nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2020‒09‒07
twenty papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. History as Evolution By Nathan Nunn
  2. On a Correlative and Evolutionary SWOT Analysis By Vlados, Charis
  3. The role of meso-spaces for the sustainable transformation of food systems. By Alessandro Passero; Filippo Randelli
  4. Innovation in Stra.Tech.Man (Strategy-Technology-Management) Terms By Vlados, Charis; Katimertzopoulos, Fotios; Blatsos, Ioannis
  5. Crisis, Institutional Innovation and Change Management: Thoughts from the Greek Case By Vlados, Charis; Chatzinikolaou, Dimos
  6. The influence of local institutional and historical frameworks on a globalized industry: The case of the pharmaceutical industry in France and Quebec By Maé Geymond
  7. On Freedom in the Artificial Age By Julia M. Puaschunder
  8. نئولیبرالیسم و مقابله با تورم By Vahabi, Mehrdad
  9. The ‘Mystery’ of Innovation: Bridging the Economic and Business Thinking and the Stra.Tech.Man Approach By Vlados, Charis; Katimertzopoulos, Fotios
  10. Narratives and the Economics of the Family By Akerlof, Robert; Rayo, Luis
  11. Towards a Restructuration of the Conventional SWOT Analysis By Vlados, Charis; Chatzinikolaou, Dimos
  12. Evolution of the Family: Theory and Implications for Economics By Alger, Ingela; Cox, Donald
  13. State-market-society alliance: The evolving nature of the '21st century developmental state' By Pui Yi Wong
  14. Development, Competitiveness and Institutional Modernization: Towards a New Approach to the Greek Crisis By Vlados, Charis; Chatzinikolaou, Dimos; Demertzis, Michail
  15. Which islamic equity market is the leading one in Southeast Asia ? evidence from some select equity markets By Ariffian, Suffian; Masih, Mansur
  16. Os modelos Input-Output, a estrutura setorial das economias e o impacto da crise da COVID 19 By Pedro N. Ramos; João Pedro Ferreira; Luís Cruz; Eduardo Barata
  17. Beautiful Experiments in Teaching Freedom: Collectivist Conceptions of Interdependence in the Discussion of Liberatory Teacher-Student Trust By Nirel JonesMitchell
  18. Non est Disputandum de Generalizability? A Glimpse into The External Validity Trial By John A. List
  19. A regionalized national Input-Output – Modell for Chile (COFORCE) Methodology and Applications By Dr. Anett Großmann; Svenja Schwarz; Frank Hohmann; Anke Mönnig
  20. Piero Sraffa and Raffaello Piccoli, two Italian Scholars in Cambridge in 1929-1932 By Morra, Lucia

  1. By: Nathan Nunn
    Abstract: In this chapter, I consider the benefits of viewing history through an evolutionary lens. In recent decades, a field of research has emerged, which builds on foundations from biological evolution to study culture within an evolutionary framework. I begin the chapter by discussing the theory behind cultural evolution and the empirical evidence supporting its ability to explain the history of human societies. I then turn to a discussion of how an evolutionary perspective provides important insights into a range of phenomena within economics, including a deeper understanding of human capital, innovation, gender roles, the consequences of warfare, the effects of market competition, why we observe historical persistence and path dependence, and, most importantly, why sustained economic growth is often so elusive. I end by turning to a summary of a growing body of research within economics that has made progress in improving our understanding of cultural evolution and, thus, contributing to evolutionary disciplines outside of economics.
    JEL: C73 N01 N10 Z1
    Date: 2020–08
  2. By: Vlados, Charis (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to counter-propose a new approach of SWOT analysis, which can be used in the strategic planning of the contemporary organizations. Design/methodology/approach: This paper, after presenting the conceptual context of the existing (conventional) SWOT analysis, presents the existing criticism within the international literature. Then, it articulates gradually the new evolutionary and correlative SWOT analysis, by using the approaches and the literature of evolutionary economics, and the Stra.Tech.Man approach in business dynamics. In conclusion, it presents the new conceptual framework on which a new correlative SWOT analysis can be based. Findings: Main finding of this research is that the interpretation of the conventional SWOT analysis tends to study the strengths and the weaknesses of the business with an analytical dichotomy. The conventional SWOT analysis conceptualizes, usually implicitly, the opportunities and threats of the external environment as having the same impact to all the socioeconomic agents, without exception. However, by using a correlative interpretation of SWOT analysis, we understand that the opportunities and threats are always “potential,” depending on the organization’s strategic capability to exercise its comparative strengths and weaknesses. Originality/value: In the existing literature of SWOT analysis, despite the growing criticism, there is no critique that can give systemic and correlative answers to the articulation of business strategy in SWOT terms. The Stra.Tech.Man approach, also, is a conceptual framework to study the evolutionary adaptation of all the kinds of socioeconomic organizations.
    Keywords: Strategic management; Conventional SWOT analysis; Correlative and evolutionary SWOT analysis; Evolutionary business theory; Stra.Tech.Man approach; Strategic analysis and synthesis; Business planning
    JEL: B52 L10
    Date: 2019–05–14
  3. By: Alessandro Passero; Filippo Randelli
    Abstract: Faced with increasing risks from climate change, food systems will need to transition away from dominant industrial paradigms and move towards a more sustainable way of producing, distributing, and consuming food. One solution or one side alone though might not have the desired systemic change or might not capture the full complexity of food systems. To go beyond two known criticisms of local food sustainable initiatives, i.e. to be rather small and to be developed outside policy frameworks and/or in stark opposition to current food systems, in this paper we argue to look at new meso-spaces of network relations at local level where community members, professionals, and governments get together to share knowledge, deliberate, and collectively devise place-based strategies to address complex food systems issues. To completely understand these spaces, this article provides a conceptual framework of analysis combining ideas from environmental governance, grassroots innovations, and diverse economies.
    Keywords: food systems, sustainability transitions, governance, grassroots innovations, diverse economies
    JEL: R11 O13 O44
    Date: 2020
  4. By: Vlados, Charis (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics); Katimertzopoulos, Fotios (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics); Blatsos, Ioannis (Athens University of Economics and Business)
    Abstract: The conventional neoclassic approach of the entrepreneurial economic development perceives innovation to a large extent restrictively and unproductively. In a parallel motion, the conventional Keynesian perspective proves to be as well insufficient to study the innovation dynamics evolutionary and dialectically. On the contrary, toward a theoretical repositioning of the innovation studies, there are appearing new approaches that continue the evolutionary study of the capitalistic Firm’s physiology that began in the mid-20th century. This paper focuses especially on this theoretical redefinition to innovation dynamics. It tries to unfold a view of the Firm of physiological and evolutionary type, by highlighting a new synthesis of Strategy, Technology and Management (the ‘Stra.Tech.Man’ triangle) that represents the organic center of the produced innovation, inside all socioeconomic organisms.
    Keywords: Innovation; firm theory; evolutionary economics; Stra.Tech.Man analysis
    JEL: B52 O39
    Date: 2018–12–28
  5. By: Vlados, Charis (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics); Chatzinikolaou, Dimos (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: This article explores how the current global crisis and restructuring of global capitalism is related to innovation, in broad terms, and change management. The aim is to understand this relation by first presenting a synopsis of the approaches to the crisis of the Greek socioeconomic system, second focusing on the concept of innovation in institutional terms, and third examining the change management mechanisms that seem useful for the articulation of public economic policy in Stra.Tech.Man terms (synthesis of Strategy-Technology-Management). We suggest that to overcome actual structural crises - such as the Greek socioeconomic crisis - the implementation and valorization of well balanced and effectively implemented sets of institutional innovations is crucial, provided that integrated public policy change management mechanisms are in place.
    Keywords: Globalization restructuring; Greek crisis; Structural socioeconomic crisis; Institutional innovation; Public policy reform; Change management; Stra.Tech.Man analysis
    JEL: B52 O10 O31
    Date: 2019–04–19
  6. By: Maé Geymond (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne)
    Abstract: In this paper, we combine the Varieties of Capitalism and the global value chain approaches, considering the interaction between lead firms' global strategies and national capitalism, to show how local pharmaceutical employment results from this interaction. Our analysis is grounded in the comparison between France and Quebec. The first part presents the relevant differences in both historical and institutional elements. Second, after highlighting the similarities that can be attributed to global dynamics, we detail the mechanisms by which local institutions shape the global value chain implantation, giving different forms to the employment structure and dynamics. We show that France is clearly oriented towards manufacturing activity because of industrial history and market features, whereas Quebec has a commercial specialty and an outsourced R&D as a result of high prices and the global organization of research.
    Abstract: Dans ce papier, nous combinons Variété des Capitalismes et chaîne globale de valeur, pour faire apparaître comment l'emploi pharmaceutique local résulte de l'interaction entre stratégies globales et capitalismes nationaux. Notre analyse s'appuie sur une comparaison France-Québec. La première partie présente les différences majeures des cadres historico-institutionnels. Ensuite, après avoir souligné les similarités liées aux dynamiques mondiales, nous détaillons les mécanismes par lesquels les institutions locales influencent l'implantation de la chaîne globale de valeur, donnant des formes différentes à l'emploi. Tandis que la France est clairement orientée vers l'activité de production du fait de l'histoire industrielle et des caractéristiques du marché, le Québec dénote par sa spécialisation commerciale et sa R&D externalisée, en lien avec le haut niveau des prix et l'organisation de la recherche mondiale.
    Keywords: political economy,varieties of capitalism,industrial organization,local government,multinational firms,économie politique,variété des capitalismes,organisation industrielle,gouvernement local,firmes multinationales
    Date: 2020–06
  7. By: Julia M. Puaschunder (The New School, Department of Economics, Schwartz Center for Economic Policy Analysis, New York USA)
    Abstract: The currently ongoing introduction of Artificial Intelligence (AI), robotics and big data into our contemporary society causes a market transformation that heightens the need for ethics in the wake of an unprecedented outsourcing decision making to machines. Artificial Intelligence (AI) poses historically unique challenges for humankind. This chapter will address legal, economic and societal trends in the contemporary introduction of Artificial Intelligence (AI), Robotics and Big Data derived inferences. In a world, where there is a currently ongoing blend between human beings and AI, the emerging autonomy of AI holds unique potentials of eternal life but also imposes pressing legal and ethical challenges in light of AI gaining citizenship, overpopulation concerns and international development gaps. The current legal status of AI and robotics will be outlined with special attention to consumer protection and ethics in the healthcare sector. The unprecedented economic market revolution of outsourced decision making to AI will be captured in macroeconomic trends outlining AI as corruption free market solution, which is yet only prevalent and efficient in some parts of the world. Finally, a future-oriented perspective on the use of AI for enhancing democracy and diplomacy will be granted but also ethical boundaries envisioned. The mentioned transition appears to hold novel and unprecedentedly-described freedom challenges in our contemporary world. In an homage to freedom, the following paper first lays open these freedom-threatened areas in order to then provide strategies to alleviate these potential freedom deficiencies but also set new freedom potential free.
    Keywords: AI, Artificial Intelligence, Climate change, Climate justice, Discrimination of excellence, Freedom
    Date: 2020–04
  8. By: Vahabi, Mehrdad
    Abstract: This paper studies two approaches to the Neoliberalism with regard to the state. The first one starts by critically assessing “too much state” from the vintage point of civil society (Michel Foucault, 2008). The second approach begins from Welfare State and considers Neoliberalism as a deviation from this “progressive State” (Harvey, 2003, 2005). The former distinguishes two types of Neoliberalism, the German one (Ordoliberalism) and the American one (the Chicago School). Foucault focuses on the German Neoliberalism and underlines its specific characteristics in opposition with Fascism and Soviet Socialism as “organized” capitalism. However, Foucault’s investigation about the Chicago school is insufficiently studied. Pyne (2012) and Olsen (2019) explored Foucault’s approach with regard to the Chicago school in terms of Sovereign Consumer. A reexamination of Foucault and his followers indicate the importance of monetary stabilization as the cornerstone of Neoliberalism. In fact, the architecture of the European Monetary Union is inspired by Ordoliberalism. The Chicago School is also marked by the Monetarist approach with regard to the inflation control. The present paper substantiates the policy change from full employment to the inflation control in the USA. It also documents the evolution of hyperinflations and mega inflations in three waves: 1) after the first and the second World Wars in the European continent; 2) in the Latin America during the eighties and the nineties; 3) in the central and Eastern Europe as well as Central Asia during post-Socialist transition.
    Keywords: Neoliberalism, Hyperinflation, Mega inflation, Monetarism, Structuralsm, Post-keynesian, Full Employment, Sovereign Consummer
    JEL: E2 E5 E51 H7 J6 N1
    Date: 2020–08–10
  9. By: Vlados, Charis (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics); Katimertzopoulos, Fotios (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: This study examines the concept of Innovation from two different conceptual and theoretical prisms: the science of economics and the theoretical tradition of entrepreneurship and organizational theory which both offer a remarkable distance in the way in which innovation is perceived. This study supports the notion that, by pointing a theoretical focus based on a co-evolutionary approach, centered on the "evolutionary heart" of the capitalist business, modern economic science and business thinking will gain from bridging the study of the innovative phenomenon with analytical fertility. To achieve this, the physiological structure and organic evolution of Strategy-Technology-Management (Stra.Tech.Man) synthesis of business becomes the center of attention, perceiving ultimately the firm as an active actor and even as a major structural co-creator of the sectors of industries and the socioeconomic systems which is hosted in.
    Keywords: Stra.Tech.Man innovation; Innovation economics; Organizational innovation; Strategy innovation; Economic development; Business development
    JEL: B00 O39
    Date: 2019–03–04
  10. By: Akerlof, Robert (University of Warwick and CEPR); Rayo, Luis (Kellogg School of Management and CEPR)
    Abstract: We augment Becker’s classic model of the family by assuming that, in addition to caring about consumption, the family wishes to further a subjective story, or narrative, that captures its deeply held values. Our focus is on two stories that in many ways are polar opposites. The first one—the protector narrative—gives rise to a type of traditional family where gender roles are distinct, men and women are pushed towards “separate spheres,” and men are expected to be tough and authoritarian. The second one—the fulfillment narrative—gives rise to a type of modern family where roles are less distinct, family members have greater latitude in their decisions, and marriages are based to a greater extent on romantic love. We derive a rich bundle of behaviors associated with each story, and using survey data, we show that our findings are consistent with a variety of empirical patterns.
    Keywords: family ; narratives ; gender norms ; marriage JEL codes: D10 ; Z10
    Date: 2020
  11. By: Vlados, Charis (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics); Chatzinikolaou, Dimos (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: Today, the use of SWOT analysis is increasingly popular for the strategic planning of businesses. However, we argue that a traditional and conventional way of approaching the SWOT analysis contains an interpretative mistargeting which, in the background, derives from the absence of a comprehensive evolutionary methodological framework. Therefore, a conventional SWOT analysis that articulates lists of strengths-weaknesses and opportunities-threats in an absolute and non-correlative way is probably inappropriate to give answers to the needs of strategic planning. In this direction, by also exploring elements from the criticism to the traditional SWOT analysis, we counter-propose a new conceptual framework that perceives SWOT analysis in a correlative and evolutionary way, for all the kinds of socioeconomic organisms.
    Keywords: conventional SWOT analysis; correlative/evolutionary SWOT analysis; strategic analysis/synthesis
    JEL: B52 L10
    Date: 2019–05–20
  12. By: Alger, Ingela; Cox, Donald
    Abstract: Which parent can be expected to be more altruistic toward their child, the mother or father? All else equal, can we expect older generation members to be more solicitous of younger family members or vice versa? Policy interventions often target recipients by demographic status: more money being put in the hands of mothers, say, or transfers of income from young to old via public pensions. Economics makes predictions about pecuniary incentives and behaviour, but tends to be agnostic about how, say, a post-menopausal grandmother might behave, just because she is a post-menopausal grandmother. Evolutionary theory fills this gap by analysing how preferences of family members emerge from the Darwinian exigencies of “survive and reproduce.” Coin of the realm is so-called “inclusive fitness,” reproductive success of oneself plus that of relatives, weighted by closeness of the relationship. Appending basic biological traits onto considerations of inclusive fitness generates predictions about preferences of family members. A post-menopausal grandmother with a daughter just starting a family is predicted to care more about her daughter than the daughter cares about her, for example. Evolutionary theory predicts that mothers tend to be more altruistic toward children than fathers, and that close relatives would be inclined to provide more support to one another than distant relatives. An original case study is provided, which explains the puzzle of diverging marriage rates by education in terms of heterogeneity in preferences for commitment. Economists are justifiably loathe to invoke preferences to explain trends, since preference-based explanations can be concocted to explain just about anything. But the evolutionary approach does not permit just any invocation of preferences. The dictates of “survive and reproduce” sharply circumscribe the kinds of preference-related arguments that are admissible.
    Date: 2020–08
  13. By: Pui Yi Wong
    Abstract: While mainstream economics since the 1980s has been largely characterized by neo-liberal ideology, the past decade witnessed the rise of nationalism and protectionist policies globally. The latest COVID-19 pandemic has further refocused attention on the crucial roles played by effective states in protecting public welfare and a working economy. This literature review traces the 'developmental state' paradigm as it evolved from the classical developmental state model into the 21st-century developmental state.
    Keywords: developmental state, market, society, literature review
    Date: 2020
  14. By: Vlados, Charis (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics); Chatzinikolaou, Dimos (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics); Demertzis, Michail (Democritus University of Thrace, School of Law)
    Abstract: The crisis of the Greek socioeconomic system has been unfolding for over a decade now. Many of its aspects have been highlighted and studied in the international literature, but, in most of these approaches, a lack of a complete, evolutionary perspective was not avoided. In this paper, we approach the Greek crisis and its evolution in the recent years by reviewing the relevant international literature and by proposing a theoretical re-focusing for a more effective, structural economic policy. In particular, we try to counter-propose a coherent examination of the mutually dependent aspects of the Greek crisis, by focusing on the synthesis of the dimensions of development, of competitiveness and of institutional modernisation of the Greek socioeconomic system, within the current restructuring phase of globalisation.
    Keywords: systemic socioeconomic crisis; Greek crisis; evolutionary; economics and development; competitiveness; institutional modernisation; globalisation restructuring.
    JEL: B52 O43
    Date: 2019–01
  15. By: Ariffian, Suffian; Masih, Mansur
    Abstract: Islamic finance has been growing well around the globe since the subprime crisis of 2007-2008. The Southeast Asia is one of the top areas of growth of Islamic finance but there has not been any research done yet as to which Islamic equity market has been the leading one in the Southeast Asia. This study makes an attempt to fill in that gap. In particular this study asks the following questions:(i)which Islamic equity market is the leading one in Southeast Asia ? (ii) whether the international and conventional equity markets had any bearing on the Islamic equity markets in South East Asia and (iii) which Islamic equity index in South East Asia could be used as the benchmark index? Our findings tend to indicate that (i) amongst the South East Asia countries, Malaysia is relatively the most leading Islamic equity market (ii) the international and conventional markets appear to have a significant impact on the Islamic markets in Southeast Asia (iii) for an investor interested in Islamic equity investment in South East Asia region, he/she could use the Malaysian Islamic market as the benchmark index.
    Keywords: Islamic equity markets, Southeast Asia, VECM, VDC
    JEL: C22 C58 E44 G15
    Date: 2018–09–19
  16. By: Pedro N. Ramos; João Pedro Ferreira; Luís Cruz; Eduardo Barata
    Abstract: Os modelos input-output propõem-se representar as interdependências setoriais, a densa rede das relações entre produções de diferentes produtos, no seio de uma economia. Às interdependências setoriais juntam-se muitas vezes relações entre espaços regionais. Na última década, o desenvolvimento de modelos inter países, cobrindo toda a economia mundial, permitiu à análise input-output conquistar importância crescente, uma vez que permite traçar e caracterizar, detalhadamente, cadeias globais de valor. O eclodir da crise da COVID-19 vem reforçar a importância da análise da estrutura setorial das economias e acentuar ainda mais o interesse pelas cadeias de valor à escala mundial. É notório que a paralisação das economias, por razões sanitárias, pode deixar sem componentes imprescindíveis várias empresas, muitas vezes noutro(s) continente(s), levando à interrupção dos seus processos produtivos. Também a alteração dos perfis de procura poderá ter consequências dramáticas, e diferenciadas nos diferentes cantos do mundo. Usando o modelo World Input-Output Database (WIOD), desenvolvemos um exercício hipotético em que dividimos os produtos em essenciais e não essenciais, e admitimos uma quebra para metade da procura final dos não essenciais. Admite-se um choque simétrico, mas os países são atingidos com intensidade díspar, em função da desigual estrutura das suas economias. O objetivo é o de descortinar tendências, permitindo identificar quais os mais afetados pelo efeito da alteração do padrão global do consumo, nomeadamente em termos do Valor Acrescentado Bruto e do comércio internacional. Os resultados deste cenário indicam que o comércio mundial, no seu conjunto, contrairá em 33,1%. Nalguns países, as exportações cairão mais que as importações, deteriorando assim a balança comercial. Tal significa que terão, no médio prazo, de reestruturar a sua economia, de modo a poderem encontrar outros produtos de especialização, que sejam capazes de exportar com sucesso. Finalmente, no caso português analisou-se também, brevemente, a estrutura por produtos da quebra das exportações.
    Keywords: Modelos Input-Output, Comércio Internacional, COVID-19, Estrutura setorial
    JEL: C67 F62 R12
    Date: 2020–05
  17. By: Nirel JonesMitchell (Claremont McKenna College, Claremont, CA, USA)
    Abstract: Top researchers in the field of critical pedagogy signify that trust literally liberates the brain from fear. This allows for student creativity and higher-order thinking; without cultural awareness and empathy, researchers claim, educational apartheid in inner-city public schools will persist. American notions of ‘proper’ teacher-student dynamics are contextualized by the political philosopher John Locke who delineated a framework dismissive of relational interdependence. Thus, within domestic pedagogical scholarship, collectivist conceptions of teacher-student relationships, congruent with African American collectivist cultural understandings, remain largely unexplored. At first glance, consideration of political philosophy seems peculiar. This perspective, however, is not only compatible--but critical; interpretations of the intersections between political theory and pedagogical analysis are necessary to move beyond mediating the effects of marginalization towards addressing theories surrounding interrelationship and their exclusion from academia, throughout history and today. The following analysis briefly discusses Afro Cuban notions of collectivism, particularly relevant because of their ties to socialist ideologies--opposite of John Locke’s economic outlook. It then interprets texts from ancient KMT, “The Satire of the Trades†and “Instruction of Ptahhotep,†in order to articulate the specific definitions of connection that evade modern educational discourse. This research is imperative; effective pedagogy within classrooms will both reduce crime--as is indicated by the realities of the school to prison pipeline--and produce adults prepared and willing to eradicate other crises in American society.
    Keywords: Ptahhotep, Jose Martí, political theory, education, inner-city youth
    Date: 2020–04
  18. By: John A. List
    Abstract: While empirical economics has made important strides over the past half century, there is a recent attack that threatens the foundations of the empirical approach in economics: external validity. Certain dogmatic arguments are not new, yet in some circles the generalizability question is beyond dispute, rendering empirical work as a passive enterprise based on frivolity. Such arguments serve to caution even the staunchest empirical advocates from even starting an empirical inquiry in a novel setting. In its simplest form, questions of external validity revolve around whether the results of the received study can be generalized to different people, situations, stimuli, and time periods. This study clarifies and places the external validity crisis into perspective by taking a unique glimpse into the grandest of trials: The External Validity Trial. A key outcome of the proceedings is an Author Onus Probandi, which outlines four key areas that every study should report to address external validity. Such an evaluative approach properly rewards empirical advances and justly recognizes inherent empirical limitations.
    JEL: C01 C9 C91 C93 D9
    Date: 2020–07
  19. By: Dr. Anett Großmann (GWS - Institute of Economic Structures Research); Svenja Schwarz (GWS - Institute of Economic Structures Research); Frank Hohmann (GWS - Institute of Economic Structures Research); Anke Mönnig (GWS - Institute of Economic Structures Research)
    Abstract: The research project “Development of sustainable strategies in the Chilean mining sector through a regionalized national model” – funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research – analyses the socio-economic impacts of copper on the Chilean economy. For this, the model COFORCE (COpper FORecasting in ChilE, was developed from scratch. First, a macro-econometric input-output (IO) model for Chile (COFORCE) was built in line with the INFORUM (Interindustry FORcasting at the University of Maryland) modelling approach to forecast and simulate the impact of copper industry on the overall economy. Second, due to the importance of Chilean copper exports, the COFORCE model is linked to the bilateral trade model TINFORGE which captures among other world trade of copper between 153 countries. The national COFORCE model receives export demand and import prices from the world model according to its global market shares. Third, the COFORCE model was regionalized by using an Interregional Input-Output table developed by partners in Brazil (Haddad et al. 2018). The national and 15 regional models for Chile are linked via final demand components and industries by applying a top-down approach. Therefore, regional economic growth is mainly driven by the industry structure and inter- and intraregional trade. This set of three projection and simulation models considers the main aspects regarding copper: 1. It is the main exporting product, 2. It has a huge impact on the economic development and 3. The copper industry is regionally differently concentrated. The modelling tools are applied for the evaluation of alternative economic scenarios, e. g. copper export scenarios at the national and subnational level. The main focus of this paper is to introduce the methodology used to regionalize the national model COFORCE, to explain the main transmission channels and to present regional modelling results. The national model COFORCE and the underlying model philosophy and characteristics are explained in detail in Mönnig/Bieritz 2019. Section 4 shows examples of applications and how to implement scenarios by using the graphical user interface solver(c) (see section 4.1). which includes the underlying data set (historic data and forecasted) and supports the user in scenario design.
    Keywords: Model Building, Input-Output, Sustainable Mining, Copper
    JEL: C67 R15 R11
    Date: 2020
  20. By: Morra, Lucia (University of Turin)
    Abstract: Sraffa’s diaries report that from June 1929 until late 1932 he often met with the literary scholar, poet and philosopher Raffa-ello Piccoli, Serena Professor of Italian at the University of Cambridge. After a sketchy biography of Piccoli, the essay recon-structs the story of their friendship, thus contributing to the reconstruction of Sraffa’s biography in 1929-1932; it pauses along the way on their meetings with Carlo Rosselli in 1929-1931 and on their common friendship with Ludwig Wittgen-stein.
    Keywords: Piero Sraffa; Raffaello Piccoli; Carlo Rosselli; Ludwig Wittgenstein.
    JEL: B31
    Date: 2020–08–31

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