nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2021‒03‒01
24 papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. Gender norms, fairness and relative working hours within households By Sarah Flèche; Anthony Lepinteur; Nattavudh Powdthavee
  2. Stakeholder Management, Cooperatives, and Selfish-Individualism By Ferri, Giovanni; Leogrande, Angelo
  3. Complex World Money. By Hanappi, Hardy
  4. Models of Structural Change and Kaldor's Facts: Critical Survey from the Cambridge Keynesian Perspective By Kazuhiro Kurose
  5. Assessing the economic effects of lockdowns in Italy: a dynamic Input-Output approach By Severin Reissl; Alessandro Caiani; Francesco Lamperti; Mattia Guerini; Fabio Vanni; Giorgio Fagiolo; Tommaso Ferraresi; Leonardo Ghezzi; Mauro Napoletano; Andrea Roventini
  6. The Twin Endogeneities Hypothesis: A Theory of Central Bank Evolution By Daniyal Khan
  7. Neoclásicos, androcentrismo y economía feminista: una mirada a la exclusión de la mujer como agente económico y político dentro de la disciplina económica By María Fernanda Sánchez Tristancho
  8. Economics and politics sculpting the Colombian economy: the case of national accounts By Diego Alejandro Almonacid Lovera
  9. Hurdles and paternalism: the long way to overcome discrimination and sub-representation of hispanics and afro-americans in economics. An analysis for the United States between 1995-2019 By Luis Eduardo Castellanos Rodríguez
  10. Introducing Environmental Ethics into Economic Analysis: Some Insights from Hans Jonas' Imperative of Responsibility By Damien Bazin; Sylvie Ferrari; Richard B. Howarth
  11. Interactions between social norms and incentive mechanisms in organizations By Ravshanbek Khodzhimatov; Stephan Leitner; Friederike Wall
  12. International institutions in hard times: how institutional complexity increases resilience By Faude, Benjamin
  13. Beyond ESG: Reforming Capitalism and Social-Democracy By Marcel Boyer
  14. Regional economic impact of Covid-19: the role of sectoral structure and trade linkages By Meinen, Philipp; Serafini, Roberta; Papagalli, Ottavia
  15. Truth vs justification: contrasting heterodox and mainstream thinking on development via the example of austerity in Africa By Alice Sindzingre
  16. Regional and Sectoral Structures and Their Dynamics of Chinese Economy: A Network Perspective from Multi-Regional Input-Output Tables By Tao Wang; Shiying Xiao; Jun Yan; Panpan Zhang
  17. Covid-19 and the Political Economy of Mass Hysteria By Bagus, Philipp; Peña Ramos, José Antonio; Sánchez Bayón, Antonio
  18. The comparison of various similarity measurement approaches on interdisciplinary indicators By Ying Huang; Wolfgang Glänzel; Bart Thijs; Alan L Porter; Lin Zhang
  19. Valeur sociale du travail et émergence de l’économie By Mathieu Arnoux
  20. Normes et normativité en économie By Antoinette Baujard; Judith Favereau; Charles Girard
  21. Racing to Zipf's Law: Race and Metro Population Size 1910-2010 By Fernholz, Ricardo; Kramer, Rory
  22. Approaches to accounting for our natural capital: Applications across Ireland By McGrath, Luke; Hynes , Stephen
  23. Les conflits économiques. Des mesures de coercition aux mesures de persuasion By Jacques Fontanel
  24. The Conservatism Principle and Asymmetric Preferences Over Reporting Errors By Jivas Chakravarthy; Timothy W. Shields

  1. By: Sarah Flèche (AMSE - Aix-Marseille Sciences Economiques - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - École Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre for Economic Performance - LSE - London School of Economics and Political Science); Anthony Lepinteur (University of Luxembourg [Luxembourg]); Nattavudh Powdthavee (WBS - Warwick Business School - University of Warwick [Coventry], IZA - Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit - Institute of Labor Economics)
    Abstract: Using data in the United States, UK and Germany, we show that women whose working hours exceed those of their male partners report lower life satisfaction on average. By contrast, men do not report lower life satisfaction from working more hours than their female partners. An analysis of possible mechanisms shows that in couples where the woman works more hours than the man, women do not spend significantly less time doing household chores. Women with egalitarian ideologies are likely to perceive this unequal division of labour as unfair, ultimately reducing their life satisfaction.
    Keywords: gender identity,housework,life satisfaction,relative working hours,fairness
    Date: 2020–08
  2. By: Ferri, Giovanni; Leogrande, Angelo
    Abstract: We analyze stakeholder management (STM) relative to cooperation and individualism within the fourth industrial revolution (FIR). STM is a recent corporate governance tool boosting cooperation and allowing representativeness of individualistic behaviors even in dialectical environments. Though forerunning it, cooperatives massively use STM now, while the FIR demands cooperation also at non-cooperative enterprises. We reach two main conclusions. Deeper orientation towards STM helps solve the shareholder management (SHM) crisis. Moreover, exemplifying the benefits of STM towards social and environmental goals, cooperatives can inspire also other companies aiming to reduce the negative externalities of SHM and profit from cooperation within the FIR.
    Keywords: L21, L31, L33, M14, P12, P13.
    JEL: L21 L22 L23 L24 L26
    Date: 2021–01–15
  3. By: Hanappi, Hardy
    Abstract: In its 500 years of evolution, the capitalist mode of production has produced different forms of the most abstract incarnation of what the human species uses as the material carrier of general social value - of money. Social value in disguise permeates all internal models of social agents, from individuals via households and firms to state agencies. In a sense, we have arrived at a situation where the largest and most powerful social agents are still a handful of nation-states, of self-determined ‘global players’. Their respective national value system is partly made comparable by the existence of a military hegemon, the USA and its US Dollar. Less powerful nation-states are aligned along with the dominance of the US Dollar. To fulfil its manifold tasks, the global Dollar system has developed highly complex features, most of them incorporated in what today is called ‘international finance’. If the victory of a single nation-state (‘America first’) over a democratic global governance system fails, this will also imply a different sign-system for global social value. Not just different geographical location, but also other dimensions of diversity will have to be taken into account. In short, the complexity of a new form of world money will rise dramatically. By following the historical and logical evolution of money this contribution sketches some basic features of an upcoming complex global money.
    Keywords: Money, Political Economy, Complexity
    JEL: B52 E40 E50 P0
    Date: 2021–02–25
  4. By: Kazuhiro Kurose
    Abstract: This study addresses the reconciliation of structural change with Kaldor's facts, which is a new research agenda in this area. The mainstream reconciliation strategy is that the facts are interpreted as a state at which the economy grows along the generalised balanced growth path and multi-sectoral models are transformed into the one-sectoral model that has the uniquely (saddle-path) stable steady state. We argue that the main- stream strategy is far from Kaldor's own thoughts and overlooks structural change in physical capital. The Cambridge Keynesian reconciliation based on Pasinetti's struc- tural dynamics demonstrates that structural change inevitably accompanies changes in socialinstitutionstomaintainfullemployment,whereasthemainstreamreconciliation is achieved entirely through the market mechanism.
    Date: 2021–01
  5. By: Severin Reissl; Alessandro Caiani; Francesco Lamperti; Mattia Guerini; Fabio Vanni; Giorgio Fagiolo; Tommaso Ferraresi; Leonardo Ghezzi; Mauro Napoletano; Andrea Roventini
    Abstract: The unprecedented lockdown measures implemented by many countries in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic have created a need for tools to assess their economic costs. For this purpose, we present a novel dynamic input-output modelling framework which we apply to an estimation of the economic impact of lockdowns in Italy. Lockdown measures are treated as shocks to available labor supply, being calibrated on regional and sectoral employment data coupled with the prescriptions of the prime ministerial decrees mandating the closure of specific industries. Using input-output tables for the Italian regions, we estimate the model on data from the first lockdown during spring 2020 and then simulate it to assess the regional and sectoral impacts. We find that, despite the simplicity of our framework, the model is able to reproduce the observed dynamics during the lockdown-induced downturn and subsequent recovery fairly closely for most sectors. This ability to match the empirical data is also confirmed by a small out-of-sample forecasting exercise. We subsequently also simulate the second set of ''softer'' lockdown measures implemented during autumn and winter of 2020 in order to evaluate their impact and compare them to the first, ''hard'' lockdown. Overall, we believe the simplicity and parsimony of our framework make it suitable for providing quick and reasonably accurate evaluations of the economic effects of different lockdown measures.
    Keywords: Input-output; Covid-19; Lockdown; Italy.
    Date: 2021–02–03
  6. By: Daniyal Khan (Department of Economics, New School for Social Research)
    Abstract: The paper outlines a theory according to which central banking evolves as the result of an interaction between endogenous money and endogenous institutions. This theory is called the twin endogeneities hypothesis and forms the basis for two models which are developed and used to explain two stylized facts of central bank evolution. These models are examples of operationalization of the hypothesis. The first model, combining endogenous money and hysteresis, explains the first stylized fact, namely that there are two different origin tendencies in the history of central banking. The second model is a heuristic model which combines the swings of the Polanyi pendulum (or the Polanyian double movement) with swings in long run central bank independence to explain the latter. These examples serve to demonstrate how the twin endogeneities hypothesis, a theory in the tradition of institutionalist Post Keynesianism, can be used to develop models which help us unpack and address the evolution of central banking from a theoretical point of view.
    Keywords: Endogeneity, evolution, money, institutions, central banking
    JEL: B52 E02 E5
    Date: 2021–02
  7. By: María Fernanda Sánchez Tristancho
    Abstract: El presente documento analiza la forma como el modelo de equilibrio general walrasiano (MEGW) se ha encargado de ejercer su androcentrismo y masculinización a la hora de definir el campo de las ciencias económicas. Se examina no solo una visión general acerca de las críticas comunes que las economistas feministas han hecho a los axiomas y supuestos del MEGW, sino también la respuesta que los defensores de dicho modelo han dado en un intento por justificar los principios de individualismo, optimización y equilibrio. El MEGW contiene juicios de valor preexistentes que dependen del sujeto a cargo del estudio y el contexto; este último factor resulta esencial al analizar el sesgo de género existente en la concepción de la dinámica del mercado y al momento de estudiar la masculinización que ha venido incorporando trascendental e imperceptiblemente el MEGW dentro de la disciplina económica. Se concluye que la economía feminista busca una comprensión más humana e íntegra de la economía y de los procesos de inclusión y exclusión que en ella se desarrollan. *** This document analyzes how the Walrasian General Equilibrium Model has been in charge of practicing its androcentrism and masculinization when defining the field of economics. It examines not only an overview about the common criticisms that feminist economists have made to the axioms and assumptions of the General Equilibrium Model but also the response that the defenders of this model have given in an attempt to justify the principles of individualism, optimization and balance. The General Equilibrium Model contains pre-existing value judgments that depend on the subject in charge of the study and the context; this last factor is essential when analyzing the existing gender bias in the conception of market dynamics and when studying the masculinization that the General Equilibrium Model has been incorporating in a transcendental and imperceptible way within the economic discipline. It is concluded that feminist economics seeks a more humane and comprehensive understanding of the economy and the processes of inclusion and exclusion that develop in it.
    Keywords: economía feminista, androcentrismo, modelo de equilibrio general walrasiano
    JEL: B21 B54 D01
    Date: 2020–12–28
  8. By: Diego Alejandro Almonacid Lovera
    Abstract: History is a non-linear process, full of contingent events that set the conditions which brought us, and our institutions, to where we are today. This paper examines two possible conditions in Colombia that may have influenced the creation of the National Administrative Department of Statistics: a concentrated centralist political power and a growing participation of economists in state positions. This work provides a historical and theoretical framework grounded on Alain Desrosières’ analysis of the implication of an autocratic political power and the need for national accounts on the interaction of economists with the real world, based on abstract concepts. Likewise, I examine some historical events in the light of Desrosières’ analysis that occurred in the early years of Colombia’s National Administrative Department of Statistics, specifically, the ‘50s and ‘60s decades. This paper concludes that both a concentrated centralist political power and a growing economists’ enrolment in positions of power may have served as conditions fostering the appearance of the department in charge of the Colombian national accounts. *** La historia es un proceso no lineal lleno de eventos contingentes que establecen las condiciones que nos llevaron a nosotros, y a nuestras instituciones, al lugar donde nos encontramos actualmente. Este artículo examina dos posibles condiciones que en Colombia pueden haber influido a la creación del Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística (DANE): un poder político centralista concentrado y una creciente participación de economistas en puestos estatales. Este trabajo ofrece un marco histórico y teórico basado en el análisis de Alain Desrosières sobre la implicación de un poder político autocrático y la necesidad de cifras nacionales en la interacción que tienen los economistas con el mundo real, a partir de conceptos abstractos. Asimismo, examino algunos hechos de la historia colombiana a la luz del análisis de Desrosières ocurridos en los primeros años de existencia del DANE, específicamente en las décadas de los 50 y 60. Este trabajo concluye que tanto un poder político centralista concentrado como una creciente participación de economistas en posiciones de poder podrían haber servido como condiciones que propiciaron la aparición del departamento encargado de las cuentas nacionales colombianas.
    Keywords: DANE, Colombia, Autocracy, Economic discipline, Technocracy
    JEL: B25 B4 D02 D73 N01 N46
    Date: 2021–02–19
  9. By: Luis Eduardo Castellanos Rodríguez
    Abstract: The debate on whether there is racial exclusion in economics is open. There is a strong contrast between the position of those who consider that there is still discrimination in the field and those who believe that this phenomenon has disappeared (or became insignificant) in recent decades. This document analyzes the evolution and change in the dynamics related to the representation of Afro-American and Hispanic minorities in economics within the US post-secondary educational system from 1995 to 2019. I present data from the National Center for Education Statistics (2020) and show that there is not only a low representation of Hispanic and Afro-American people in degrees awarded at post-secondary institutions but negligible employment of these groups within leading academic institutions. I evaluate some of the possible reasons for the persistence of socioeconomic barriers, like discrimination, exclusion, and self-isolation attitudes, that block academic and professional advancement in the discipline for these minorities. The analysis is important for economists outside the US due to two factors: the "Americanization" of economics and the influence of the US top centers over the curriculum of other institutions around the world. *** El debate sobre si existe exclusión racial en la economía está abierto. Existe un fuerte contraste entre la posición de quienes consideran que aún existe discriminación en la disciplina y quienes creen que este fenómeno ha desaparecido (o se ha vuelto insignificante) en las últimas décadas. Este documento analiza la evolución y el cambio en la dinámica relacionada con la representación, en la carrera de economía, de las minorías afroamericanas e hispanas dentro del sistema de educación superior de EE. UU. Se presentan y analizan datos del National Center for Education Statistics (2020) y se demustra que: en primer lugar, hay una baja representación de hispanos y afroamericanos en los graduados de instituciones de educación superior. En segundo lugar, se muestra que el empleo en el interior de importantes instituciones académicas de personas que se identifican dentro de estas minorías es insignificante. En el articulo se evalúan algunas de las posibles razones de la persistencia de barreras socioeconómicas, como actitudes de discriminación, exclusión y autoaislamiento, que obstaculizan el avance académico y profesional de estas minorías dentro del campo de la economía. El análisis es importante para los economistas fuera de Estados Unidos debido a la "americanización" de la disciplina económica y a la influencia de los principales centros universitarios estadounidenses sobre el plan de estudios de otras instituciones alrededor del mundo.
    Keywords: discrimination, minority representation, cognitive biases, post-secondary education, barriers, political economy
    JEL: A23 I21 I24 J15 J71
    Date: 2021–02–08
  10. By: Damien Bazin (Université Côte d'Azur; GREDEG CNRS); Sylvie Ferrari (Université de Bordeaux; GREThA, CNRS); Richard B. Howarth (Dartmouth College; GREThA, CNRS)
    Abstract: This paper addresses how environmental ethics might be incorporated into economic analysis and in particular how Hans Jonas’ Imperative of Responsibility may provide useful insights into the analysis of sustainability issues. The challenges of environmental and social sustainability in terms of inter-generational fairness are analysed and involve a moral duty that is applicable to economic governance. The paper also explores to what extent responsibility, as an alternative to utilitarianism and as a principle facilitating the coordination of the agents involved, may be a first step towards the long-term and sustainable conservation of Nature.
    Keywords: Environmental ethics, intergenerational fairness, responsibility principle, self-binding behaviour, sustainability
    JEL: Q01 Q20 Q32 Q57
    Date: 2021–02
  11. By: Ravshanbek Khodzhimatov; Stephan Leitner; Friederike Wall
    Abstract: We focus on how individual behavior that complies with social norms interferes with performance-based incentive mechanisms in organizations with multiple distributed decision-making agents. We model social norms to emerge from interactions between agents: agents observe other the agents' actions and, from these observations, induce what kind of behavior is socially acceptable. By complying with the induced socially accepted behavior, agents experience utility. Also, agents get utility from a pay-for-performance incentive mechanism. Thus, agents pursue two objectives. We place the interaction between social norms and performance-based incentive mechanisms in the complex environment of an organization with distributed decision-makers, in which a set of interdependent tasks is allocated to multiple agents. The results suggest that, unless the sets of assigned tasks are highly correlated, complying with emergent socially accepted behavior is detrimental to the organization's performance. However, we find that incentive schemes can help offset the performance loss by applying individual-based incentives in environments with lower task-complexity and team-based incentives in environments with higher task-complexity.
    Date: 2021–02
  12. By: Faude, Benjamin
    Abstract: This paper asks how institutional complexity affects the resilience of global governance. By drawing on sociological differentiation theory, it interprets growing levels of institutional complexity as a process of institutional differentiation which allows the “political system of world society” to mirror the increasing complexity of its social environment. More precisely, the paper suggests that growing levels of institutional complexity enhance the resilience of global governance by providing states with a more diverse set of governance tools and by making backup governance tools available. Against this backdrop, it makes two interrelated contributions to the literature on global governance. First, by applying the concept of resilience to global governance, the paper provides the conceptual basis for a novel research agenda on the ability of contemporary global governance to operate under stress. So far, the analytical toolbox of global governance researchers does not contain a concept that enables a theory-driven analysis of international institutions’ ability to facilitate cooperation when confronted with high levels of stress. Second, it offers a sense of how the central structural feature of contemporary global governance—institutional complexity—affects its resilience. With these two interrelated contributions, the paper seeks to start a scholarly conversation on the resilience of contemporary global governance.
    Keywords: international institutions; institutional complexity; resilience; sociological differentiation theory
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2020
  13. By: Marcel Boyer
    Abstract: Several voices are rising to demand an in-depth reform of capitalism in the wake of the financial crisis of 2007-2010, the increase in income and wealth inequalities of the last four decades, the climate urgency in a local global world. There is a real danger that governments will be put under pressure from poorly-informed groups and will want to play Goethe’s sorcerer's apprentice: too often, these good intentions are but a paved road to hell. In this document, I analyze various reform projects, I discuss the concepts of ethics and equity (environment, water, life, remuneration, inequalities, ESG) and I propose to add a project for in-depth reforms of capitalism and social-democracy.
    Keywords: Value,Capitalism,ESG,Ethics,Equity,Environment,Water,Fair and Equitable Remuneration,New Competitive Capitalism,Competitive Social-Democracy,
    Date: 2021–02–16
  14. By: Meinen, Philipp; Serafini, Roberta; Papagalli, Ottavia
    Abstract: The paper provides an ex-post analysis of the determinants of within-country regional heterogeneity of the labour market impact of COVID-19. By focussing on the first wave of the pandemic in the four largest euro area economies, it finds that the propagation of the economic impact across regions cannot be explained by the spread of infections only. Instead, a region’s economic structure is a significant driver of the observed heterogeneity. Moreover, our results suggest that a region's trade relations, both within and across countries, represent a relevant indirect channel through which COVID-19 related disruptions affect regional economic activity. In this regard, the analysis depicts vulnerabilities arising from potential disruptions of the highly integrated EU supply chains. JEL Classification: R11, F14, J40, R15
    Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic, input-output linkages, regional differences, sectoral exposure, short-time work
    Date: 2021–02
  15. By: Alice Sindzingre (CEPN - Centre d'Economie de l'Université Paris Nord - USPC - Université Sorbonne Paris Cité - LABEX ICCA - UP13 - Université Paris 13 - Université Sorbonne Nouvelle - Paris 3 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UP - Université de Paris - Université Sorbonne Paris Nord - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Université Sorbonne Paris Nord, School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), University of London, LAM - Les Afriques dans le monde - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Date: 2021–02–12
  16. By: Tao Wang; Shiying Xiao; Jun Yan; Panpan Zhang
    Abstract: A multi-regional input-output table (MRIOT) containing the transactions among the region-sectors in an economy defines a weighted and directed network. Using network analysis tools, we analyze the regional and sectoral structure of the Chinese economy and their temporal dynamics from 2007 to 2012 via the MRIOTs of China. Global analyses are done with network topology measures. Growth-driving province-sector clusters are identified with community detection methods. Influential province-sectors are ranked by weighted PageRank scores. The results revealed a few interesting and telling insights. The level of inter-province-sector activities increased with the rapid growth of the national economy, but not as fast as that of intra-province economic activities. Regional community structures were deeply associated with geographical factors. The community heterogeneity across the regions was high and the regional fragmentation increased during the study period. Quantified metrics assessing the relative importance of the province-sectors in the national economy echo the national and regional economic development policies to a certain extent.
    Date: 2021–02
  17. By: Bagus, Philipp; Peña Ramos, José Antonio; Sánchez Bayón, Antonio
    Abstract: In this article, we aim to develop a political economy of mass hysteria. Using the background of COVID-19, we study past mass hysteria. Negative information which is spread through mass media repetitively can affect public health negatively in the form of nocebo effects and mass hysteria. We argue that mass and digital media in connection with the state may have had adverse consequences during the COVID-19 crisis. The resulting collective hysteria may have contributed to policy errors by governments not in line with health recommendations. While mass hysteria can occur in societies with a minimal state, we show that there exist certain self-corrective mechanisms and limits to the harm inflicted, such as sacrosanct private property rights. However, mass hysteria can be exacerbated and self-reinforcing when the negative information comes from an authoritative source, when the media are politicized, and social networks make the negative information omnipresent. We conclude that the negative long-term effects of mass hysteria are exacerbated by the size of the state.
    Keywords: mass hysteria; nocebo effects; contagion; mass media; social media; public health; law and economics; political economy; groupthink; culture of fear; emotional contagion; anxiety; policy error; COVID-19
    JEL: A10 B53 I10
    Date: 2020–12–26
  18. By: Ying Huang; Wolfgang Glänzel; Bart Thijs; Alan L Porter; Lin Zhang
    Abstract: How to measure the interdisciplinary is a crucial topic in Interdisciplinary research (IDR), and the integrated indicators (e.g., Rao-Stirling) that combine three distinct components (variety, balance and disparity) has become one of the most promising attempts. Among the three components, variety and balance play relatively straightforward roles in diversity assessment but to what extent the (dis)similarity measuring approaches may affect the interdisciplinarity indicators is seldom discussed in the literature. In this paper, we compare various similarity measurement approaches from (1) different subject classification systems, (2) different normalization of (dis)similarity measure, (3) different (dis)similarity matrices of subjects, (4) different time windows; and (5) different levels of aggregations, using the academic publications labeled “Article” in eight selected journals published during the period 2009–2018 were selected as the sample dataset. Our results corroborate the following findings: First, a finer classification system with more subject categories increases the possibility that one cites sources from different subject categories. Second, different normalization approaches may lead to obviously different interdisciplinarity results, and such a finding is supported by the relatively low correlations between the interdisciplinarities calculated by Salton’s Cosine and Ochiai’s Cosine. Third, on the basis of Salton's cosine normalization, the interdisciplinary values obtained by different settings are highly correlated, especially in terms of different citation similarity matrices (cited, citing and cross-citation) and, in general, with different time windows. Fourth, results based on an aggregated dataset tend to overly expand the 'interdisciplinarity' degree of a journal, especially when the focused journal is actually 'multidisciplinary'.
    Keywords: Interdisciplinary research (IDR), Similarity, Rao-Stirling, True Diversity
    Date: 2021–02–15
  19. By: Mathieu Arnoux (ICT (EA_337) - Identités, Cultures, Territoires - UPD7 - Université Paris Diderot - Paris 7)
    Abstract: Le concept de révolution industrieuse forgé par les historiens du Japon permet de poser de façon nouvelle la question de l'augmentation de l'offre de travail comme facteur déclenchant du processus de croissance, et de replacer celle-ci dans le contexte politique d'une société d'ordres. Convaincant pour comprendre le processus de croissance dans le monde rural, ce modèle ne permet pas de représenter la dynamique d'urbanisation, qui exige une autre approche, économique et institutionnelle
    Keywords: Révolution,ordre,Moyen Âge,ville,technologie
    Date: 2019–08–14
  20. By: Antoinette Baujard (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Université de Lyon - UJM - Université Jean Monnet [Saint-Étienne] - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon); Judith Favereau (TRIANGLE - Triangle : action, discours, pensée politique et économique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - IEP Lyon - Sciences Po Lyon - Institut d'études politiques de Lyon - Université de Lyon - UJM - Université Jean Monnet [Saint-Étienne] - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Charles Girard (IRPhiL - Institut de recherches philosophiques de Lyon - UJML - Université Jean Moulin - Lyon 3 - Université de Lyon)
    Abstract: Cette introduction insiste sur les difficultés et les enjeux de la distinction entre les approches positives et normatives des normes. La vie collective est organisée par des normes, mais qu'elles ordonnent les comportements dans les faits n'impliquent pas qu'elles soient désirables. Une stricte description des normes peut nécessiter de prendre en compte les questions éthiques, lesquelles peuvent être traduites à l'aide de la méthode axiomatique ; choisir les normes en revanche est une activité de nature fondamentalement normative, qui interroge la légitimité des décisions et des évaluations. La possibilité même de démarcation entre positif et normatif ne va pas de soi : en particulier en économie du bien-être, les approches standards qui visent à éviter les jugements de valeur (le welfarisme) ou à les isoler (l'axiomatique) peuvent s'avérer problématiques. Pour conclure, nous présentons les quatre articles du numéro qui illustrent les quatre étapes de cette réflexion sur la normativité.
    Keywords: positif,normatif,normes,jugements de valeurs,éthique,régularités,Démarcation
    Date: 2020
  21. By: Fernholz, Ricardo; Kramer, Rory
    Abstract: Residential segregation scholarship traditionally focuses on segregation within metro- politan areas. Concurrently, urban economists have identi?ed that cities and metro areas within a coherent, connected system of cities have population distributions that follow a power law. Further, subpopulations with equal mobility should also have pop- ulation distributions that follow a power law. Using this insight, we introduce a novel method for identifying whether or not racial segregation between metro areas is due to geographical patterns of immigration into coherent systems or due to constrained mobility. We demonstrate the potential of this method by measuring the coherence of the U.S. urban system from 1910-2010 for the white, Black, Asian, and Hispanic populations. Black residents were only distributed across cities in a coherent system after the Great Migration, while Asian and Hispanic residents reached coherence more quickly and stayed coherent more consistently. It appears the Black reverse migration to the south has unsettled their power law distribution. We also ?nd that the size of those networks di?er across populations, and these di?erences are not an artifact of the relative size of the di?erent populations. We conclude with more potential applications of the methodology.
    Date: 2021–02–19
  22. By: McGrath, Luke; Hynes , Stephen
    Abstract: Natural capital accounting allows for the integration of our natural assets within economic and political decision making, can improve natural resource governance and permits the development of environmentally adjusted macroeconomic indicators to serve as complements to Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The United Nations System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (UN SEEA) is the accepted international standard for natural capital accounting, providing a framework for organizing and presenting statistics on the environment and its relationship with the economy. This paper details different approaches to natural capital accounting, all related to the SEEA framework, currently being undertaken across Ireland. We discuss the relationship between natural capital accounts and sustainable development measurement and provide recommendations for future work in these areas.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Financial Economics
    Date: 2020
  23. By: Jacques Fontanel (CESICE - Centre d'études sur la sécurité internationale et les coopérations européennes - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - IEPG - Sciences Po Grenoble - Institut d'études politiques de Grenoble - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes)
    Abstract: Economic conflicts between states are frequent in the history of mankind. Contemporary economic theories have sought to suppress the notion of economic warfare, in favour of notions of competition or this competition. In fact, economic actions designed to weaken a political and economic decision-making space deemed to be adversary or enemy are common. There are many more or less well-defined strategies ranging from warlike behaviour to persuasion through more or less coercive measures. The economy is both a weapon and a cause of conflicts between States and the major economic players in the contemporary world.
    Abstract: Les conflits économiques Des mesures de coercition aux mesures de persuasion Document disponible Conférence ILERI Paris 3 novembre 2020 Résumé : Les conflits économiques entre les Etats sont fréquents dans l'histoire de l'humanité. Les théories économiques contemporaines ont cherché à supprimer la notion de guerre économique, pour lui préférer les notions de concurrence ou ce compétition. De fait, les actions économiques destinées à fragiliser un espace de décision politique et économique jugé adversaire ou ennemi sont courantes. Il existe de nombreuses stratégies plus ou moins bien définies allant de comportements guerriers à la persuasion en passant par des mesures coercitives plus ou moins contraignants. L'économie est à la fois une arme et une cause des conflits entre les Etats et les grands acteurs économiques du monde contemporain.
    Keywords: Economic conflict,economic war,States power,Conflit économique,guerre économique,puissance des Etats
    Date: 2020–11–03
  24. By: Jivas Chakravarthy (University of Texas, Arlington); Timothy W. Shields (Argyros School of Business and Economics, Chapman University)
    Abstract: At present, accounting conservatism is generally viewed from a measurement or reporting perspective. In contrast, we consider whether it relates to a moral rule of conduct. Conservatism has been described as deriving from a preference for reporting errors to be in the direction of understatement rather than overstatement. We experimentally pair Reporters who provide information with Users who rely on the information. We posit that under misaligned incentives that motivate aggressive reporting, Users view an aggressive report as reflecting Reporters’ exploitative intent and expect that a social norm prohibiting aggressive reporting applies. We predict that Users use noisy reporting errors to gauge Reporters’ norm compliance. Consistent with this we find that, ceteris paribus, Users prefer not to be paired with Reporters who produce overstatement errors that are likely to reflect aggressive reporting. This preference, revealed through Users’ incentivized actions, is both inconsistent with neoclassical economic models and cannot be explained by loss aversion. Alternatively, when Reporters’ motives are aligned with Users’, we find no such preference. While our evidence is indirect, it opens the possibility that conservatism emerged from a norm that enhances trust and cooperation among economic agents. We believe this insight can open new possibilities for conservatism research.
    Keywords: accounting conservatism; experimental economics; intentions; moral hazard
    JEL: B52 D81 D82 M41
    Date: 2020

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