nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2020‒12‒14
29 papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. Género y seguridad alimentaria en Honduras By Allen, Summer L.; Delgado, Luciana
  2. Institutional and Behavioral Modeling of the Economic Fabric of Urban Eastern Ethiopian Communities: Shared Value System, Group Decision Making Behavior and Wellbeing By Demiessie, Habtamu
  3. Consistent Regional Commodity-by-Industry Input-Output Accounts By Randall Jackson; Péter Járosi
  4. Commodities are Not Industries! A Value Chain Example By Randall Jackson; Patricio Aroca
  5. Income inequality and the absence of a Tawney moment in the mass media By McGovern, Patrick; Obradović, Sandra; Bauer, Martin W.
  6. How representative are social partners in Europe? The role of dissimilarity By Martínez Matute, Marta; Martins, Pedro S.
  7. The ambiguous consensus on fiscal rules: How ideational ambiguity has facilitated social democratic parties' support of structural deficit rules in the eurozone By Eisl, Andreas
  8. Towards an evolutionary political economy. Editorial to the inaugural issue of the Review of Evolutionary Political Economy REPE By Nathalie Lazaric; Silvano Cincotti; Wolfram Elsner; Anastasia Nesvetailova; Engelbert Stockhammer
  9. Modeling Consumption and Saving Decision Making Behavior of People in the Settings of Urban Eastern Ethiopian Communities : A Heterodox Economics Approach. By Demiessie, Habtamu
  11. Homo moralis goes to the voting booth: coordination and information aggregation By Alger, Ingela; Laslier, Jean-François
  12. Extending the Macroeconomic Impacts Forecasting Capabilities of the National Energy Modeling System By Christa D. Court; Randall Jackson; Amanda J. Harker Steele; Justin Adder; Gavin Pickenpaugh; Charles Zelek
  13. ECIO Input-Output Relationships Generating Expected Output Series By Randall Jackson; Péter Járosi
  14. The Systems Theory Of Economic Development; As Formulated By Kwabena Meneabe Ackon on 12th November 2020; Discussed In The Context Of Human Capital and, Economic, Social And Political Institutions In Africa. By Ackon, Kwabena Meneabe
  15. The Logic of Attraction: Outline of a Theory of Soft Power By Vuving, Alexander
  16. How the Publish-or-Perish Principle Divides a Science : The Case of Academic Economists By van Dalen, Hendrik Peter
  17. Power Inequality in Inter-communal Structures: The Simulated Impact of a Reform in the Case of the Municipalities in Western France By Zineb Abidi; Matthieu Leprince; Vincent Merlin
  18. COVID-19 Pandemic Through a Gender Lens By Amy Copley; Alison Decker; Fannie Delavelle; Markus Goldstein; Michael O'Sullivan; Sreelakshmi Papineni
  19. The socioeconomic patterns of COVID outside advanced economies: the case of Bogotá. By Marcela Eslava; Oscar Becerra; Juan Camilo Cárdenas; Margarita Isaacs; Daniel Mejía
  20. Using socioeconomic system analysis to define scientific needs: a reverse engineering method applied to the conversion of a coal-fired to a wood biomass power plant By Hendrik Davi; Laetitia Tuffery; Emanuel Garbolino; Bernard Prévosto; Bruno Fady
  21. Social Network Modelling using tools of Statistical Mechanics By Menon, Ashish; Rajendran, Nithin K; Chandrachud, Anish
  22. Governance Structure, Technical Change and Industry Competition By Mattia Guerini; Philipp Harting; Mauro Napoletano
  23. Transformation des Innovationssystems: Neue Anforderungen an die Innovationspolitik By Botthof, Alfons; Edler, Jakob; Hahn, Katrin; Hirsch-Kreinsen, Hartmut; Weber, Karl Matthias; Wessels, Jan
  25. Market stability vs. market resilience: Regulatory policies experiments in an agent-based model with low- and high-frequency trading By Sandrine Jacob Leal; Mauro Napoletano
  26. Кризис институтов политической конкуренции, интернет и коллаборативная демократия By Polterovich, Victor
  27. De la crise sanitaire à la décroissance? By Julien Vastenaekels
  28. Personal norms — and not only social norms — shape economic behavior By Bašic, Zvonimir; Eugenio Verrina
  29. Neo-Liberal, State-Capitalist and Ordo-Liberal Conceptions of Multilevel Trade Regulation By Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann; Armin Steinbach

  1. By: Allen, Summer L.; Delgado, Luciana
    Abstract: El presente estudio, con el respaldo del Servicio Holandés de Cooperación al Desarrollo (SNV), obtuvo información sobre una serie de temas relativos a la seguridad alimentaria y la nutrición, el género y el acceso al agua en ciertos caseríos específicos de Honduras. La recolección de datos priorizó un grupo de comunidades de interés para las organizaciones de la sociedad civil que forman parte del programa Voz para el Cambio en Honduras. Dicha recolección de datos, efectuada en 2018, abarcó 647 hogares de los departamentos de Choluteca, Lempira y Ocotepeque. La mayoría de los hogares encuestados enfrentan graves niveles de inseguridad alimentaria. Solo el 26 % de las mujeres entre 12 y 49 años cuentan con una diversidad alimentaria mínima. Además, el acceso al agua y el saneamiento es limitado, ya que el 30 % de los hogares obtienen agua de un pozo o río y el 50 % no la trata antes de beberla. Según el à ndice Abreviado de Empoderamiento de la Mujer en la Agricultura (A-WEAI), solo el 34 % de las mujeres encuestadas se consideran empoderadas. Los resultados de la encuesta indican que los mayores obstáculos al empoderamiento de la mujer son la cantidad de tiempo que pasan trabajando y el poco poder de decisión que tienen en cuanto al acceso al crédito y las actividades productivas.
    Keywords: HONDURAS; CENTRAL AMERICA; AMERICAS; gender; women; food security; nutrition; water; households; hygiene; women's empowerment; A-WEAI; gender empowerment; dietary diversity
    Date: 2020
  2. By: Demiessie, Habtamu
    Abstract: The essence of this study is to map the economic fabric of urban eastern Ethiopian communities. To that end, shared value system in the communities of interest was explored. The whole set of analysis and inferences were meant to hypothesize, conceptualize and/or characterize on key behavioral and institutional variables that defines the economic fabric of a particular society. Core behavioral and institutional variables subjected in this study that construct the group decision making behaviorswere: life style (philosophy of life), rationality of economic agents, life satisfaction, individualistic motives, workmanship traits, consumption and saving behavior. The study is essentially framed based on the principles of hypothetical research. By way of making inferences, techniques/tools from institutional/behavioral economics were borrowed. Moreover, theoretical and empirical evidences from positive psychology,behavioral economics, social economics, economic sociology & social anthropology were employed. The study found out that shared value system in the urban eastern Ethiopian setting manifests as in the followings: a) while making decisions, people often look the matter they supposed to decide in an absolute abstraction. It is customary that people are unwilling to look the pros and cons of their decisions. b) People try to disregard or even mitigate or 'avoid‘ the negative outcomes of their actions (decisions). The study inferred that the shared value system is a social construct meant to cope up from uncertainties arising out of uncertain (risky) nature of prevailing fabric of life, which is a typical feature of urban eastern Ethiopia. Furthermore, the study explained and/or hypothesized on how those behavioral elements are interpreted into wellbeing of people. More importantly, the behavioral/institutional modeling made can be used to understand the fabrics of collective/communal societies in general. Therefore, academic and research circles are expected to give due emphasis to probing why/how the prevailing shared values/institutional system would be progressive or retrogressive to wellbeing of people and communities of interest of the study. Moreover, policy regimes should consider those variables their concern, where interventions in this regard are expected to overcome retrogressive behavioral and institutional elements and nurture those which are progressive to wellbeing.
    Keywords: Eastern Ethiopian Communities Group Decision Making Behavior Involuntary Simplicity Wellbeing
    JEL: B5 B52 H3 J5 Z1
    Date: 2020–11–19
  3. By: Randall Jackson (Geology and Geography Department and Regional Research Institute, West Virginia University); Péter Járosi (Regional Research Institute, West Virginia University)
    Abstract: A long-standing regional science problem domain focuses on the identification of structural economic change. One of several approaches reliles on the use of historical final demand series and a comparison of observed inudstry output to an estimate of what output would have been were economic structure static. However, these methods were first developed before the introduction of today’s commonly used commodity-by-industry (CxI)input-output (IO) accounting frameworks, and before the application of these methods to regional economies. Correctly formulating the supporting accounting structures for these analyses is essential, but can be challenging even for experienced analysts. Related textbook and journal articles often imply a simplicity that belies two important barriers to understanding. First, although modern IO accounts are now almost universally compiled and distributed as CxI accounts, IO methods presentations are very commonly founded on interindustry accounts. Second, introductions to many IO-based methods tend to focus on national IO accounting, for which the implications of degree of openness of the economy are seldom – if ever – discussed. The implication is that the path from published national data to a coherent set of regional CxI accounts is simple and straightforward when, in fact, there are several key considerations to be taken and assumptions to be made along the way. In this paper, we lay out the mathematical foundations of a CxI version of traditional interindustry regionalization and structural change analyses, and in so doing, clarify appropriate regional commodity-by-industry impacts assessment formulations.
    Keywords: Regional economics, General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium, Input-Output Tables and Analysis, General Regional Economics, Econometric and Input-Output Models, Other Models
    JEL: R1 D57 R15
    Date: 2020–09–28
  4. By: Randall Jackson (Geology and Geography Department and Regional Research Institute, West Virginia University); Patricio Aroca (Business School, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez)
    Abstract: Wassily Leontief received the 1973 Nobel Prize in Economics for his 1936 introduction input-output accounts and laying the foundations for decades of studies of economic structure and analyses of systemwide impacts of economic shocks (Leontief, 1936). In 1961, Richard Stone published “Input-Output and National Accounts,” which recognized and dealt explicitly with the realities of secondary production (?), and for which he received the 1984 Nobel Prize in Economics. Despite these recognitions and widespread use and acceptance internationally and in other disciplines and public sector planning applications, the Leontief and Stone framework gained little traction in mainstream U.S. economics. However, inputoutput modeling frameworks have attracted new attention in a variety of problem domains, including environmental attribution, water use, life-cycle assessment, and supply and value chains. Yet many – if not most – contemporary economists continue founding their work directly the Leontief framework, eschewing the power and versatility of Stone’s enhancements. Moreover, many are failing to understand and appreciate the conceptual differences between the two frameworks and as a result are failing to match constructs to variables in their their newly developed analytical metrics, even in top economics journals. In this paper, we use an increasingly common approach to value chains analysis as one of many possible examples that demonstrate such conceptual misunderstandings, and by developing and implementing properly formulated value chain metrics, we demonstrate both the extent of the consequences of neglecting the Stone enhancements and the important role of reproducing results in advancing scientific knowledge.
    Keywords: Input-Output, SNA, Value Chains, Primary and Secondary Products
    JEL: F10 F14 L16 L23 C67
    Date: 2020–10–12
  5. By: McGovern, Patrick; Obradović, Sandra; Bauer, Martin W.
    Abstract: In this paper we address the paradox of increasing income inequality and the absence of public mobilization around the issue. As the mass media are our most important source of information on wider economic affairs, we examine the salience and framing of income inequality within major UK and US newspapers over the period 1990 – 2015. Despite an initial surge in media attention and again towards the end of the period, the issues-attention cycle of inequality resembles a hype-cycle that is more common with arcane academic or techno-scientific topics than with social mobilisation. The dominant frames present income inequality as the seemingly inevitable result of globalization, market forces and technological change. No new radical frames of economic injustice have emerged, neither have any new actors, and so policy solutions fall back onto existing left-right approaches.
    Keywords: income distribution; inequality; media; discourse; United Kingdom; USA
    JEL: J30
    Date: 2020–11–01
  6. By: Martínez Matute, Marta; Martins, Pedro S.
    Abstract: Social partners (trade unions and employers' associations) shape labour institutions and economic and social outcomes in many countries. In this paper, we argue that, when examining social partners' representativeness, it is important to consider both affiliation and dissimilarity measures. The latter concerns the extent to which affiliated and non- affiliated firms or workers are distributed similarly across relevant dimensions, including firm size. In our analysis of European Company Survey data, we find that affiliation and dissimilarity measures correlate positively across countries, particularly in the case of employers' associations. This result also holds across employers' associations when we use firm population data for Portugal. Overall, we conclude that higher affiliation rates do not necessarily equate to more representative social partners as they can involve greater dissimilarity between affiliated and non-affiliated firms.
    Keywords: Employers' Associations,Social Dialogue,Collective Bargaining
    JEL: J50 J23 L22
    Date: 2020
  7. By: Eisl, Andreas
    Abstract: In recent years, all eurozone member states have introduced national fiscal rules, which put limits on public deficits and debt. Fiscal rules reduce the fiscal policy discretion of politicians and affect their capacity to use public budgets for macroeconomic steering and redistribution. While such institutional discretion constraints run against the traditional policy preferences of social democratic parties, it is puzzling why they supported national fiscal rule reforms during the European debt crisis. This paper argues that the concept of structural deficit rules, central to reform efforts across the eurozone, allowed for the formation of an ambiguous consensus between center-right and center-left parties. While conservative and liberal parties are generally supportive of institutional discretion constraints, structural deficit rules - in contrast to nominal deficit rules - allowed social democratic and other left-wing parties to link such rules with their broader policy preferences of Keynesian countercyclical policymaking and the protection of tax revenues across the economic cycle to ensure the state's capacity for redistribution. Drawing on three country case studies (Germany, Austria, France), this paper shows how the concept of structural deficit rules facilitated - at least discursively - the support for discretion-constraining institutions among social democratic and other left-wing parties. In theoretical terms, this study also advances research on the role of ambiguity in political decision-making, (re-)conceptualizing three forms of ambiguity underlying ambiguous consensus: textual ambiguity, institutional ambiguity, and ideational ambiguity.
    Keywords: ambiguous consensus,comparative politics,eurozone governance,fiscal rules,ideationa lambiguity,social democratic parties
    Date: 2020
  8. By: Nathalie Lazaric (Université Côte d'Azur, CNRS, GREDEG (France)); Silvano Cincotti (UNIGE - University of Genoa); Wolfram Elsner (University of Bremen); Anastasia Nesvetailova (City University London); Engelbert Stockhammer (King‘s College London)
    Date: 2020–05
  9. By: Demiessie, Habtamu
    Abstract: This study is aimed at modeling the essential behavioral and institutional aspects of the economic fabric of urban eastern Ethiopian communities with an emphasis on consumption/saving regime. Analysis made was based on interdisciplinary approach. The principles of a hypothetical research govern key aspects of inferences made. The study hypothesized that the essential construct of the consumption/saving regime is by product of shared value system in the communities of interest. In this regard, the shared value system is the result of a more or commonly shared environment (economic, socio-cultural, political, past governance, geographic and geo-political) by urban eastern Ethiopian communities in the past and present. The importance of shared value system is interpreted in shaping consumption/saving decision making behavior of people in its implications to making life uncertain/risky. The study found out that the constructs of prevailing consumption/saving regime is behavioral and institutional response mechanisms people/households/communities design to cope up the uncertain/risky nature of life in general and that of their economic life in particular. As prevailing uncertainties in life are not faced and/or felt equally by people/households/communities, generalization made on behavioral and institutional features of the consumption/saving regime is not linear across the board. In this regard, the potency of behavioral and institutional modeling made on consumption/saving regime is subjected to variations across individuals/communities of various entities: income/ occupational/ consumption groups; generations; locations (urban versus rural); socio demographic variables, among others. The study further concludes that consumption/saving decision of individuals and/or the overall economic fabric in the settings of eastern Ethiopian communities is a complex phenomenon which is not only motivated by economic factors, but triggered by a host of non economic determinants attributed to psychological,psychosocial, sociological, anthropological and geographical variables. Therefore, academic and policy interventions meant to study/influence the consumption/saving regime in the case of urban eastern Ethiopian communities requires considering the mentioned economic and non economic variables with an interdisciplinary/multi sectoral tools/approaches.
    Keywords: Eastern Ethiopia Shared Value System Consumption Decision Process Group Decision Making
    JEL: B52 E21 J17 Z1
    Date: 2020–11–13
  10. By: Apriyanto, Mulono (Islamic University of Indragiri)
    Abstract: Money is any object that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services essential to modern civilization. It also serves as an instrument to accumulate wealth and at the same time as an asset to ensure prosperity. The problem in this research is about the study of household financial management according to Islamic teachings. This study uses a qualitative approach with descriptive methods. The analysis technique used is descriptive analysis and content analysis. The results of this study are directed at personal development for the financial management of every Muslim household, developing Islamic financial management, developing the practice of Islamic teachings, especially in the fields of economics and finance, and developing socialization and delivery to others
    Date: 2020–11–25
  11. By: Alger, Ingela; Laslier, Jean-François
    Abstract: This paper revisits two classical problems in the theory of voting-viz. the divided majority problem and the strategic revelation of information by majority vote-in the light of evolutionarily founded partial Kantian morality. It is shown that, compared to electorates consisting of purely self-interested voters, such Kantian morality helps voters solve coordination problems and improves the information aggregation properties of equilibria, even for modest levels of morality.
    Keywords: voting, Homo moralis, Kantian morality, social dilemmas, divided majority problem, Condorcet jury theorem
    Date: 2020–11
  12. By: Christa D. Court (Food and Resource Economics Department, University of Florida); Randall Jackson (Geology and Geography Department and Regional Research Institute, West Virginia University); Amanda J. Harker Steele (KeyLogic Systems LLC-NETL); Justin Adder (U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory); Gavin Pickenpaugh (U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory); Charles Zelek (U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy)
    Abstract: To comprehensively model the macroeconomic impacts that result from changes in long-term energyeconomy forecasts, the United States Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) partnered with West Virginia University’s (WVU) Regional Research Institute to develop the NETL/WVU econometric input-output (ECIO) model. The NETL/WVU ECIO model is an impacts forecasting model that functions as an extension of the U.S. energy-economic models available from the United States (U.S.) Energy Information Administration’s National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Market Allocation (MARKAL) model. The ECIO model integrates a macroeconomic econometric forecasting model and an input-output accounting framework along derived forecast scenarios detailing a baseline of the U.S. energy-economy and an alternative forecast on how power generation resources can meet future levels of energy demand to generate estimates of the impacts to gross domestic product, employment, and labor income. This manuscript provides an overview of the model design, assumptions, and standard outputs.
    Keywords: Energy-Economy Forecasting, National Energy Modeling System, Input-Output Model, Econometric Model
    JEL: Q43 E17 O33
    Date: 2020–10–07
  13. By: Randall Jackson (Geology and Geography Department and Regional Research Institute, West Virginia University); Péter Járosi (Regional Research Institute, West Virginia University)
    Abstract: Generating expected output series is a critically important step in building Conway-type hybrid econometric input-output models. Because the RRI most often uses a modeling method that takes advantage of Jackson’s Rest-of-World industry mechanism for representing imports in the Supply (Make) table rather than in final demand, we must insure that this method for generating historical expected output series will be consistent with the way in which future expected output is estimated (Jackson, 1998). This brief TechDoc lays out the relevant mathematical foundations. In so doing, we also identify the appropriate corresponding impacts assessment formulation.
    Keywords: Regional economics, General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium: Input-Output Tables and Analysis, General Regional Economics, Econometric and Input-Output Models, Other Models
    JEL: R1 D57 R15
    Date: 2019–12–10
  14. By: Ackon, Kwabena Meneabe
    Abstract: Africa is not poor, yet Africa has piqued the interests of economists for the last half century and there is a good number of academic literature on why Africa is poor. This is because for the resources available to Africa, both natural and human capital potential, the continent has underperformed abysmally. The Systems Theory Of Economic Development explains the current state of Africa. It explains why despite the resources available and the human capital potential, the African continent lags the rest of the world in every measure of economic and social development. The Systems Theory Of Economic Development also provides a framework of what Africa can do to write a new story where economic development is inclusive and provides economic opportunities for the young and able-bodied, reversing the ever-rising tide of public debt while providing a self-sustaining economic, social, and political system that works for all and sundry.
    Keywords: Economic Development; Human Capital; Economic, Social And Political Institutions; Systems Theory Of Economic Development.
    JEL: O1
    Date: 2020–11–12
  15. By: Vuving, Alexander
    Abstract: This paper refines and further develops the concept of soft power with the aim of exploring the ways human power works and the assets that give rise to soft power. To this end, the paper will answer three central questions: What is soft power? Where does soft power come from? How does soft power works? Answering these questions requires fundamentally a global and systematic mapping of the power behaviors. This paper maps the power behaviors by identifying the basic ways of power, which include a hard way and a soft way of power-over and a hard way and a soft way of power-with. Soft power results from the soft way of power-with. The assets that give rise to soft power are positive agential qualities, not intangible resources as many assume. These positive agential qualities include not just kindness but also competence and commitment. This paper outlines the process that generates soft power and sheds light on the causal mechanisms, both at the behavioral and the psychological levels, through which soft power works. The paper benefits greatly from research in multiple disciplines, including biology, psychology, economics, anthropology, sociology, and political science. It involves substantially and links together various phenomena discussed in different fields of study: signaling, indirect reciprocity, generalized exchange, prestige, status, and leadership. With the integration of these phenomena into a theory of soft power, the paper is able to provide a better explanation of indirect reciprocity, a more comprehensive explanation of the strategic logic of prestige-seeking, and a deeper explanation of charisma, among others.
    Date: 2020–11–23
  16. By: van Dalen, Hendrik Peter (Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management)
    Date: 2020
  17. By: Zineb Abidi (ERUDITE - Equipe de Recherche sur l’Utilisation des Données Individuelles en lien avec la Théorie Economique - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12 - UNIV GUSTAVE EIFFEL - Université Gustave Eiffel, EDC - EDC Paris Business School); Matthieu Leprince (AMURE - Aménagement des Usages des Ressources et des Espaces marins et littoraux - Centre de droit et d'économie de la mer - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UBO - Université de Brest - IFREMER - Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer - IUEM - Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - INSU - CNRS - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers - UBO - Université de Brest - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Vincent Merlin (CREM - Centre de recherche en économie et management - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This paper deals with an important issue concerning democratic government: how delegates are to be allocated among jurisdictions in a federal system. More precisely, we analyze the effect of the 2010 inter-municipal reform in France, which changed the allocation of delegates between municipalities within their inter-communal structures. Using the theory of power indices and a unique set of data gathering 377 inter-municipal structures for three French regions, we compare the fairness of the distribution of municipal delegates prior to the 2010 reform to that of the new distribution, by simulating the impact of the 2010 reform. We show that this inter-communal reform may have increased power inequalities among municipalities belonging to the same inter-communal structure.
    Abstract: Cet article s'intéresse à une dimension importante d'un gouvernement démocratique : la répartition des délégués élus entre collectivités dans une fédération. Plus précisément, nous analysons l'effet d'une réforme votée en France en 2010 et qui a modifié la répartition des délégués des communes au sein de leur intercommunalité. En mobilisant la théorie des indices de pouvoir et un jeu de données uniques renseignant les caractéristiques de 377 structures intercommunales dans trois régions françaises, nous comparons l'équité de la répartition des délégués municipaux avant la réforme de 2010 et l'équité après cette réforme, en simulant ses effets. Nous montrons que la réforme des intercommunalités a dû accroître les inégalités de pouvoir entre communes membres d'une même intercommunalité.
    Keywords: Federalism,Power indices,Banzhaf index,Municipalities
    Date: 2020–11
  18. By: Amy Copley; Alison Decker; Fannie Delavelle; Markus Goldstein; Michael O'Sullivan; Sreelakshmi Papineni
    Keywords: Gender - Gender and Development Gender - Gender and Economics Health, Nutrition and Population - Public Health Promotion Poverty Reduction - Access of Poor to Social Services Poverty Reduction - Inequality Poverty Reduction - Services & Transfers to Poor Social Protections and Labor - Safety Nets and Transfers
    Date: 2020–06
  19. By: Marcela Eslava; Oscar Becerra; Juan Camilo Cárdenas; Margarita Isaacs; Daniel Mejía
    Abstract: Using Bogota’s system of socioeconomic division, the “strata”, we show that falling ill with a serious case of COVID has been over eight times more likely for an individual in the lowest stratum, where the poorer population concentrates, compared to one in the highest. Other pieces of evidence are consistent with this being driven by more exposure to contagion, at least partly driven by people in the lower strata being: 1) Less likely to be in occupations fit for telework; 2) Not only more vulnerable ex ante but also disproportionately hit by the economic effects of the crisis, and therefore pushed to go to work; 3) Subject to more crowding at home; 4) Less likely to recognize a high risk of contagion. The mechanisms that we quantify will imply a widening of the socioeconomic gaps resulting from the pandemic, in one of the world’s most unequal societies.
    Keywords: COVID, Inequality, Socioeconomic Impact, Psychological Biases, Latin America, Colombia
    JEL: O17 O20 D91
    Date: 2019–11–25
  20. By: Hendrik Davi (URFM 629 - Ecologie des Forêts Méditerranéennes [Avignon] - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Laetitia Tuffery (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - FRE2010 - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Emanuel Garbolino (Climpact Data Science); Bernard Prévosto (RECOVER - Risques, Ecosystèmes, Vulnérabilité, Environnement, Résilience - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Bruno Fady (URFM 629 - Ecologie des Forêts Méditerranéennes [Avignon] - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: One of the greatest challenges when addressing issues in complex social-ecological systems (SES), is the need for an efficient interdisciplinary framework when large-magnitude social and ecological disturbances occur. Teams comprising of scientists from different backgrounds and disciplines are frequently called upon to propose research methods and results that can be useful for policy and decision makers. However, most of the outcomes from these pluri-disciplinary teams appear extremely difficult to implement within a bigger picture because concepts, hypotheses, methods, and results are specific to each discipline. Here, we propose a reverse-engineering (RE) method to define the scientific needs that could help policy makers and citizens to assess the impacts of socioeconomic "disruptors" on social-ecological systems. We present this method using the example of an ongoing wood biomass energy plant (Gardanne) in the French Mediterranean region. In the Mediterranean region, species diversity is high, the forest cover is ample, but difficult access and low forest productivity make any biomass policy an ecological and social disruption. Our method is based on three complementary approaches to (1) describe the social-ecosystems, (2) draw up a map of interactions between actors and the impacts on the ecosystem, and (3) identify relevant questions needed for a global analysis of the impacts and potentialities of adaptation of actors and the ecosystems to the perturbation and the connections needed between the different disciplines. Our analysis showed that knowledge gaps have to be filled to assess forest resource vulnerability and better estimate how the different resource used (solid wood, biomass, landscape) competed together. Finally, we discuss how this method could be integrated into a broader transdisciplinary work allowing a coproduction of knowledge and solutions on a SES.
    Keywords: forest,interdisciplinary,model,reverse-engineering,wood energy
    Date: 2020
  21. By: Menon, Ashish; Rajendran, Nithin K; Chandrachud, Anish
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to study a treatment to social network analysis using the principles of statistical mechanics. After revisiting the popular models and random graph frameworks of complex networks, a formalism to statistical mechanism based on the conventional concepts like phase space, interactions and ensembles is devised. Specific machine learning techniques are employed for the purpose of figuring out the relevant phase-space equations. Thereafter, specific applications of the formalism is explored in the context of business partnership optimization and disease transmission. Several analogues with the statistical mechanics treatment of thermodynamics have also been made.
    Date: 2020–11–22
  22. By: Mattia Guerini (Université Côte d'Azur, CNRS, GREDEG, France; Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies; Sciences Po., OFCE); Philipp Harting (Bielefeld University); Mauro Napoletano (OFCE Sciences-Po; SKEMA Business School)
    Abstract: We develop a model to study the impact of corporate governance on firm investment decisions and industry competition. In the model, governance structure affects the distribution of shares among short- and long-term oriented investors, the robustness of the management regarding possible stockholder interference, and the managerial remuneration scheme. A bargaining process between firm's stakeholders determines the optimal allocation of financial resources between real investments in R&D and financial investments in shares buybacks. We characterize the relation between corporate governance and firm's optimal investment strategy and we study how different governance structures shape technical progress and the degree of competition over the industrial life cycle. Numerical simulations of a calibrated set-up of the model show that pooling together industries characterized by heterogeneous governance structures generate the well-documented inverted-U shaped relation between competition and innovation.
    Keywords: Governance structure, industry dynamics, competition, technical change
    JEL: G34 L22 M12
    Date: 2020–11
  23. By: Botthof, Alfons; Edler, Jakob; Hahn, Katrin; Hirsch-Kreinsen, Hartmut; Weber, Karl Matthias; Wessels, Jan
    Abstract: [Einleitung] Die Bedingungen und Verlaufsformen von Innovationen haben sich in den letzten Jahren deutlich gewandelt. Stichworte sind hier veränderte Innovationsstrategien von Unterneh-men, "offene" Innovationsmodelle, steigende Anforderungen an Geschwindigkeit und Agilität von Innovationsprozessen, globale Kooperation und insbesondere der zentrale Fokus auf digitale Technologien. Gleichzeitig haben sich die gesellschaftlichen Anforde-rungen an den Problemlösungsbeitrag des Innovationssystems − Stichwort Sustainable Development Goals − massiv erhöht. Eine politische Reaktion auf diese vielfältigen Ver-änderungen kann der Wandel der Innovationspolitik hin zu einer "Missionsorientierung" gelten. Innovationspolitik weitet ihren Wirkungsbereich zunehmend aus, von einer Politik für Innovationen zu einer Politik, die auf Innovationen ausgerichtet ist und die gesellschaft-lich gewünschten Wirkungen dieser Innovation zum Ausgangspunkt nimmt. Damit werden deutlich mehr Politikfelder, institutionelle Regelungen und Akteure Teil des Innovations-systems (IS) als zuvor. Schließlich wirkt aktuell die COVID-19-Pandemie als externe Schock und Trendverstärker. Die mittel- und langfristigen Auswirkungen der sich insge-samt deutlich erhöhenden gesellschaftlichen und politischen Anforderungen an unser In-novationssystem sind bislang nur zu erahnen. Die generelle Folge dieser Entwicklungen ist, dass das eingespielte nationale IS und dessen etablierte innovationspolitische Strate-gien durch das Zusammenwirken von sozio-technischen Dynamiken und gesellschaftli-chen Anforderungen zunehmend unter Transformationsdruck geraten sind. Dieser Druck wird sich absehbar weiter beschleunigen. Das nachfolgende Papier greift diese Entwicklungstrends auf (Kap. 2). Nach einem Zwi-schenresümee (Kap. 3) werden daraus die möglichen Konsequenzen für die Innovati-onspolitik abgeleitet (Kap. 4). Wir diskutieren die Frage, wie die Innovationspolitik zu-künftig auf die anstehenden Steuerungsherausforderungen angemessen reagieren kann. Abschließend (Kap. 5) werden mit einer verstärkt konzeptionellen Perspektive Konsequenzen dieser Entwicklung ausgeführt. Neben der Diskussion neuer innovations-politischer Ausrichtung zielen wir als Grundlage dafür auf die Entwicklung eines neuen konzeptionellen Verständnisses von IS ab. Unsere Analyse zeigt gravierende soziale, ökonomische und technologische Span-nungsfelder, die ineinander verwoben sind und deren Bewältigung ein durchgreifendes und systemisches Handeln erfordern. Um diese tiefgreifenden Herausforderungen poli-tisch anzugehen und insbesondere Forschungs- und Innovationspolitik neu auszurich-ten, müssen die säkularen Veränderungen des Innovationssystems systematisch be-leuchtet und konzeptionell neu unterfüttert werden. Dazu will unser Papier beitragen. Es ist das Ergebnis eines gut einjährigen Diskussionsprozesses über innovationspolitische Herausforderungen und Debatten, in die die Autoren/in kontinuierlich involviert sind. Den Fokus haben wir dabei bewusst auf das deutsche Innovationssystem gelegt, ohne dabei den Blick auf die internationalen Entwicklungen insbesondere in den europäischen Mit-gliedsstaaten zu verlieren.
    Date: 2020
  24. By: Edith Archambault (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Date: 2021
  25. By: Sandrine Jacob Leal (Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion); Mauro Napoletano (Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques)
    Abstract: We investigate the effects of a set of regulatory policies directed towards high-frequency trading (HFT) through an agent-based model of a limit order book able to generate flash crashes as the result of the interactions between low- and high-frequency traders. In particular, we study the impact of the imposition of minimum resting times, of circuit breakers, of cancellation fees and of transaction taxes on asset price volatility and on the occurrence and the duration of flash crashes. Monte-Carlo simulations reveal that HFT-targeted policies imply a trade-off between market stability and resilience. Indeed, we find that policies able to tackle volatility and flash crashes also hinder the market from quickly recovering after a crash. This result is mainly due to the dual role of HFT, as both a cause of flash crashes and a key player in the post-crash recovery.
    Keywords: High-frequency trading; Flash crashes; Regulatory policies; Agent-based models; Limit order book; Market volatility
    JEL: G12 G1 C63
    Date: 2019–01
  26. By: Polterovich, Victor
    Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of the crisis of modern Western democracy. It is noted that the important causes of the crisis are slowing down of economic growth and deepening inequality in developed countries. It is shown that strong inter-party competition inevitably generates a mechanism of degradation of moral norms in the political sphere and reduction of the political system efficiency. These processes have intensified dramatically as a result of the spread of the Internet. They contributed to the reduction of citizens' participation in elections and at the same time to the "ochlocratization" of the political system. It is shown as well that a number of transformations taking place in the Western countries are aimed at improvement of interaction between the state and society and contribute to crisis overcoming. These include expanding the role of parliamentary committees, increasing the number of parties, large-scale reforms of public sector governance basing on collaboration. In this context, the experience of e-platforms and the possibilities of institutional collaborative platforms are analyzed. The concept of collaborative democracy is proposed, based on the analysis of the trends studied. The mechanism for collaborative democracy should ensure greater choice and broader direct participation of citizens in decision-making, control the costs of political competition and maintain ethical standards, prevent ochlocratization, and improve governance. Contours of this mechanism are outlined. In particular, it should be based on the use of a proportional electoral system of a special type, a system of expert councils and collaborative platforms for public decision-making, as well as on the implementation of decision making rules close to consensus. The significance of these conclusions for Russia is discussed.
    Keywords: trust, ochlocracy, deliberative democracy, proportional electoral system, e-democracy, collaborative platform, consensus
    JEL: B59 D60 D72 D73 K19
    Date: 2020–11–26
  27. By: Julien Vastenaekels
    Date: 2020–06–01
  28. By: Bašic, Zvonimir (Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods, Bonn); Eugenio Verrina (Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods, Bonn)
    Abstract: While social norms have received great attention within economics, little is known about the role of personal norms. We propose a simple utility framework — which assumes that people care about monetary payoff, social norms and personal norms — and design a novel two-part experiment to investigate the predictive value of personal norms across four economic games. We show that personal norms — together with social norms and monetary payoff — are highly predictive of individuals’ behavior. Moreover, they are: i) inherently distinct from social norms across a series of economic contexts, ii) robust to an exogenous increase in social image concerns, which increases the predictive value of social norms but does not weaken that of personal norms, and iii) complementary to social norms in predicting behavior, as a model with both personal and social norms outperforms a model with only one of the two norms. Taken together, our results support personal norms as a key driver of economic behavior, relevant in a wide array of economic settings.
    Keywords: Personal norms, social norms, social image, reputation, elicitation method, normative conflict
    JEL: C91 D01 D63 D64 D91
    Date: 2020–10
  29. By: Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann; Armin Steinbach
    Abstract: Reforms of international trade and investment law and institutions are hampered by conflicting economic paradigms. For instance, utilitarian Anglo-Saxon neo-liberalism (e.g. promoting self-regulatory market forces privileging the homo economicus), constitutional European ordo-liberalism (e.g. protecting multilevel, constitutional rights and judicial remedies of EU citizens), and authoritarian state-capitalism (e.g. protecting totalitarian power monopolies of the communist party in China) pursue different legal and institutional designs of trade and investment agreements. Globalization and its transformation of national into transnational public goods (PGs) require extending constitutional and institutional economics to multilevel governance of transnational PGs in order to enhance the wealth of nations. Maintaining the worldwide legal and dispute settlement system of the World Trade Organization (WTO) - and interpreting its regional and national exception clauses broadly in order to reconcile diverse, national and regional institutions of economic integration and of ‘embedded liberalism’ - remains in the interest of all WTO member states.
    Keywords: Adjudication, climate litigation, constitutionalism, neo-liberalism, ordo-liberalism, public goods, state-capitalism, WTO
    Date: 2020–11

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