nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2021‒07‒26
23 papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. Models as ‘analytical similes’: on Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen's contribution to economic methodology By Quentin Couix
  2. Aestheticism in the Theory of Custom By Schlicht, Ekkehart
  3. Grounded in Methodology, Certified by Journals: The Rise and Evolution of a Mainstream in Economics By Michel De Vroey; Luca Pensieroso
  4. The effects of incentives, social norms, and employees' values on work performance By Michael Roos; Jessica Reale; Frederik Banning
  5. A Contextualist Approach to Health Economics By Davis, John D.; McMaster, Robert
  6. Meluasnya Sistem Kapitalisme dalam Masyarakat By Arief, A. Anggie Zabrina
  7. Capitalism recoupled By Kelly, Colm; Snower, Dennis J.
  8. Governing the Ungovernable - Recontextualizations of ‘Competition’ in European Policy Discourse By Laura Porak
  9. Laws of Concentration and Centralization of Capital: A Modern Review By Dutta, Sourish
  10. Aux origines nietzschéennes des ambiguïtés du concept d'entrepreneur : Schumpeter lecteur de Nietzsche By Nathanaël Colin-Jaeger; Etienne Wiedemann
  11. The Protestant Ethic and Capitalism By Mihai Stoicescu
  12. Durkheim in the Neoliberal Organization : Taking Resistance and Solidarity Seriously By David Courpasson; Dima Younès; Michael Ivor Reed
  13. Competition universalism: Its historical origins and timely alternatives By Claudius Graebner; Stephan Puehringer
  14. "The Endogeneity-to-Demand of the National Emergency Utilization Rate" By Michalis Nikiforos
  15. Valuation of unpaid household work of rural women: A case study of Ghazipur district of Uttar Pradesh By Yadav, Sheela; Sharma, Nidhi
  16. Globale Fußabdrücke der Umweltinanspruchnahme – aktuelle Methoden und Datensätze By Mark Meyer; Martin Distelkamp; Dr. Christian Lutz
  17. Towards a better future for biodiversity and people: modelling Nature Futures By Kim, HyeJin; Peterson, Garry; Cheung, William; Ferrier, Simon; Alkemade, Rob; Arneth, Almut; Kuiper, Jan; Okayasu, Sana; Pereira, Laura M.; Acosta, Lilibeth A.
  18. Going Karura: colliding subjectivities and labour struggle in Nairobi’s gig economy By Iazzolino, Gianluca
  19. Georgescu-Roegen's Flow-Fund Theory of Production in Retrospect By Quentin Couix
  20. Kritik Karl Marx terhadap Kapitalisme dan Pengertian Sosialisme By Fathurrahman, Rezki Amalia
  21. The rise of the sharing economy and its relationship with sustainable development. A critical literature review By Martina Nannelli; Stefania Oliva
  22. Circular economy and eco-innovation in Italian industrial clusters. Best practices from Prato textile cluster By Francesca Mazzoni
  23. Misère du concept de "dette publique" By Baptiste Bridonneau

  1. By: Quentin Couix (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: his paper investigates the methodology of Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen and his conception of economic models as analytical similes. His approach has received little attention from mathematical economists and economic methodologists. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to characterize his perspective and situate it in the broader spectrum of economic methodologies. It shows that Georgescu-Roegen criticized the lack of significance of certain economic models and attempted to give philosophical foundations to this criticism. He also provided a set of methodological principles that are illustrated by his practice of economic modeling. This perspective placed Georgescu-Roegen in opposition to the axiomatic approach that dominated postwar economics, and in line with economists such as Marshall, Wicksell, and Keynes, on the limited and subordinate role of mathematics in the discipline. Overall, the paper shows that Georgescu-Roegen's methodological contribution is still relevant to contemporary debates on the status of economic models.
    Keywords: Georgescu-Roegen,methodology,mathematical economics,models
    Date: 2021–04–03
  2. By: Schlicht, Ekkehart
    Abstract: The nature of learning processes as well as evolutionary considerations suggest that aesthetic judgement is of central importance in the formation of custom. Learning and extrapolation rely on evaluations of non-instrumental features like simplicity, analogy, straightforwardness, and clarity. Further, learning is particularly effective if it is driven by an active desire to uncover new regularities, rather than merely gathering information in a passive way.From an evolutionary perspective, learning has evolved as an adaptation to fast and transitory environmental changes which cannot be effectively traced by the slow and long-term evolutionary processes which take place on the genetic level. The evolutionary raison d'être of learning is to enable the individual to incessantly search for upcoming new regularities, and to act appropriately on them. As learning depends on aesthetic judgement, the evolutionary selection for learning implies an evolutionary molding of an aesthetic sense, and a preference for patterns and patterned action which ultimately leads to the formation of custom and social learning. The paper presents, thus, an evolutionary underpinning for the behavioral tendencies underlying my theory of custom.
    Keywords: Institutional economics; evolution; evodevo; evo-devo; aesthetics; variation; selection; institutional economics; social psychology; rule-learning;
    JEL: B15 B25 B52 D02 D23 E14
    Date: 2021
  3. By: Michel De Vroey (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES)); Luca Pensieroso (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES))
    Abstract: In this paper, we introduce a new understanding of the mainstream notion in economics. Its distinct character is based on a set of methodological standards deemed compulsory in the theoretical or empirical practice of the discipline. We contend that a theoretical mainstream arose around the 1980s, when the prevailing methodological standards in microeconomics and game theory – mathematical language, equilibrium discipline, and ‘explicit micro-foundations’ – came to be adopted in theoretical papers across a wide range of fields and specializations. We further argue that the 1990 period witnessed the surge of a distinct empirical mainstream and the emergence of a joint mainstream, the result of the rise of experimental economics and a renewal of applied economics centered on the notion of causal inference. An examination of the contents of the articles published in top journals in selected years from 1970 to 2018 confirms our contention.
    Keywords: Mainstream, Neoclassical approach, Experimental economics, Causal inference, Methodology
    JEL: A10 B20 B41 C9
    Date: 2021–07–06
  4. By: Michael Roos; Jessica Reale; Frederik Banning
    Abstract: This agent-based model contributes to a theory of corporate culture in which company performance and employees' behaviour result from the interaction between financial incentives, motivational factors and endogenous social norms. Employees' personal values are the main drivers of behaviour. They shape agents' decisions about how much of their working time to devote to individual tasks, cooperative, and shirking activities. The model incorporates two aspects of the management style, analysed both in isolation and combination: (i) monitoring efforts affecting intrinsic motivation, i.e. the firm is either trusting or controlling, and (ii) remuneration schemes affecting extrinsic motivation, i.e. individual or group rewards. The simulations show that financial incentives can (i) lead to inefficient levels of cooperation, and (ii) reinforce value-driven behaviours, amplified by emergent social norms. The company achieves the highest output with a flat wage and a trusting management. Employees that value self-direction highly are pivotal, since they are strongly (de-)motivated by the management style.
    Date: 2021–07
  5. By: Davis, John D. (Department of Economics Marquette University); McMaster, Robert (University of Glasgow)
    Abstract: This paper departs from the standard abstract economics approach to health economics to develop a specifically contextualist approach to the subject emphasizing social and historical circumstances affecting health provision. Following Polanyi, it sees the economy as socially embedded and economic relationships as social relationships. The paper critically examines Grossman’s natural science utility maximization explanation of people’s demand for health and health care, and advances an alternative social science account using a two-way analysis between micro level social relationships and the macro level organization of health in society. Three significant trends affecting the future of health systems are discussed. The paper closes with comments on the influence of psychology in the form of behavioral economics on the future development of a contextualist approach to health economics.
    Keywords: contextualism, Polanyi, social embeddedness, Grossman, health systems, behavioral economics
    JEL: I12 A12 A13
    Date: 2021–07
  6. By: Arief, A. Anggie Zabrina
    Abstract: Economic theories arise because of an imbalance between the availability of resources and human wants. The welfare and existence of human beings in the world demands to find solutions to these problems. Then emerged various kinds of economic theory, such as capitalist theory, Islamic economic theory, and others. As social beings, human needs and desires are not limited, while tools or resources to satisfy human needs are very limited, besides that humans are also limited by rules and regulations to obtain tools to fulfill these needs. In a socialist economic system, sources of wealth must be obtained through the empowerment of workers (labor), in all fields, mining, agriculture, and others. In the Socialist system, all fields of business are owned and produced by the State. In a capitalist economy, to get wealth, it must be obtained by working hard where every individual may have unlimited wealth, to achieve his life goals even if it violates the Shari'a. Meanwhile, Islamic economics has a different concept from other economic systems in which all wealth in the world belongs to Allah SWT which is entrusted to us, so it must be obtained in a lawful way.
    Date: 2021–07–02
  7. By: Kelly, Colm; Snower, Dennis J.
    Abstract: This paper examines major forces that have decoupled economic and business prosperity from social prosperity and explores how recoupling can be promoted. Economists have specified well-known conditions under which free market enterprise with shareholder value maximization is efficient. These conditions are systematically violated by three forces - globalization, technological advance and financialization (GTF) - that have weakened the connections between economies and societies over the past four decades. Consequently, the recoupling process requires abandoning the default premise of economic decision making that social progress follows financial performance. For business, it calls for a move from shareholder to stakeholder value. For government, it calls for setting legal obligations, targets and incentives to ensure that stakeholder value is compatible with a rigorously defined concept of 'societal and planetary value.'
    Keywords: recoupling,shareholder value,stakeholder value,wellbeing,globalization,technological advance,financialization
    JEL: M10 M14 B55 B41
    Date: 2021
  8. By: Laura Porak (Institute for Comprehensive Analysis of the Economy, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria)
    Abstract: The role of the state and political authorities has always been highly ambivalent in different strands of neoliberalism. This paper aims to highlight contradictory political stances towards competition and associated modes of governance by analyzing policy discourse of the European Commission. While economic knowledge gained social relevance over the last decades, economic theory and thus also competition is characterized by its polysemy. Hence, different strands of economic thought are based on different ‘economic imaginaries’. By conducting a Critical Discourse Analysis of the most recent ‘governance structure’ of the EU, ‘Europe 2020’, I found that competition is naturalized as mode of economic organization. The main contribution of this paper is the reconstruction of two ‘economic imaginaries’. First, the European Commission as political sovereign and second, as an actor in the (world) market. Each ‘economic imaginary’ has distinct ideas about the functioning of the economy and the role of the political sovereign. Hence, they also have different policy implications. Moreover, I identify five discursive strategies employed to legitimize contradictory stances towards (the governance) of competition. Both the ‘economic imaginaries’ and the discursive strategies are clearly indicating a strong neoliberal influence on the ‘governance structure’ ‘Europe 2020’.
    Keywords: Critical Discourse Analysis; European Commission; Europe 2020; Performativity of Economics; Competition; Competitiveness
    Date: 2021–07
  9. By: Dutta, Sourish
    Abstract: Though the basic (the late 1860s) Marxian model, under the capitalist mode of production, assumes perfect competitive or contestable ambience within the market by means of a large number of trivial firms in each industry, Marx was cognizant of the growing size of firms, the subsequent dwindling of competition, and the evolution of monopolistic or anti-competitive power. Hence, the capital has the inclination for concentration and centralization in the hands of the richest and big capitalists. Actually, the concentration and centralization of capital are two capital accumulation (or self-expansion of capital) techniques. Such concentration and centralization of capital can be clearly detected at this modern time, especially in the USA, in the enormous occurrences of mergers, acquisitions and conglomerates. In this assignment, henceforth, I will be trying to cultivate an analytical discussion about these two interlinked concepts and their implications and repercussions in this modern world of capitalism.
    Date: 2021–06–26
  10. By: Nathanaël Colin-Jaeger (TRIANGLE - Triangle : action, discours, pensée politique et économique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - IEP Lyon - Sciences Po Lyon - Institut d'études politiques de Lyon - Université de Lyon - UJM - Université Jean Monnet [Saint-Étienne] - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Etienne Wiedemann
    Abstract: La figure de l'entrepreneur est aujourd'hui utilisée dans une grande variété de discours publics. Ce travail cherche à remonter à l'une des sources théoriques de la constitution de cette figure : la théorie de l'entrepreneur de Schumpeter en 1911. Ce retour montre que Schumpeter, dans son contexte intellectuel et théorique, est amené à importer une anthropologie philosophique en économie, celle de Nietzsche, auteur largement lu dans l'Autriche du début du XXème siècle. En transposant, à l'intérieur de sa théorie économique, certaines caractéristiques majeures du grand homme créatif nietzschéen dans la figure de l'entrepreneur, Schumpeter développe une explication originale de la nature dynamique du marché et de l'évolution économique. Néanmoins il importe aussi de Nietzsche une série d'ambiguïtés, notamment en ce qui concerne l'origine de l'exceptionnalité individuelle de l'entrepreneur, et plus particulièrement de sa puissance créatrice. Une seconde ambiguïté est très largement héritée, qui concerne l'extension du modèle de l'individu entrepreneur : constitue-t-il une théorie de l'action valable pour tous les individus ou uniquement pour un type d'individus particuliers ? Comment concilier exceptionnalité de l'entrepreneur et norme d'un entreprenariat pour tous ? La dernière partie de ce travail s'attache ainsi à explorer ces ambiguïtés, qui apparaissent chez Schumpeter et ses successeurs, notamment Israël Kirzner.
    Keywords: Nietzsche,Schumpeter,Kirzner,Entrepreneur,Néolibéralisme
    Date: 2021–12–01
  11. By: Mihai Stoicescu (Aurel Vlaicu University, Arad, Romania)
    Abstract: The Reformation arose from society's reaction to the luxury, immorality and indifference of the clergy of the Catholic Church and returning to the original purity of New Testament Christianity. The Protestant culture supports the principle of equality and individualism. These were the basis for the development of capitalism. Various studies conclude that there is a strong link between Protestantism’s behavioral patterns, concepts of secular ethics and religious doctrines of Protestantism.
    Keywords: ethic, morality, values, protestantism, capitalism, Max Weber
    Date: 2021–03
  12. By: David Courpasson (emlyon business school); Dima Younès; Michael Ivor Reed
    Abstract: Durkheim's contributions to organization studies have so far been decidedly marginal, and largely concentrated on culture. In this paper, we draw upon his theory of anomie and solidarity to show how a Durkheimian view of contemporary organizations and work has special relevance today for debates about how workers, particularly middle managers, can reshuffle a capacity to resist neoliberal efforts to profoundly disrupt their working conditions, in particular their autonomy to define what is a job well done. We show how Durkheim's insights can account for the unexpected rekindling of forms of social solidarity in highly competitive and individualistic organizational settings, through dissident efforts that convey a renewal of a certain work ethos severed by neoliberal managerial policies and practices. Recent studies on resistance confirm Durkheim's view that forms of collective activity, resembling supposedly ‘old' mechanisms of former days, continue to exist and develop in contemporary societies and organizations, in response to pressure to put people in situations of inter-individual competition that disrupts social relationships.
    Keywords: anomie,solidarity,resistance,middle managers,Durkheim,enclaves
    Date: 2021–01–01
  13. By: Claudius Graebner (Institute for Socio-Economics, University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany; Institute for Comprehensive Analysis of the Economy, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria; ZOE Institute for future-fit Economies, Bonn, Germany); Stephan Puehringer (Institute for Comprehensive Analysis of the Economy, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria)
    Abstract: This paper discusses the actual relevance and historical origins or ‘competition universalism’. In economics, competition is conceptualized as a nearly ubiquitous element of societies, or, at least, used to study a wide array of social and political relations, including competition between firms for market shares, between individuals for prestige, countries for resources, athletes for victory, or politicians for influence. This trend towards ‘competition universalism’ was facilitated by the increasing dominance of an economic approach that places less weight on descriptive accuracy and a consideration so socio-historical specificities, but instead focuses on the development of general and tractable mathematical models. Thereby, the paper links the trend to competition universalism to developments in the epistemological orientation in economics. It first explicates the historical genesis of competition universalism, then discusses the extent it has reached today, and concludes with critical remarks and the proposition of an alternative, more particularist approach to study competition.
    Keywords: competition universalism; economic and social sphere; economic imperialism; economic methodology
    Date: 2021–05
  14. By: Michalis Nikiforos
    Abstract: The paper provides an empirical discussion of the national emergency utilization rate (NEUR), which is based on a "national emergency" definition of potential output and is published by the US Census Bureau. Over the peak-to-peak period 1989-2019, the NEUR decreased by 14.2 percent. The paper examines the trajectory of potential determinants of capacity utilization over the same period as specified in the related theory, namely: capital intensity, relative prices of labor and capital, shift differentials, rhythmic variations in demand, industry concentration, and aggregate demand. It shows that most of them have moved in a direction that would lead to an increase in utilization. The main factor that can explain the decrease in the NEUR is aggregate demand, while the increase in industry concentration might have also played a small role.
    Keywords: Accumulation; Growth; Distribution; Utilization
    JEL: B22 O4 D3 D2
    Date: 2021–06
  15. By: Yadav, Sheela; Sharma, Nidhi
    Abstract: Women considerably contribute to a large part of an economy through their productive work but their works are not recognized due to the inadequate definition of ‘economic activity, used in the national income accounting. A major section of the invisible work performed by rural women remains unidentified, undefined, and unpaid. Since the definition of economics is bounded by the market framework, much of the non-market work performed by women remain invisible and has consequently caused the market devaluation of women’s work. Present primary data-based study on Ghazipur district of Uttar Pradesh studies the valuation of paid and unpaid household activities of rural women by Market replacement cost method. The study finds that the total average time spent on unpaid SNA and Extended SNA activities by non-working women is almost double the time spent by working women. The daily and monthly wages for unpaid household activities work for the non-working woman is about 28.34 per cent higher than a working woman under the market replacement generalist approach. In the study specialist approach is found to be better and more realistic than the general approach.
    Keywords: Valuation, Unpaid household work, Rural women, Time use survey, Workload
    JEL: J2 J3 J31 J33 J41 J7 J81
    Date: 2021–07–19
  16. By: Mark Meyer (GWS - Institute of Economic Structures Research); Martin Distelkamp (GWS - Institute of Economic Structures Research); Dr. Christian Lutz (GWS - Institute of Economic Structures Research)
    Abstract: Zur Begutachtung der Entwicklung der deutschen Bioökonomie unter internationalen Nachhaltigkeitsaspekten wurden im Forschungskonsortium SYMOBIO verschiedene prototypische Methoden zur Berechnung sogenannter Fußabdruck-Indikatoren entwickelt. Die Anwendung dieser Methoden ermöglicht eine Berichterstattung über die global ausgelösten Umweltinanspruchnahmen durch Produktionsaktivitäten der deutsche Bioökonomie sowie durch die heimische Endnachfrage nach Erzeugnissen der Bioökonomie. Neben weiteren Forschungsoutputs des SYMOBIO-Konsortiums wurden erste Ergebnisse entsprechender Berechnungen veröffentlicht. Fußabdrücke werden für THG-Emissionen, Wasser, Landnutzung sowie für Wertschöpfung und Beschäftigung ausgewiesen. Für eine mögliche Verstetigung des Bioökonomie-Monitorings (BÖM) stellen sich Fragen nach der passenden Datenbasis ebenso wie nach einer möglichen Verbesserung der Methode der Fußabdruckberechnung. Die internationale Forschung zu Fußabdruckberechnungen der Bioökonomie befindet sich aktuell ebenso in einer dynamischen Entwicklung wie die multi-regionalen Input-Output(MRIO)-Datensätze, die die Basis dieser Berechnungen sind. Parallel zu den bisherigen Arbeiten in SYMOBIO haben sich die Umweltökonomische Gesamtrechnungen (UGR) des Statistischen Bundesamtes mit dem Thema der Auslandseffekte von Ernährungsgütern auseinandergesetzt und auch THG-Fußabdrücke berechnet. Im Folgenden werden diese Entwicklungen als Überblick aktuell verfügbarer Daten und Methoden zusammengefasst, um zukünftige Optionen für ein verstetigtes BÖM identifizieren zu können. Exemplarisch werden hierzu die methodischen Grundlagen und die in der Anwendung zu beachtenden statistischen Herausforderungen für folgende Fußabdruck-Indikatoren zusammengefasst: • Emissionen von Treibhausgasen, • Inanspruchnahme biotischer Rohstoffe, • Landnutzung für Ernährungsgüter. Die Vorgehensweise basiert dabei auf einer Gegenüberstellung der im SYMOBIO-Projekt entwickelten Methoden mit thematisch vergleichbaren Berichterstattungen. Hierzu werden zunächst die inhaltlichen, methodischen und empirischen Grundlagen der im Projekt SYMOBIO angewandten Berechnungsmethoden vorgestellt. Im Anschluss folgen aktuelle Entwicklungen bei den MRIO-Datensätzen und bei der Berechnung von Fußabdrücken sowie ein Überblick zu thematisch verwandten Berichterstattungsaktivitäten des Statistischen Bundesamts. Den Abschluss bildet eine Zusammenfassung möglicher Ansatzpunkte für eine Verzahnung der Arbeiten in Rahmen des Monitorings der Bioökonomie mit Arbeiten der UGR.
    Keywords: Sustainability; Bioeconomy; Environment and Trade; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Material Footprint; Input-Output Models
    JEL: C67 C82 Q17 Q56
    Date: 2021
  17. By: Kim, HyeJin; Peterson, Garry; Cheung, William; Ferrier, Simon; Alkemade, Rob; Arneth, Almut; Kuiper, Jan; Okayasu, Sana; Pereira, Laura M.; Acosta, Lilibeth A.
    Abstract: The expert group on scenarios and models of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services initiated the development of the Nature Futures Framework for developing scenarios of positive futures for nature, to help inform assessments of policy options. This new scenarios and modelling Framework seeks to open up diversity and plurality of perspectives by differentiating three main value perspectives on nature – Nature for Nature (intrinsic values of nature), Nature for Society (instrumental values) and Nature as Culture (relational values). This paper describes how the Nature Futures Framework can be applied in modelling to support policy processes by identifying key interventions for change in realizing a diversity of desirable futures. First, the paper introduces and elaborates on key building blocks of the framework for developing qualitative scenarios and translating them into quantitative scenarios: i) multiple value perspectives on nature and the Nature Futures frontier representing diverse preferences, ii) incorporating mutual and key feedbacks of social-ecological systems in Nature Futures scenarios, and iii) indicators describing the evolution of social-ecological systems with complementary knowledge and data. This paper then presents three possible application approaches to modelling Nature Futures scenarios to support the i) review, ii) implementation and iii) design phases of policy processes. The main objective of this paper is to facilitate the integration of the relational values of nature in models, through improved indicators and other forms of evidence, and to strengthen modelled linkages across biodiversity, ecosystems, nature’s contributions to people, and quality of life to identify science- and knowledge-based interventions and to enhance ecological understanding for achieving sustainable futures. The paper aims at stimulating the development of new scenarios and models based on this new framework by a wide community of modelers, and the testing and possible further development of the framework, particularly in the context of future IPBES assessments.
    Date: 2021–07–21
  18. By: Iazzolino, Gianluca
    Abstract: Based on an ethnography of Uber drivers in Nairobi, my article explores practices of contestation of the gig economy taking place both in the digital and physical space of the city. It argues that the labour struggle against the price policies and the control mechanisms of ride-hailing platforms like Uber foreground the tension between a subjectification from above, in which the platforms construct the drivers as independent contractors, and the shaping of subjectivities through the interaction of the drivers with the digital platforms and with one another. It also suggests that, through contestation, as the one catalysed by the call to ‘go Karura’, logging-off from the app, the workers connect their struggle to a broader critique of processes of exploitation, dependency and subalternity involving the state and international capital. While contributing to the growing literature on the gig economy in low and middle-income countries, my article brings the labour geography scholarship exploring how workers collectively shape economic spaces in conversation with the intellectual tradition of Italian Operaismo (Workerism). In doing so, it highlights the nexus of labour subjectivity and collective agency as mutually constitutive.
    Keywords: ES/P009603/1; LSE Cities Seed Grant
    JEL: R14 J01 J1
    Date: 2021–07–19
  19. By: Quentin Couix (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Date: 2020–10
  20. By: Fathurrahman, Rezki Amalia
    Abstract: Adanya teori sosialisme itu dimulai dari kritik Karl Marx terhadap kapitalisme, yang dimana Karl Marx mengkritik dua hal dari kapitalisme. Pertama tentang teori nilai tambah dan kedua, perkembangan kapitalisme yang menyebabkan terjadi kontrakdiksi antara kaum pemilik modal dan kaum buruh. Pada teori nilai tambah ini Karl Marx mengutip teori dari David Ricardo yang dimana menurut Ricardo bahwa terjadi nilai tambah karena adanya nilai komoditas suatu produksi bukan ditentukan karena adanya usaha yang dilakukan dengan sedikit pengorbanan tetapi karena adanya usaha yang dilakukan sebelumnya terhadap produksi barang terhadap alat dan perlengkapan yang digunakan. Jadi Karl Marx menyimpulkan bahwa terjadi nilai tambah terhadap komoditas tergantung berapa jumlah tenaga kerja atau bertambah produktivitas tenaga kerja, karena semakin banyak tenaga kerja maka semakin tinggi nilai komoditas tetapi permasalahannya munculnya eksploitasi dan aliensi karena kaum kapitalis memiliki pandangan bahwa ia bisa menggambil tenaga kerja atau menambah jam kerja jika memiliki modal dan alat produksi yang memuncul keterasingan kaum buruh dan perbedaan kelas antara kaum pemilik modal dan kaum buruh. Perkembangan kapitalisme yang menyebabkan terjadi kontradiksi ini karena kapitalis memiliki tujuan awal untuk melakukan perbaikan untuk mengurangi permasalahan yang sedang terjadi tetapi tidak mampu untuk menyelesaiakan permasalahan tersebut sehingga muncul kontradiksi antara pemilik modal dan kaum buruh karena pandangan kapitalisme ini. Maka dari itu muncul teori yang bernama sosialisme yang dikembangkan oleh Karl Marx yang teori menganut hak kepemilikan bersama.
    Date: 2021–06–26
  21. By: Martina Nannelli (University of Florence); Stefania Oliva (University of Florence)
    Abstract: The article aims to critically review the concept of Sharing Economy (SE) questioning its relationship with sustainability. Originated by different institutional cultures based on the principles of solidarity between the groups of a community, SE has risen as a new paradigm after the 2008’ financial and economic crisis and the advent of the digital transformation. In particular, by digital platforms, SE has evolved from an economic-social phenomenon to an economic-technological one, influencing and affecting the competitiveness of several sectors. Through a critical literature review of SE concepts, the article explores how the theoretical debate evolved over time. It identifies the main definitions and features of the phenomenon and discusses its relationship with the topic of sustainability. In the conclusions, it develops reflections on further research devoted to understanding the most controversial under-researched topics.
    Keywords: sharing economy; digital platforms; sustainability; sustainable development
    JEL: M21 Q01
    Date: 2021
  22. By: Francesca Mazzoni (University of Ferrara [Ferrara])
    Abstract: The transition of Italian industrial clusters towards more circular and sustainable models of production could lead to substantial environmental, economic and societal benefits. The aim of this paper is to analyse which specific types of eco-innovations could lead to the implementation of circular economy in industrial clusters. The paper intends to do so not only performing a theoretical analysis but also exploring the case study of the Prato textile industrial cluster that, through the introduction of different circular and symbiotic measures has been able to significantly reduce its environmental impact and at the same time thrive and succeed.
    Keywords: circular economy,eco-innovation,industrial symbiosis,industrial clusters
    Date: 2020–09–30
  23. By: Baptiste Bridonneau
    Abstract: Is the term ‘public debt’, taken in its macroeconomic dimension, the right concept for the reality it tries to capture? There is no immediate indication that macroeconomic ‘public debt’ is a debt, i.e. a reality to be paid back. Indeed, the State, with its allegedly infinite character, may continually postpone its repayment, by rolling over its public debt contracts. Saying that macroeconomic ‘public debt’ always has the properties of a debt is tantamount to naturalizing this reality in the form of a sum to be repaid, and denying the fact that it may never be. The article thus reveals the performative character of the ‘public debt’ concept: it does not acknowledge the existence of a pre-existing macroeconomic debt, but calls for it to exist as such. Hence the symbolic interest of succeeding in thinking of macroeconomic ‘public debt’ as something else than a debt. The article proposes a new concept to replace that of macroeconomic ‘public debt’.
    Keywords: public debt; methodological holism; emergent properties; performativity; symbolic power
    JEL: B40 B50 H63
    Date: 2021

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