nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2020‒11‒23
thirteen papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. It's a man's world? The rise of female entrepreneurship during privatization in Serbia By Ivanović, Vladan; Kufenko, Vadim
  2. Cultural Distance and Conflict-Related Sexual Violence By Guarnieri, Eleonora; Tur-Prats, Ana
  3. Occupational Network Structure and Vector Assortativity for illustrating patterns of social mobility By Vinay Reddy Venumuddala
  4. The Decision to Flee: Analyzing Gender-Specific Determinants of International Refugee Migration By Schmid, Lena; Renner, Laura
  5. Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen, Development Economist By Suprinyak, Carlos Eduardo; Assistant, JHET
  6. Agent-based Computational Economics in Management Accounting Research: Opportunities and Difficulties By Friederike Wall; Stephan Leitner
  7. Equality of the Sexes and Gender Differences in Competition: Evidence from Three Traditional Societies By Schwieren, Christiane; Klonner, Stefan; Pal, Sumantra
  8. The Economics of Bernard Lonergan: Context, Modelling and Assessment By Oslington, Paul; Assistant, JHET
  9. Restoring cultivated agrobiodiversity: The political ecology of knowledge networks between local peasant seed groups in France By Armelle Mazé; Aida Calabuig Domenech; Isabelle Goldringer
  10. Review of “A History of Feminist and Gender Economics” by Giandomenica Becchio By Chassonnery-Zaïgouche, Cléo; Assistant, JHET
  11. Input-Output Linkages and Monopolistic Competition: Input Distortion and Optimal Policies By Jung, Benjamin; Kohler, Wilhelm
  12. Factor shares and the rise in corporate net lending By Behringer, Jan
  13. Does Gender Matter for Promotion in Science? Evidence from Physicists in France By Jacques MAIRESSE; Michele PEZZONI; Fabiana VISENTIN

  1. By: Ivanović, Vladan; Kufenko, Vadim
    Abstract: The relationship between female empowerment and economic development is one of the most complex examples of reverse causality, yet multiple scholars acknowledge that female empowerment promotes economic progress. One of the crucial aspects of female empowerment is female entrepreneurship; however, the literature on the emergence of female entrepreneurship is scarce. We focus on the rise of female entrepreneurship in Serbia and collect an extensive biographical dataset of women, who took part in privatization. Although women enjoyed the same de jure rights as men, they faced a number of informal restrictions such as i) patriarchal values, limiting the role of women in the society and ii) occupations in low-wage sectors, making it difficult to accumulate capital. Analyzing the determinants of failures of the newly privatized firms during 2002-2019 we find a significant negative relationship between the risks of failure and the cases of own independent entrepreneurial success of women prior to privatization as well as the cases, in which only the entrepreneurial success of husbands of these women was registered. This relationship is robust to controlling for diverse characteristics of firms and to inclusion of ownership duration. We also find that the presence of influential husbands in the background was not significantly related to the subsequent change of ownership. Although the ownership change was registered for the majority of firms in our sample, we find that during the Serbian privatization women managed to build up on their own entrepreneurial success, which contributed to female empowerment. These findings can be relevant for understanding the aftermath of privatizations with respect to gender inequality in other transition countries.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship,female entrepreneurship,economics of gender,political,economy,transition
    JEL: J16 L26 D72 P26
    Date: 2020
  2. By: Guarnieri, Eleonora; Tur-Prats, Ana
    Abstract: This paper examines the role of ethnic-based gender norms in explaining the occurrence and intensity of sexual violence in conflict. We generate a novel dyadic dataset that contains information on the ethnic identity of the actors involved in 33 ethnic civil conflicts in Africa between 1989 and 2009 and their use of sexual violence. After exploiting ancestral economic, family, and societal arrangements, we construct and validate an ethnic-based gender inequality index. We control for a large set of fixed effects and find empirical support for two interrelated hypotheses. First, gender-unequal armed actors are more likely to be perpetrators of sexual violence. Second, we consider the perpetrator's gender norms relative to the victim's. Applying a gravity approach, we find that sexual violence is driven by a specific clash of conceptions on the appropriate role of men and women in society: sexual violence increases when the perpetrator is more gender-unequal than the victim. We show that (i) these patterns are specific to sexual violence and do not explain general violence within a conflict; (ii) differences in other dimensions of culture unrelated to gender do not explain conflict-related sexual violence.
    Keywords: Ethnic civil conflict,sexual violence,culture,gender norms
    JEL: D74 J16 O55 Z1
    Date: 2020
  3. By: Vinay Reddy Venumuddala
    Abstract: In this study we arrive at a closed form expression for measuring vector assortativity in networks motivated by our use-case which is to observe patterns of social mobility in a society. Based on existing works on social mobility within economics literature, and social reproduction within sociology literature, we motivate the construction of an occupational network structure to observe mobility patterns. Basing on existing literature, over this structure, we define mobility as assortativity of occupations attributed by the representation of categories such as gender, geography or social groups. We compare the results from our vector assortativity measure and averaged scalar assortativity in the Indian context, relying on NSSO 68th round on employment and unemployment. Our findings indicate that the trends indicated by our vector assortativity measure is very similar to what is indicated by the averaged scalar assortativity index. We discuss some implications of this work and suggest future directions.
    Date: 2020–11
  4. By: Schmid, Lena; Renner, Laura
    Abstract: Using a gravity approach, we explore determinants and dynamics of refugee migration using a gendered cross-national dyadic dataset on refugee movements for the years 2000-2015. Along three dimensions (push, pull and cost factors), we analyze whether there are heterogeneous effects of ight determinants for men and women. Our results suggest that within the push dimension there is only little difference in gender-specific responses. Most prominently, women react relatively stronger to the existence of sexual violence as a con ict strategy. When it comes to dyadic factors, we find that distance is a decisive factor for men and women. The most gender-sensitive dimension appears to be the pull factors: Neighboring countries attract more women in comparison to men as well as to non-neighbors. For non-neighbors, female ows are more sensitive to political stability, women's rights and the economic situation of the destination
    Keywords: Refugees,International Migration,Distance,Conflict,Gender
    JEL: F22
    Date: 2020
  5. By: Suprinyak, Carlos Eduardo; Assistant, JHET
    Abstract: Accounts of Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen’s career usually focus on his pioneer contributions to mathematical economics during the 1930s and his later conversion to a critical approach to economic theory anchored on the entropy law. These disparate moments, however, were connected by Georgescu-Roegen’s strong attraction to the study of problems afflicting less developed societies. This began with his work on the agrarian economy of his native Romania, in the late 1940s, under the auspices of Harvard’s Russian Research Center. Thenceforth, he embarked on a journey that spawned his early interest in Leontief-type linear models, an extended tour of Southeast Asia commissioned by Vanderbilt University’s Graduate Program in Economic Development, and several visits to Brazil during the 1960s. The paper highlights these lesser-known aspects of Georgescu-Roegen’s trajectory, examining how he built on neo-populist writings from the early 20th century to construct an alternative to the mainstream emphasis on industrialization policies.
    Date: 2020–11–03
  6. By: Friederike Wall; Stephan Leitner
    Abstract: Agent-based computational economics (ACE) - while adopted comparably widely in other domains of managerial science - is a rather novel paradigm for management accounting research (MAR). This paper provides an overview of opportunities and difficulties that ACE may have for research in management accounting and, in particular, introduces a framework that researchers in management accounting may employ when considering ACE as a paradigm for their particular research endeavor. The framework builds on the two interrelated paradigmatic elements of ACE: a set of theoretical assumptions on economic agents and the approach of agent-based modeling. Particular focus is put on contrasting opportunities and difficulties of ACE in comparison to other research methods employed in MAR.
    Date: 2020–11
  7. By: Schwieren, Christiane; Klonner, Stefan; Pal, Sumantra
    Abstract: Can gender-balanced social norms mitigate the gender differences in competitiveness that are observed in traditional patriarchic as well as in modern societies? We experimentally assess men's and women's preferences to compete in a traditional society where women and men have similar rights and entitlements alongside a patriarchic and a matrilineal society which have previously been studied. We find that, unlike in the patriarchic society, there is no significant gender difference in the inclination to compete in the gender-balanced society. We also find that women's decisions in our experiment are optimal more often than men's in the gender-balanced society - opposite to the pattern encountered in the patriarchic society. Our results highlight the importance of culture and socialization for gender differences in competitiveness and suggest that the large gender-differences in competitiveness documented for modern societies are a long-term consequence of a patriarchic heritage.
    Keywords: Competition,Gender difference,Social norms,Traditional societies
    JEL: C93 D81 J15 J16
    Date: 2020
  8. By: Oslington, Paul; Assistant, JHET
    Abstract: Bernard Lonergan S.J. (1904-84) is unusual among major theologians in engaging deeply with economic theory. In the 1940s he developed his own dynamic multisectoral macroeconomic model, informed by reading of Smith, Marx, Keynes, Hayek, Schumpeter, and later Kalecki. Lonergan’s economic research is little known because the economic manuscripts were not published in his lifetime, and his interactions with professional economists were limited. In the 1970s, however, when he returned to economics he engaged with Post-Keynesians and taught a graduate course on macroeconomics at Boston College until illness overtook him. This paper places Lonergan’s economic research in the context of his overall intellectual project, outlines his macroeconomic model and associated theory of the business cycle, then evaluates his contribution in relation to mid-twentieth century macroeconomics and considers whether it has anything to offer contemporary economists. Whatever view we take of his theoretical contributions, Lonergan’s work opens up connections between economics and theology.
    Date: 2020–11–03
  9. By: Armelle Mazé (SADAPT - Sciences pour l'Action et le Développement : Activités, Produits, Territoires - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Aida Calabuig Domenech (SADAPT - Sciences pour l'Action et le Développement : Activités, Produits, Territoires - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Isabelle Goldringer (GQE-Le Moulon - Génétique Quantitative et Evolution - Le Moulon (Génétique Végétale) - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: This article, using an institutional and political ecological perspective, analyses the role of knowledge networks supporting peasant seed groups in France. These groups promote a dynamic approach to agrobiodiversity restoration , developing new models of collaborative "peer-to-peer genetics" and distributed participatory breeding. Our analysis focuses here on the small grain cereal participatory breeding group. Based on detailed qualitative surveys and a network formalization, our study provides a better understanding of how these peasant seed groups self-organized and of how their horizontal and distributed network structure favors the dynamics of collective learning and knowledge spillovers. Further directions for policy making are discussed in support of more resilient plant breeding and agrobiodiversity restoration in European agricultural landscapes.
    Keywords: IAD/SESF,Social-ecological fit theory,Institutional economics,Peer-to-peer production,Participatory breeding,Community-based conservation,Seed Commons
    Date: 2021–01
  10. By: Chassonnery-Zaïgouche, Cléo (University of Lausanne); Assistant, JHET
    Abstract: A Review of “A History of Feminist and Gender Economics” by Giandomenica Becchio.
    Date: 2020–11–02
  11. By: Jung, Benjamin; Kohler, Wilhelm
    Abstract: We show that the combination of monopolistic competition and input-output linkages generate what we call an input distortion. The distortion arises because material input prices involve a markup over the social opportunity cost. This has so far escaped attention in the literature addressing efficiency of monopolistic competition equilibria. Using a stylized single sector model, we provide a full description of the social optimum for an economy featuring an input-output linkage in the presence of monopolistic competition. Using this as a benchmark, we describe the allocational inefficiency of a decentralized market equilibrium as well as first-best policies to achieve efficiency. In an integrated world equilibrium, a material input subsidy and an output subsidy turn out to be perfect substitutes. A wage tax is unable to serve in offsetting the input distortion. In a cooperative policy setting with two countries, an input subsidy is a second-best policy to address the input distortion.
    Keywords: input-output linkages,monopolistic competition,international trade,allocational inefficiency,optimal policy
    JEL: F12
    Date: 2020
  12. By: Behringer, Jan
    Abstract: The corporate sector has turned from a net borrowing position to a net lending position in many advanced countries over the past decades. This phenomenon is rather unusual as the corporate sector had historically borrowed funds from other sectors in the economy. In this paper, we analyze how changes in the distribution of income between wages and profits have affected corporate net lending in a sample of 40 countries for the period 1990-2016. A consistent finding is that an increase (decrease) in the corporate profit share leads to an increase (decrease) in corporate net lending, controlling for other corporate net lending determinants. We disentangle the effects of the profit share on corporate saving and investment and explore a number of alternative explanations of our results, including changes in the cost of capital, shifts in the composition of industrial sectors, the growing importance of intangible capital, and a temporary crisis phenomenon. We conclude that factor shares are an important driver of macroeconomic trends and that the rise in corporate profits has contributed considerably to the improvement in the corporate net lending position across countries.
    Keywords: Corporate saving,investment,income distribution,cost of capital
    JEL: E21 E22 E25 G30
    Date: 2020
  13. By: Jacques MAIRESSE (CREST ENSAE (France); UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University (Netherlands); EHESS (France); NBER (USA)); Michele PEZZONI (GREDEG, CNRS, Université Côte d’Azur (France); OST, HCERES, (France); ICRIOS, Bocconi University (Italy)); Fabiana VISENTIN (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University (Netherlands))
    Abstract: In this study, we investigate what are the factors of the promotion of female and male scientists at the French Institute of Physics (INP) at CNRS, one of the largest European public research organizations. We construct a long panel of INP physicists combining various data sources on their research activities and career. Using event history analysis, we find that female and male physicists have the same rate of promotion from junior to senior positions when controlling for research productivity and a variety of other promotion factors. Our results also suggest that promotion factors such as family characteristics, mentoring, professional network, research responsibilities have different impacts on female and male researchers.
    Keywords: Gender disparity, Promotion, Research productivity, Family characteristics, Research Responsibilities, Mentoring activities, Panel Data, Event history analysis.
    JEL: I23 J16
    Date: 2020–11–03

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