción de una Matriz de Contabilidad Social para Argentina para el Año 2018 By Onil Banerjee; Martín Cicowiez
  21. A review of evidence on gender equality, women’s empowerment, and food systems By Njuki, Jemimah; Eissler, Sarah; Malapit, Hazel J.; Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela; Bryan, Elizabeth; Quisumbing, Agnes R.
  22. Propuestas económicas en una Colombia en crisis By Centro de Investigaciones para el Desarrollo
  23. Did the first Covid-19 national lockdown lead to an increase in domestic abuse in London? By Chelsea Gray; Kirstine Hansen

  1. By: Falch, Morten
    Abstract: This paper look at surveillance capitalism as described in the book by Shoshana Zubof, and discuss whether surveillance capitalism represents a new stage of capitalist development. This is done by using the theory of techno-economic paradigms as a theoretical framework.
    Keywords: Surveillance Capitalism,Techno-economic paradigm,artificial intelligence,big data
    Date: 2021
  2. By: Ernest Aigner
    Abstract: The structure of academic economics has received a fair amount of attention within and beyond the discipline. Less focus has been given the interdependencies of country and global dynamics. Building and advancing this tradition, this explorative study examines geographic variation and country specific developments in research practices in academic economics. More specifically I investigate the interdependencies of global dynamics with country-level developments in the US, Germany, UK, France, Switzerland and Austria. To that purpose the study investigates a large-scale data set using inequality measures and social network analysis. The dataset analysed in this study comprises 453,863 articles published in 477 journals citing each other a total of 3,807,289 times. This exploratory study confirms the high level of concentration and finds similar trends on the country level. Further, an international convergence in the discipline can be observed, possibly limiting the place-specific relevance of knowledge created in academic economics.
    Keywords: economic sociology, academic economics, citation analysis, heterodox economics, concentration, geography of economics
    JEL: N00 Z1 B3 B5 B00
    Date: 2021
  3. By: Andrea Borsato
    Abstract: The main purpose of this article is to show how simple matching protocols suitable for agent-based models can be developed from scratch. Keeping the feature of the underlying economy at minimum, I develop, detail, and present the code for three matching processes. Their small size and flexibility may act as a stimulus to non-expert students to undertake such stream of literature and address a variety of research topics.
    Keywords: Agent-based Modelling, Matching Protocols, Computer Simulation, Linear Matrix Algebra, R.
    JEL: A20 C63 E10 O10 O30
    Date: 2021
  4. By: Henrekson, Magnus (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN)); Stenkula, Mikael (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))
    Abstract: William J. Baumol was one of the most prolific economists of his generation, analyzing a broad range of central economic issues addressing real problems of the world. In this essay, we present and critically evaluate Baumol’s research contributions in entrepreneurship economics and point to areas for future research. Baumol contributed an impressive number of important insights, increasing our understanding of entrepreneurship from both a macro and a micro perspective. He also devoted a large part of his writings to discussing public policy, linking his theoretical insights with policy issues in practice. His analyses are rooted in contemporary mainstream neoclassical economics, and one of his main objectives was to integrate the entrepreneur into this tradition. Today, Baumol is best known for his tripartite distinction between productive, unproductive, and destructive entrepreneurship and his associated idea that the institutional framework, “the rules of the game,” will determine how entrepreneurs allocate their time and effort across different—productive or unproductive—activities. An institutional environment that encourages productive entrepreneurship and spontaneous experimentation while disincentivizing unproductive activities becomes, through this insightful lens, the driving force of economic growth. As an economist, Baumol was knowledgeable and well acquainted with earlier scholars and their writings about entrepreneurship. Baumol’s writings were greatly inspired by Joseph Schumpeter’s views on entrepreneurship, and he made several attempts to formalize Schumpeter’s concept of the innovative entrepreneur. Baumol was in all senses an innovative contributor to entrepreneurship economics. His work has inspired the research community of entrepreneurship scholars, but like all great scientists, he also encountered criticism.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Innovation; Institutions; Rent seeking
    JEL: B41 D02 J48 L26 L53 O31 Z10
    Date: 2021–09–10
  5. By: Ã ngela Isabel Giraldo Suárez
    Abstract: Las interrelaciones entre los sistemas económico, ambiental y social pueden tener incidencia sobre la paz. Los agentes económicos afectan el entorno y este a su vez los modifica. Así, esta problemática requiere de enfoques que permitan comprender estos vínculos. Este artículo tiene como objetivo identificar elementos teóricos que contribuyan a la consolidación de la paz con una perspectiva de sostenibilidad desde el rol económico. Para ello, se hace una revisión bibliográfica utilizando metabuscadores, seguimiento de tendencias en la discusión científica y revisión de autores seminales, a partir de lo cual se obtienen elementos teóricos a ser analizados a través del enfoque de casos contrarios. Se identifica que la cooperación, selección intergrupal y aislamiento de nichos en el marco de la teoría de la complejidad, teoría evolutiva y transición a la sostenibilidad pueden favorecer la emergencia de la paz en un contexto sostenible. *** The interrelationships between the economic, environmental and social systems should have an impact on peace. Economic agents affect the environment and this in turn modifies them. Therefore, this problem requires theoretical approaches that allow us to understand those links. This article aims to identify, theoretical elements that contribute to consolidation of peace in a sustainable perspective from the economic role. For this, a literature review was carried out through meta-search engines, trend monitoring on scientific discussion and review of seminal authors. Theoretical elements gathering were analyzed through the opposing case approach. It was identified that cooperation, intergroup selection and isolation of niches within the framework of complexity theory, evolutionary theory and transition to sustainability could favor the emergence of peace in a sustainable context.
    Keywords: economía de la complejidad, economía evolutiva, paz, sostenibilidad
    JEL: B59 Q59
    Date: 2021–09–08
  6. By: Doss, Cheryl; Rubin, Deborah
    Abstract: Interest in the meaning and measurement of women’s empowerment has become a stated goal of many programs in international development. This paper explores a collaborative process of studying women’s empowerment in agricultural research for development using both quantitative and qualitative methods. It draws on three bodies of research around empowerment, growing interest in qualitative methods, and measurement research, especially the conceptualization and adaptations of the Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index. Employing mixed methods over more than a decade of cooperation among researchers from the Global South and the Global North has challenged the methods and findings of each approach. The work has led to new insights about gender differences in what empowerment means to women and to men, the importance of context, interrelationships among dimensions of empowerment, and the need for greater precision in terms and measures, particularly around decision-making, asset ownership, and time use. Such collaborative research benefits from a long timeframe to build trust and shared understandings across disciplines. The paper concludes with suggestions for the next phase of research.
    Keywords: WORLD; empowerment; gender; women; women's empowerment; methods; research; decision making; capacity development; mixed methods; WEAI; collaborative research; Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index
    Date: 2021
  7. By: Muriel Dal-Pont Legrand (CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis (... - 2019) - COMUE UCA - COMUE Université Côte d'Azur (2015 - 2019) - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Côte d'Azur, UCA - Université Côte d'Azur)
    Abstract: This paper analyses how the macro agent-based literature which developed intensively during the last decades, analyses the issue of financial instability. This paper focuses its attention on two specific researchers' communities which, within this new paradigm, specifically emphasize this question. We examine their common analytical foundations, how they have been influenced by anterior research programs, and we distinguish their modeling strategies and how these distinct strategies led them to follow somewhat different objectives.
    Abstract: Ce papier analyse comment la macroéconomie multi-agents (MABM) qui a récemment connu un développement important, analyse la question de l'instabilité financière. Ce papier focalise l'attention sur deux communautés de chercheurs qui, au sein de ce paradigme, contribuent aujourd'hui plus spécifiquement à cette question. Nous examinons leurs fondements analytiques communs, notamment via les influences partagées issues de programmes de recherche antérieurs, ainsi que leurs stratégies de modélisation respectives et montrons ainsi comment ces dernières les conduisent à définir des objectifs quelque peu différents.
    Keywords: Minsky,K&S,CATS,microeconomic foundations,financial instability,Macro agent-based models,Leijonhufvud,Stiglitz
    Date: 2021–08–25
  8. By: Leila Davis (Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts Boston); Joao de Souza (Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts Boston)
    Abstract: This paper establishes that entry and exit regulate the top half of the profitability distribution in the post-1970 U.S. economy. We, first, document stability in the distribution of total profits earned on tangible, intangible, and financial capital. Whereas a narrower measure of returns on tangible capital, instead, suggests rising dispersion, it fails to capture post-1970 growth in intangible and financial assets. Second, we use quantile decompositions to show that churning – specifically, exit for cause – regulates median and top-end profitability. Thus, the process by which competition drives out unprofitable firms acts to stabilize profit rates in the U.S. economy.
    Keywords: Profit rates, competition, entry and exit dynamics
    JEL: B5 L1
    Date: 2021
  9. By: Peter Skott (Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts Amherst); Paul Auerbach (Kingston University)
    Abstract: A vision of universalised human freedom, equality, security and democracy emerged in the wake of the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment, the British Industrial Revolution and the French Revolution. This vision, not even approximately practicable at the time, is now well within reach. A viable socialist strategy will not be oriented around an encompassing central plan, but rather an agenda of human-centered goals – the creation of preconditions for all individuals to fully realise their personal capacities and to function as free citizens, exercising control individually and collectively, at the workplace and in society. Central to the realisation of such a programme will be a focus on the crucial role played by the first years of life in shaping human development and in the formation of class hierarchies.
    Keywords: Phillips curve, underemployment, distributional conáict, structuralist model
    JEL: B51 H40 P16
    Date: 2021
  10. By: Daniele Girardi (Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts Amherst (USA))
    Abstract: This paper surveys the neoclassical theory of aggregate investment and its criticisms. We identify four main strands in neoclassical investment theory: (i) the traditional Wicksellian model; (ii) the Fisherian ‘array-of-opportunities’ approach; (iii) the Jorgensonian model; (iv) the now prevailing adjustment cost models. We summarize each approach, discuss the main conceptual issues, and highlight similarities and differences between them. We also provide a systematic summary and discussion of the main criticisms that have been leveled at each of these models and highlight some unresolved theoretical issues.
    Keywords: investment, neoclassical theory, adjustment costs
    Date: 2021
  11. By: Schneider, Martin R.
    Abstract: The varieties-of-capitalism (VoC) approach distinguishes liberal market economies (LMEs) such as the USA and coordinated market economies (CMEs) such as Germany based on institutional differences in terms of corporate governance, industrial relations, company relations as well as education and training. According to the VoC approach, firms differ in the ways in which they combine market and non-market mechanisms to coordinate their activities. Firms in LMEs are considered to rely more on market or exit mechanisms than firms in CMEs, which more often complement market with non-market or voice mechanisms. This chapter summarizes what has been learned from the VoC approach on the linkages between the institutional environment and labor-management relations. Various important lessons can be drawn. Employment protection legislation is a productive element within the institutional setup of CMEs. LMEs tend to induce strong overall wage dispersion, whereas in some CMEs such as Germany the labor market performance varies markedly by skill type and gender. The recent literature also indicates that the institutional setup is more complex than the VoC approach suggests, calling for revisions to the approach. In particular, some countries are hybrid economies that combine elements of both types of capitalism. The CME-LME dichotomy does not appreciate the true variety of country-specific skill systems. Finally, multinational enterprises overcome institutional boundaries of different types of capitalism in ways that were not included in the original VoC approach.
    Keywords: varieties of capitalism,employment relationship,skill systems,employment protection
    JEL: J50 M12 P17
    Date: 2021
  12. By: Rosanna Grassi; Paolo Bartesaghi; Gian Paolo Clemente; Duc Thi Luu
    Abstract: We analyse the multilayer architecture of the global input-output network using sectoral trade data (WIOD, 2016 release). With a focus on the mesoscale structure and related properties, we find that the multilayer analysis that takes into consideration the splitting into industry-based layers is able to catch more peculiar relationships between countries that cannot be detected from the analysis of the single-layer aggregated network. We can identify several large international communities in which some countries trade more intensively in some specific layers. However, interestingly, our results show that these clusters can restructure and evolve over time. In general, not only their internal composition changes, but the centrality rankings of the members inside are also reordered, with the diminishing role of industries from some countries and the growing importance of those from some other countries. These changes in the large international clusters may reflect the outcomes and the dynamics of cooperation as well as competition among industries and among countries in the global input-output network.
    Date: 2021–09
  13. By: Michael Roos; Matthias Reccius
    Abstract: There is growing awareness within the economics profession of the important role narratives play in the economy. Even though empirical approaches that try to quantify economic narratives are getting increasingly popular, there is no theory or even a universally accepted definition of economic narratives underlying this research. First, we review and categorize the economic literature concerned with narratives and work out the different paradigms that are at play. Only a subset of the literature considers narratives to be active drivers of economic activity. In order to solidify the foundation of narrative economics, we propose a definition of collective economic narratives, isolating five important characteristics. We argue that, for a narrative to be economically relevant, it must be a sense-making story that emerges in a social context and suggests action to a social group. We also systematize how a collective economic narrative differs from a topic and from other kinds of narratives that are likely to have less impact on the economy. With regard to the popular use of topic modeling as an empirical strategy, we suggest that the complementary use of other canonical methods from the natural language processing toolkit and the development of new methods is inevitable to go beyond identifying topics and be able to move towards true empirical narrative economics.
    Date: 2021–09
  14. By: Luisa Fernanda Tovar Cortés
    Abstract: Bogota is a referent in social inclusion of waste pickers. In 2016, waste pickers organizations became part of the cleaning public service as providers, and they start receiving a payment. Even though the amount of collected and valorised waste has increased, the waste buried in Doña Juana’s landfill continues to grow. The paper problematizes waste valorisation in Bogota through the waste/value dialectic (Gidwani, 2012; Gidwani & Maringanti, 2016) (Gidwani, 2012; Gidwani & Maringanti, 2016). A social waste valorisation approach has been included to rethink the concept of waste beyond a resource to be reinserted into the market and rather consider it as a booster for building community networks. The methodology is based on a literature review and qualitative and quantitative research strategy involving the analysis of the official information, interviews with waste pickers, visits and field observations in Bogota accomplished since 2015. The analytical framework is developed to understand and discuss the value of waste as essential to define its management, to identify who benefits, and to support processes of a social transformation through the waste. *** Bogotá es un referente en inclusión social de recicladores. En 2016, las organizaciones de recicladores se convirtieron en prestadores del servicio público de aseo y su labor es reconocida mediante una tarifa. Aunque la cantidad de residuos recogidos y aprovechados ha aumentado, los residuos enterrados en el relleno de Doña Juana también siguen creciendo. El artículo problematiza el aprovechamiento de los residuos en Bogotá a través de la dialéctica residuos / valor. Se introduce un enfoque de valorización social para repensar el concepto de los residuos más allá de un recurso que se reintegra en el mercado y más bien considerarlo como un impulsor para la construcción de redes comunitarias. La metodología se basa en una revisión de la literatura y una estrategia de investigación cualitativa y cuantitativa que involucra el análisis de la información oficial, entrevistas con recicladores, visitas y observaciones de campo en Bogotá realizadas desde 2015. El marco analítico desarrollado busca comprender y discutir el valor de los residuos como elemento esencial para definir su gestión, identificar quiénes se benefician y apoyar procesos de transformación social a través de su gestión.
    Keywords: waste management, valorisation, social inclusion, waste pickers, Bogota
    JEL: A13 B59 Q53
    Date: 2021–09–15
  15. By: Pooya Molavi
    Abstract: What are the testable restrictions imposed on the dynamics of an agent's belief by the hypothesis of Bayesian rationality, which do not rely on the additional assumption that the agent has an objectively correct prior? In this paper, I argue that there are essentially no such restrictions. I consider an agent who chooses a sequence of actions and an econometrician who observes the agent's actions but not her signals and is interested in testing the hypothesis that the agent is Bayesian. I argue that -- absent a priori knowledge on the part of the econometrician on the set of models considered by the agent -- there are almost no observations that would lead the econometrician to conclude that the agent is not Bayesian. This result holds even if the set of actions is sufficiently rich that the agent's action fully reveals her belief about the payoff-relevant state and even if the econometrician observes a large number of identical agents facing the same sequence of decision problems.
    Date: 2021–09
  16. By: Sagvosdkin, Valentin
    Abstract: Angesichts komplexer wirtschaftlicher und wirtschaftspolitischer Fragen steht der Wirtschaftsjournalismus vor der Herausforderung, mit vielfältigen Perspektiven zu einer demokratischen Meinungsbildung beizutragen. Indes steht er durch zahlreiche Studien in der Kritik, dem Anspruch nach Vielfalt und Multiperspektivität nicht gerecht zu werden, während sich in der Bezugsdisziplin der Wirtschaftswissenschaft eine Pluralismus-Debatte etabliert hat. Diese Diskurse werden hier zusammengeführt und die Frage aufgeworfen, wie wirtschaftswissenschaftlich plural und reflexiv Wirtschaftsjournalist*innen qualifiziert werden. Es werden grundlegende Qualifizierungszugänge identifiziert und Modulbeschreibungen aus 17 Studiengängen von sechs Universitäten und drei Hochschulen mittels Text-Mining und Schlagwortsuche im Hinblick auf ökonomische "Pluralität" und auf "Reflexivität" untersucht: Im Einzelnen zeigt sich ein gewisses Spektrum, insgesamt wird jedoch deutlich, dass ökonomische Pluralität und Reflexivität in der wirtschaftsjournalistischen Qualifizierung bisher nur eine (sehr) geringe Rolle spielen. Als Mindeststandard werden die Vermittlung eines Überblicks- und Kontextwissens zur pluralen Ökonomik, die Förderung der Fähigkeit zur Meta-Reflexion über Ökonomik sowie die Thematisierung aktueller Vielfalts- und Pluralitätsdebatten in der Ökonomik und im Wirtschaftsjournalismus vorgeschlagen.
    Keywords: Wirtschaftsjournalismus,wirtschaftspolitischer Journalismus,Pluralismus,Vielfalt,plurale Ökonomik,wirtschaftsjournalistische Qualifizierung
    JEL: A11 A12 A2 B41
    Date: 2021
  17. By: Hillesland, Marya; Kaaria, Susan; Mane, Erdgin; Alemu, Mihret; Slavchevska, Vanya
    Abstract: Using the project-Women’s Empowerment in Agricultural Index (pro-WEAI) survey tool developed by GAAP2, this study aims to estimate the impact of a microfinance ‘plus’ programme on women’s economic empowerment in communities in Oromia and Afar, Ethiopia. The programme incorporates multiple interventions, which are implemented through women-run rural savings and credit cooperatives (RUSACCOs), with the intention of improving beneficiary women’s decision-making over productive assets, control over income, and leadership in rural institutions. A major component of the programme is aimed at rural women’s greater access to credit, but interventions also include agricultural livestock and technology transfers, business training, as well as a community gender awareness component. A difference-in-difference estimator with Inverse Probability Weighting (IPW) is used to evaluate the impact of the programme on women’s empowerment in Oromia. Because of conflict in the area, baseline data collection was delayed and data was collected after some interventions had already begun in Oromia. As such, nearly all beneficiaries already had access to credit through the RUSACCOs at baseline, and both women and men were already empowered in a number of dimensions at baseline. Among households with beneficiaries who continued in good standing between baseline and midline, the programme positively contributed to both women’s and men’s empowerment with regards to respect among household members. It did not lead to additional impacts in terms of overall empowerment and gender parity within the household or across the other pro-WEAI indicators. However, it appears that, by maintaining good standing in the RUSACCOs, female participants were able to maintain high levels of empowerment across the other indicators. A second group of beneficiary women, who either chose to leave the RUSACCO or did not maintain good standing as a member, were also highly empowered across many dimensions at baseline but experienced large average decreases in empowerment across a number of indicators by midline. In Afar, using the midline data only, a single-difference estimator with Inverse Probability Weighting is used to evaluate the impact of the programme. In Afar, the programme had a significant impact on women’s overall empowerment. As we expected, given the nature of the programme, there were significant positive results in terms of access to and decisions on financial services, group membership, and membership in influential groups. There were also positive impacts on control over the use of income, suggesting that the programme contributed to greater control over the use of the output from agricultural activities and control over income from agricultural and non-agricultural activities. On the other hand, the programme also appears to have resulted in reduced empowerment on average with regards to autonomy in income.
    Keywords: ETHIOPIA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; programmes; gender; women; farmers; women farmers; pastoralists; equality; impact assessment; women's empowerment; microfinance; mixed model method; pro-WEAI; gender parity; agricultural households; Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index; WEAI
    Date: 2021
  18. By: Deepankar Basu (Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts Amherst); Ramaa Vasudevan (Department of Economics, Colorado State University.)
    Abstract: We revisit the hypotheses of unequal exchange and deteriorating terms of trade in the specific context of import-intensive, export- led strategies of developing countries which rely on integration into GVCs for access to markets in developed countries using a stylized two-country two-commodity Classical- Marxian trade model. Two sources of asymmetry can be distinguished: market power arising from the competition between suppliers that depresses the prices at which the final good is supplied; and monopoly power arising from the lead firms control and ownership of intangible assets including brand and design. The model explores some implications of these two sources of asymmetry.
    Keywords: Unequal Exchange, Global Value Chains, Classical Trade Model
    JEL: F02 F23 O19
    Date: 2021
  19. By: José Romero (El Colegio de México)
    Abstract: Este trabajo se propone ofrecer una síntesis de la teoría de la evolución económica para los lectores de habla hispana. Se comienza con el concepto de habilidades y organización tal como se presenta en el trabajo de Nelson y Winter (1982), complementado con actualizaciones sobre la perspectiva de la organización en movimiento basadas en el trabajo de Helfat (2018) y de los sistemas de innovación que son explicados por Pyka, Saviotti y Nelson (2018). Con esto, esta concepción integral de la teoría evolutiva no ofrece solamente una visión alternativa del concepto de empresa y de cómo éstas compiten entre sí, sino que también conforma un análisis que involucra activamente a las instituciones en el proceso evolutivo, con lo que se logra tener una visión integral de la relación entre la teoría evolutiva, el cambio tecnológico y el crecimiento económico.
    Keywords: teoría evolutiva
    JEL: B15 B25
    Date: 2021–05
  20. By: Onil Banerjee (IDB); Martín Cicowiez (CEDLAS-IIE-FCE-UNLP)
    Abstract: En este trabajo, se describe el procedimiento que, utilizando los cuadros de oferta y utilización recientemente publicados por el INDEC, seguimos para la construcción de una Matriz de Contabilidad Social (MCS) para Argentina para el año 2018. La MCS resultante identifica 107 actividades, 223 productos, 11 factores de producción – incluyendo tres categorías de trabajo --y 6 hogares representativos. La MCS se construyó para ser utilizada como insumo para la calibración de IEEM (Integrated Economic-Environmental Modeling Platform), un modelo de equilibrio general computable extendido para considerar las interacciones, de ida y vuelta, entre la economía y el medio ambiente.
    JEL: E16 C68
    Date: 2021–09
  21. By: Njuki, Jemimah; Eissler, Sarah; Malapit, Hazel J.; Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela; Bryan, Elizabeth; Quisumbing, Agnes R.
    Abstract: Achieving gender equality and women’s empowerment in food systems can result in greater food security and better nutrition, and in more just, resilient, and sustainable food systems for all. This paper uses a scoping review to assess the current evidence on pathways between gender equality, women’s empowerment, and food systems. The paper uses an adaptation of the food systems framework to organize the evidence and identify where evidence is strong, and where gaps remain. Results show strong evidence on women’s differing access to resources, shaped and reinforced by contextual social gender norms, and on links between women’s empowerment and maternal education and important outcomes, such as nutrition and dietary diversity. However, evidence is limited on issues such as gender considerations in food systems for women in urban areas and in aquaculture value chains, best practices and effective pathways for engaging men in the process of women’s empowerment in food systems, and for addressing issues related to migration, crises, and indigenous food systems. And while there are gender informed evaluation studies that examine the effectiveness of gender- and nutrition- sensitive agricultural programs, evidence to indicate the long-term sustainability of such impacts remains limited. The paper recommends keys areas for investment: improving women’s leadership and decision-making in food systems, promoting equal and positive gender norms, improving access to resources, and building cross-contextual research evidence on gender and food systems.
    Keywords: WORLD; women; gender; food systems; gender equality; Goal 5 Gender equality; Sustainable Development Goals; women's empowerment; value chains; consumer behaviour; policies; governance
    Date: 2021
  22. By: Centro de Investigaciones para el Desarrollo
    Abstract: Este texto reúne los análisis de los profesores de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas e investigadores del CID de la Universidad Nacional sobre la actual coyuntura del ciclo de movilizaciones en curso en Colombia, con particular referencia al análisis de los sujetos del paro, sus paradigmas y supuestos sesgos ideológicos, y sobre opciones de políticas públicas para salir adelante como país. *** This study gathers the analyses of the professors of the Faculty of Economics and the researchers of the CID of the Universidad Nacional on the ongoing cycle of mobilizations in Colombia, with particular reference to the analysis of the subjects of the strike, their paradigms and alleged ideological biases, and on public policy options to move forward as a country.
    Keywords: campesinos, indígenas, policía, reforma, bioeconomía, economía heterodoxa, regla fiscal, informalidad, acuerdo de paz, ingreso mínimo garantizado; género; identidad social
    JEL: H12 H23 H41 H51 H53 J15 J16 J24
    Date: 2021–09–09
  23. By: Chelsea Gray (Metropolitan Police); Kirstine Hansen (Social Research Institute, University College London)
    Abstract: On March 23rd 2020, the UK, following close behind a number of other countries went into its first national lockdown in a bid to stop the spread of Covid-19. Boris Johnson told people to stay at home and save lives. But what happens when home isn’t safe? This paper uses data from the Metropolitan Police to examine the impact of the first lockdown on domestic abuse in the 32 boroughs of the London Metropolitan area. Using a before and after approach, and controlling for other factors, we show that domestic abuse crimes rose during lockdown. We find this increase is greater for some crimes and populations than others and is consistent across the whole lockdown period. Once lockdown restrictions are eased, rates decline but remain slightly higher than prior to lockdown up to 3 months later
    Keywords: Lockdown, Domestic abuse, victimisation, London
    JEL: B41 B55 C01 C12 C25 J12 K42
    Date: 2021–09–01

This nep-hme issue is ©2021 by Carlo D’Ippoliti. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.