nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2020‒08‒10
23 papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. A Veblenian Critique of Nelson and Winter’s Evolutionary Theory By Jo, Tae-Hee
  2. Coronavirus & Care: How the Coronavirus Crisis Affected Fathers’ Involvement in Germany By Michaela Kreyenfeld; Sabine Zinn; Theresa Entringer; Jan Goebel; Markus M. Grabka; Daniel Graeber; Martin Kroh; Hannes Kröger; Simon Kühne; Stefan Liebig; Carsten Schröder; Jürgen Schupp; Johannes Seebauer
  3. Incomes from Capital in Alternative Economic Theories By Fratini, Saverio M.
  4. Opportunities of frugality in the post-Corona era By Herstatt, Cornelius; Tiwari, Rajnish
  6. Комплементарните Пари в Европа By Marinova, Tsvetelina
  7. La troisième révolution industrielle en marche By Jacques Fontanel
  8. Robots and the rise of European superstar firms By Stiebale, Joel; Südekum, Jens; Woessner, Nicole
  9. Celso Furtado as 'Romantic Economist' from Brazil's Sertão By Jonas Rama; John Hall
  10. Rural Transformation, Inequality, and the Origins of Microfinance By Suesse, Marvin; Wolf, Nikolaus
  11. Taming the Green Swan: How to improve climate-related financial risk assessments By Julia Anna Bingler; Chiara Colesanti Senni
  12. Firm Size, Life Cycle Dynamics and Growth Constraints: Evidence from Mexico By Christian Saborowski; Florian Misch
  13. Savage's response to Allais as Broomean reasoning By Franz Dietrich; Antonios Staras; Robert Sugden
  14. How Climate-Friendly Behavior Relates to Moral Identity and Identity-Protective Cognition: Evidence from the European Social Surveys By Heinz Welsch
  15. Classical versus Neoclassical Equilibrium Discovery Processes in Market Supply and Demand Theory By Sabiou M. Inoua; Vernon L. Smith
  16. Return to 1972: Revisiting the possibilities for design and economics in the face of collapse By Elise Rigot; Jonathan Justin Strayer
  17. Gestion des ressources humaines et nouvelles expériences de l’économie sociale : Cas de la France et du Québec By Gharyeni, Abdellatif
  18. Heterogeneity in Bank Leverage: the Funding Channels of Complexity By Matthieu Bussière; Baptiste Meunier; Justine Pedrono
  19. Los intermediarios en cadenas de valor agropecuarias: un análisis de la apropiación y generación de valor agregado By Gaudin, Yannick; Padilla Pérez, Ramón
  20. The quest for green welfare state in developing countries By Tancrède Voituriez
  21. La invisibilidad estadística de la diversidad sexual y de género en los censos latinoamericanos: experiencias y algunas recomendaciones frente a la ronda censal 2020 By Stang Alva, María Fernanda
  22. Development of environmental practices, innovations and initiatives in households and communities of rural Russia By Nikulin, Alexander (Никулин, Александр)
  23. COVID-19 Pandemic: Socio-economic Response, Recovery and Reconstruction Policies on Major Global Sectors By Amir, Md. Khaled; Amir, Md Zobayer

  1. By: Jo, Tae-Hee
    Abstract: It is often argued that Richard Nelson and Sydney Winter’s evolutionary theory is an alternative to neoclassical economics and is compatible with or complementary to Veblenian evolutionary economics. This paper subjects such arguments to critical examination. I argue that while Nelson and Winter’s theory provides a more realistic account of the firm behavior than Marshallian-neoclassical theory does, it is a neoclassical evolutionary theory in much the same sense as Marshall’s economics is quasi-evolutionary, ‘neo-classical’ economics according to Veblen. Therefore, Nelson and Winter’s evolutionary theory is in fact a protective modification of neoclassical economics and is antithetical to Veblen’s evolutionary economics.
    Keywords: Thorstein Veblen, Richard Nelson, Sydney Winter, Evolutionary Theory, Institution
    JEL: B15 B25 B52
    Date: 2020–06–26
  2. By: Michaela Kreyenfeld; Sabine Zinn; Theresa Entringer; Jan Goebel; Markus M. Grabka; Daniel Graeber; Martin Kroh; Hannes Kröger; Simon Kühne; Stefan Liebig; Carsten Schröder; Jürgen Schupp; Johannes Seebauer
    Abstract: Background: As a response to the spread of the coronavirus in Germany, day care centres and schools closed nationwide, leaving families to grapple with additional child care tasks. In Germany, as in many other societies, women shoulder the lion’s share of housework and child care responsibilities. While the gendered division of household labour has shifted in recent years as men have become more engaged in the upbringing of their children, it was hypothesised that the coronavirus crisis may have resulted in a re-traditionalisation of behaviour. This paper examines this hypothesis by analysing how the time fathers spent with their children changed over the course of the coronavirus crisis in the case of Germany. Methods: Data for this investigation come from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP). The outcome variable is the time spent on child care tasks. We investigate how the time parents spent with their children changed between 2019 and spring 2020, and how these patterns differed by gender, education, and employment situation. As a method, we employ linear panel regressions where the dependent variable is the change in childcare time between the two survey years.Results: We find that fathers and mothers expanded the time they spent on child care to similar degrees between 2019 and spring 2020, which marks the climax of the coronavirus crisis. However, we also observe large differences by level of education. In particular, we find that men with low and medium levels of education spent more time with their children than they did before the onset of the crisis. This finding is at odds with the results of prior studies on fathers’ involvement, which showed that highly educated men tend to be the vanguards of paternal involvement. Contribution: Our study provides novel evidence on the effect of the coronavirus crisis on fathers’ involvement in child care. Contrary to expectations based on previous research, we find that fathers significantly expanded the time they were spending with their children over the course of the crisis. While we also find that women continue to perform the bulk of child care tasks, our results cast a positive light on the potential of paternal involvement in contemporary societies.
    Date: 2020
  3. By: Fratini, Saverio M. (Roma Tre University)
    Abstract: This paper addresses the theoretical explanation of profit and interest within three different approaches: i) classical/Marxian; ii) marginalist; and iii) Arrow-Debreu. In the classical/Marxian approach, incomes from capital are understood as a surplus whose amount depends on the class conflict. In the marginalist theory, the rate of interest is the price firms pay to households for the use of a factor of production named ‘capi-tal’. In the Arrow-Debreu equilibrium theory, interest rates and firm profit are still present, but, as we shall try to show, they can hardly be seen as income from capital.
    Keywords: Capital profit; interest.
    JEL: B51 D24 D51
    Date: 2020–07–20
  4. By: Herstatt, Cornelius; Tiwari, Rajnish
    Abstract: Objective of this discussion paper is twofold: First, we assess the likely impact of the Corona crisis on the economic and societal choices of people, especially in relation to voluntary simplicity. Second, we contextualize the impact of those choices in the field of innovation management. Taking a normative-conceptual perspective we seek to understand in how far frugality, and inter alia, frugal innovations can play a role in better managing the after-effects of the Corona crisis and what implications arise out of this for the relevant societal stakeholders, especially for corporates, policy makers and consumers. Taking note of historical discussions of the role of frugality as a "virtuell", we propose that the currently ongoing fourth renaissance of frugality needs to - and is likely to - emerge as a megatrend that may shape a frugal "AGE" resulting in "affordable green excellence" as the dominant innovation paradigm. To realize this potential, however, it is necessary to move away from the unidimensional focus on monetary affordability of frugal solutions. There is a need for developing a more comprehensive and multidimensional understanding of affordability that is targeted at ensuring financial, societal, infrastructural and ecological affordability of frugal products, services, technologies and business models. Frugal innovators and entrepreneurs should not merely target "significant cost reduction" in relation to existing substitute products but rather aim at ensuring "high affordability" that will open up new business arenas with means of breakthrough innovations and technological excellence. This paradigm shift requires action from all relevant stakeholders including policymakers.
    Keywords: Corona Crisis,Covid-19 Pandemic,Frugality 4.0,Frugal Innovation,Affordable Green Excellence,Circular Economy,Voluntary Simplicity
    Date: 2020
  5. By: Andrei P. Kirilyuk (Metallic State Theory Department - Institute of Metal Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine)
    Abstract: We review the recently proposed universal concept of dynamic complexity and its new mathematics based on the unreduced interaction problem solution. We then consider its progress-bringing applications at various levels of complex world dynamics, including complex-dynamical nanometal physics and living condensed matter, unreduced nanobiosystem dynamics and the integral medicine concept, causally complete management of complex economical and social dynamics, and the ensuing concept of truly sustainable world governance.
    Date: 2019–04–12
  6. By: Marinova, Tsvetelina
    Abstract: Today, there is a wide variety of institutions and practices of complementary currencies in Europe. The global economic crisis (2008) and the Eurozone crisis have given a strong impetus to the emergence, dissemination and institutionalization (first in France in 2014) of solidarity finance in Western Europe. The paper aims at revealing the development of complementary currencies in a historical and long-term perspective.
    Keywords: social and solidarity economy, complementary currencies, Europe.
    JEL: B59 O52
    Date: 2020–06–18
  7. By: Jacques Fontanel (CESICE - Centre d'études sur la sécurité internationale et les coopérations européennes - UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France - Grenoble 2 - IEPG - Sciences Po Grenoble - Institut d'études politiques de Grenoble)
    Abstract: Global warming, in the light of the market economy of capitalism, appears to be a long-term issue, whereas decisions concerning biodiversity and the quality of life of humans on Earth must be taken today. The rise of the third industrial revolution based on the Internet, renewable energies and careful management of the Earth's resources is becoming urgent. ICTs, vehicles, energy sources, real estate and agriculture are directly concerned. States must make it possible for this revolution to take place quickly, despite the major obstacles they have to overcome, such as the shortcomings of renewable energy, blocked assets, the interests of the dominant major groups resulting from the second industrial revolution, the short-term policies of pension funds, and the reluctance of fossil fuel producers. Technological innovation cannot solve all societal and social issues. The rules of the game of economic globalisation must therefore be changed, through public and private commitment to the green revolution, a search for greater social justice or the application of the rules of "enlightened catastrophism". Without a strong action by humans, the evolution of the planet will become humanly uncontrollable and will even raise the question of the survival of humanity.
    Abstract: Le réchauffement climatique, à l'aune de l'économie de marché du capitalisme, apparaît comme une question de long terme, alors que les décisions concernant la biodiversité et la qualité de la vie des hommes sur Terre doivent être prises aujourd'hui. L'essor de la troisième révolution industrielle fondée sur Internet, les énergies renouvelables et la gestion précautionneuse des ressources de la Terre devient urgent. Les TIC, les véhicules, l'immobilier et l'agriculture sont directement concernés. Les Etats doivent rendre possible la mise en place rapide de cette révolution, malgré les obstacles importants qu'ils ont à surmonter, comme les failles de l'énergie renouvelable, les actifs bloqués, les intérêts des grands groupes dominants issus de la deuxième révolution industrielle, les politiques à court terme des fonds de pension, et les réticences des producteurs d'énergies fossiles. L'innovation technologique ne peut pas résoudre toutes les questions sociétales et sociales. Il convient donc de modifier les règles du jeu de la globalisation mondialiste, par une volonté d'engagement public et privé en faveur de la révolution verte, une recherche de plus grande justice sociale ou l'application des règles du « catastrophisme éclairé ». Sans une action volontariste des hommes, l'évolution de la planète deviendra humainement incontrôlable et posera même la question de la survie de l'humanité.
    Keywords: pension funds,Industrial revolution,global warming,renewable energies,innovation,enlightened catastrophism,réchauffement climatique,Révolution industrielle,fonds de pension,catastrophisme éclairé,energies renouvelables
    Date: 2020–05
  8. By: Stiebale, Joel; Südekum, Jens; Woessner, Nicole
    Abstract: We study the impact of a recent digital automation technology - industrial robotics - on the distribution of sales, productivity, markups, and profits within industries. Our empirical analysis combines data on the industry-level stock of industrial robots with firms' balance sheet data for six European countries from 2004 to 2013. We find that robots disproportionally raise productivity in those firms that are already most productive to begin with. Those firms are able to increase their markups and overall profits, while they tend to decline for less profitable firms within the same industry, country and year. We also show that robots contribute to the falling aggregate labor income share through a rising concentration of industry sales in highly productive firms with low firm-specific labor shares. In sum, our paper suggests that robots boost the emergence of superstar firms within European manufacturing, and thereby shifts the functional income distribution away from wages and towards profits.
    Keywords: Automation,Robots,Productivity,Markups,Labor share,Superstar firms
    JEL: D4 L11 O33
    Date: 2020
  9. By: Jonas Rama (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UP1 UFR02 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - UFR d'Économie - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne); John Hall (PSU - Portland State University [Portland])
    Abstract: In The Romantic Economist (2009), Richard Bronk laments that Enlightenment thinking dominated Economics during its formation as a science. As counterpoint, the 'Romantic Movement' had much to offer but remained peripheral. Consequently Economics embraced the centrality of rationality and other Enlightenment precepts, leading to a 'socialphysics'. Meanwhile human characteristics such; as sentiments, imagination and creativity were eschewed. While Bronk fails to identify an in-the-flesh 'Romantic Economist', our inquiry seeks to establish that indeed Celso Furtado qualifies. Profoundly influenced by his sensitivities and attachment to place, Furtado relies upon an organic metaphor - o sertão nordestino - for insights into complex developmental processes.
    Abstract: Em The Romantic Economist (2009), Richard Bronk lamenta que o pensamento iluminista tenha dominado a economia durante sua formação como ciência. O "Movimen-to Romântico" seria um contraponto, mas foi mantido distante. A economia abraçou a cen-tralidade da racionalidade e preceitos iluministas, tornando-se uma "física-social". Desde então, as características humanas como sentimento, imaginação e criatividade são evitadas. Embora Bronk não identifique um economista "romântico" de carne e osso, nossa pesquisa busca estabelecer Celso Furtado como um. Profundamente influenciado por sua sensibili-dade e raízes, Furtado fez uso de uma metáfora orgânica-o sertão nordestino-em seu entendimento de complexos processos de desenvolvimento. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Brasil; Celso Furtado; Richard Bronk; movimento romântico; sertão.
    Keywords: Brazil,Celso Furtado,Richard Bronk,romantic movement
    Date: 2019
  10. By: Suesse, Marvin; Wolf, Nikolaus
    Abstract: What determines the development of rural financial markets? Starting from a simple theoretical framework, we derive the factors shaping the market entry of rural microfinance institutions across time and space. We provide empirical evidence for these determinants using the expansion of credit cooperatives in the 236 eastern counties of Prussia between 1852 and 1913. This setting is attractive as it provides a free market benchmark scenario without public ownership, subsidization, or direct regulatory intervention. Furthermore, we exploit features of our historical set-up to identify causal effects. The results show that declining agricultural staple prices, as a feature of structural transformation, leads to the emergence of credit cooperatives. Similarly, declining bank lending rates contribute to their rise. Low asset sizes and land inequality inhibit the regional spread of cooperatives, while ethnic heterogeneity has ambiguous effects. We also offer empirical evidence suggesting that credit cooperatives accelerated rural transformation by diversifying farm outputs.
    Keywords: credit cooperatives; Land Inequality; Microfinance; Prussia; rural transformation
    JEL: G21 N23 O16 Q15
    Date: 2019–12
  11. By: Julia Anna Bingler (Center of Economic Research (CER-ETH), ETH Zurich, Switzerland); Chiara Colesanti Senni (CER-ETH Zurich and Council on Economic Policies, Seefeldstrasse 60, 8008 Zurich)
    Abstract: Climate-related financial risks might have the potential to trigger the next systemic financial crisis, as recently stated by the Bank of International Settlements. In consequence, understanding these so-called Green Swan risks should be a key priority in financial decision-making and supervision. However, a systematic approach and a comprehensive theory on climate-adjusted financial risk metrics is still missing. This study is a first step to fill this gap, with a focus on transition risks. Drawing on insights from climate science, economics and finance research, we derive a set of important criteria to ensure that climate risk tools provide high quality, comparable, and decisionrelevant results. We then use a sample of 16 climate transition risk tools and conduct two lines of research: First, by aid of descriptive analysis, we assess the tools’ coverage of risk sources and financial assets, their inputs (i.e. underlying climate scenarios), and their outputs (i.e. climate-adjusted financial metrics). Second, we use the previously defined criteria for an in-depth analysis of the quality, comparability and decision-relevance of the tools. The results will be presented at the individual tool level, and at the meta level. Based on the results of our descriptive and criteria-based analysis, we derive potential next steps for tool provider, conclusions for potential tool users, and guidelines for supervisory authorities. The analysis could be used as starting point for building a comprehensive theory of meaningful climate-related financial risk indicators, aid practitioners to select the tools best suited to their needs and use cases, and inform regulatory processes on financial climate risk assessment principles.
    Keywords: Financial risk models, Financial pricing models, Transition risks, Climate risk tools, Climate-adjusted financial risk indicators
    JEL: C83 D53 D81 G12 G32 Q54
    Date: 2020–07
  12. By: Christian Saborowski; Florian Misch
    Abstract: This paper examines the variation in life cycle growth across the universe of Mexican firms. We establish two stylized facts to motivate our analysis: first, we show that firm size matters for development by illustrating a close correlation with state-level per capita incomes. Second, we show that few firms grow as much as their U.S. peers while the majority stagnates at less than twice their initial size. To gain insights into the distinguishing characteristics of the two groups, we then econometrically decompose life cycle growth across firms. We find that firms that have financial access and multiple establishments and that are formal, part of diversified industries and located in population centers can grow at sizeable rates.
    Keywords: Social security;Economic growth;Development;Services industry;Manufacturing sector;Firm size,Firm growth,Life cycle dynamics,Distortions,Klenow,initial size,Mexican firm,Hsieh,Saborowski
    Date: 2019–05–02
  13. By: Franz Dietrich (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSE - Paris School of Economics, CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Antonios Staras (Cardiff University); Robert Sugden (UEA - University of East Anglia [Norwich])
    Abstract: Leonard Savage famously contravened his own theory when first confronting the Allais Paradox, but then convinced himself that the had made an error. We examine the formal structure of Savage's ‘error-correcting' reasoning in the light of (i) behavioural economists' claims to identify the latent preferences of individuals who violate conventional rationality requirements and (ii) John Broome's critique of arguments which presuppose that rationality requirements can be achieved through reasoning. We argue that Savage's reasoning is not vulnerable to Broome's critique, but does not provide support for the view that behavioural scientists can identify and counteract errors in people's choices.
    Keywords: Savage,Allais Paradox,Broome,rationality,reasoning,behavioural economics
    Date: 2020–05
  14. By: Heinz Welsch (University of Oldenburg, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: The paper studies the role for climate-friendly behavior of individuals’ moral identity, conceptualized in terms of the moral foundations identified by moral psychologists (Care, Fairness, Liberty, Loyalty, Authority, and Sanctity). Two channels of influence are distinguished: a direct influence of moral identity at given cognitions of climate change impacts and effectiveness of individual action, and an indirect influence through the effect of moral identity on these cognitions. Using data from the European Social Surveys, the paper finds that endorsement of the individual-focused (universalist) moral foundations (Care, Fairness, Liberty) and endorsement of the group-focused moral foundations (Loyalty, Authority, Sanctity) both foster climate friendly behavior through the direct channel, the former 1.5 times stronger than the latter. In addition, individual-focused moral foundations enhance climate-friendly behavior by fostering the cognition of bad impacts of climate change and of effectiveness of own action. The indirect effect amounts to up to one third of the direct effect. Results suggest that climate-friendly behavior is to a considerable extent a matter of moral factors rather than consequentialist (benefit-cost) considerations.
    Keywords: climate-friendly behavior; moral identity; climate change cognition; moral foundations
    Date: 2020–07
  15. By: Sabiou M. Inoua (Economic Science Institute, Chapman University); Vernon L. Smith (Economic Science Institute, Chapman University)
    Abstract: "The 1870s marginal revolution in economics culminated a century later in a failure. The core utility maximization principle of this school of thought was shown to have no interesting implication for aggregate market behavior in general (Sonnenschein, 1972, 1973a, 1973b; Debreu, 1974; Mantel, 1974; Kirman, 1989; Shafer & Sonnenschein, 1993; Rizvi, 2006). We argue that neoclassical price theory was flawed from the beginning, owing to the more basic and more serious logical problem inherent to the axiom of price taking behavior, under which market price formation is left unexplained."
    Keywords: History of Economic Thought; Methodology of Economics; Microeconomic Theory; Experimental Economics
    JEL: B C D
    Date: 2020
  16. By: Elise Rigot (LAAS-ELIA - Équipe Ingénierie pour les sciences du vivant - LAAS - Laboratoire d'analyse et d'architecture des systèmes - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - INSA Toulouse - Institut National des Sciences Appliquées - Toulouse - INSA - Institut National des Sciences Appliquées - UT3 - Université Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - UT2J - Université Toulouse - Jean Jaurès, LLA-CREATIS - Lettres, Langage et Arts – Création, Recherche, Émergence en Arts, Textes, Images, Spectacles - UT2J - Université Toulouse - Jean Jaurès); Jonathan Justin Strayer
    Abstract: 1972 offre un point de vue tout à fait pertinent pour positionner le design et l'économie face aux effondrements. Notre démarche consiste à porter un regard croisé sur l'histoire du design et de l'économie. Nous soulignons la nécessité d'un rapprochement entre économie et design. Notre hypothèse est la suivante : pour que le design puisse œuvrer à l'habitabilité du monde, l'économie doit redevenir une économie de la ressource et refuser l'idéologie progressiste de la croissance. C'est à travers la réévaluation du rapport Meadows, d'un côté, et la relecture de Maldonado et Papanek, de l'autre, que nous examinons cette hypothèse.
    Abstract: The year 1972 gives a peculiar perspective on design and economics in the context of anthropocentric collapse. We want to examine a crossed-view on design and economics' history. We underline the necessity to bring design and economics together. Our hypothesis is the following : in order for design to work towards a livable world, economics needs to become the science of resources and to refuse the progressivist and growth ideology. We examine this hypothesis based on our re-evaluation of Meadows' Limits to Growth on one hand and Maldonado and Papanek on the other.
    Date: 2020
  17. By: Gharyeni, Abdellatif
    Abstract: Cet article met l’accent sur une zone d’activité peu connu dans le domaine du management et qui connait une forte croissance les deux dernières décennies. L’économie sociale comprend une large gamme des activités qui surfent aux frontières du secteur public et du secteur privé classique. Notre objectif est de faire une évaluation de son apport dans la sphère économique. Nous avons choisi les cas de la France et du Québec comme deux expériences particulières pour aborder notre question de recherche. Pour le Québec, les chiffres de 2015 démontrent que l’économie sociale participe avec 8 % au PIB et contribue avec 10 % à la création de l’emploi. En effet, elle contribue au PIB plus que le secteur de la construction et des mines réunies. L’économie sociale est davantage axée sur le renforcement des lignes directrices du Groupe de travail sur l’économie sociale. En France, les chiffres de 2015 démontrent que l’économie sociale participe avec 10 % au PIB et contribue avec 12 % à la création d’emploi. Le nombre d’organisations sociales et solidaires est de 1,5 fois de plus que le secteur de la construction et de 4,5 fois de plus que le secteur agroalimentaire. Les acteurs de l’économie sociale se sont engagés dans une vision plus large de la solidarité à travers une promotion dans toute la structure de l’économie. Par la suite, avec des études de cas des organisations sociales et solidaires, nous avons pu constater l’originalité des pratiques managériales et des valeurs partagées dans ce secteur d’activité. Les analyses des informations existantes sur les sites Web des organisations choisies nous ont permis de comprendre qu’elles sont parfois regroupées dans des holdings avec une performance financière proche des organisations du secteur privé classique. Néanmoins, la réussite au niveau organisationnel ne peut pas masquer la présence de plusieurs défis. Il s’agit notamment de la capacité du financement et de la dilution des valeurs sociales et solidaires.
    Keywords: Analyse comparative; Organisations sociales et solidaires; Gestion des ressources humaines; Performance économique; Performance sociale.
    JEL: J24 L25 L31 P47 P52
    Date: 2019
  18. By: Matthieu Bussière; Baptiste Meunier; Justine Pedrono
    Abstract: This paper assesses the net impact of complexity on leverage, at the Bank Holding Companies (BHCs) level using unique French supervisory data from 2010 to 2017. Geographical and structural complexity introduce diversification benefits and agency problems that affect the risk of BHCs. Whether investors price this risk or not is decisive for the cost of equity and finally leverage. Our results show a negative impact of complexity on leverage. To explain this result, we then focus on the funding channels of complexity. We find that complexity goes hand in hand with additional capital surplus and increasing cost of equity. As a second major finding, our results show that the impact of complexity on leverage and the funding channels of complexity are heterogeneous across BHCs and depend on their systemic status. In fact, size, complexity and systemic status complement each other. Omitting one of these dimensions leads to misleading conclusions on bank stability.
    Keywords: bank, complexity, risk, capital structure, leverage, cost of equity, funding cost, capital requirements .
    JEL: F33 F36 F65 G15 G21
    Date: 2020
  19. By: Gaudin, Yannick; Padilla Pérez, Ramón
    Abstract: En los últimos años se observa un creciente interés en las cadenas de valor como una herramienta para analizar las dinámicas empresariales, el desarrollo económico y social, el comercio internacional y la innovación, así como para el diseño y la evaluación de políticas públicas. En un contexto de creciente complejidad de los procesos de producción y alta especialización productiva, los intermediarios se han convertido en actores centrales para estructurar cadenas de valor y agilizar los intercambios. El análisis de cuatro casos de estudio de cadenas de valor agropecuarias en Guatemala, El Salvador y la República Dominicana indica que la contribución de los intermediarios a la generación de valor agregado de la cadena, así como el control que ejercen sobre la misma, depende significativamente de tres factores: i) las capacidades productivas y tecnológicas de los productores; ii) las capacidades productivas y tecnológicas de los intermediarios, y iii) la estructura de mercado y el tipo de gobernanza que caracterizan la cadena. A partir del análisis de los casos, se formulan recomendaciones de política pública para equilibrar las relaciones de poder dentro de la cadena y ayudar a crear, con la participación de los actores de la cadena, nuevas reglas e, incluso, una nueva forma de gobernanza.
    Date: 2020–07–21
  20. By: Tancrède Voituriez (Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, IDDRI - Institut du Développement Durable et des Relations Internationales - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Paris, WIL - World Inequality Lab)
    Abstract: In 2015, the world nations agreed to tackle the "two greatest challenges of our century" to paraphrase Nick Stern (2009) – namely growing inequality and climate change. They signed up the Agenda 2030 and endorsed its 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs), thereby committing to shift development patterns towards sustainable paths. The same year, the Paris Agreement on climate change was celebrated as a breakthrough in environmental governance, marking a watershed between an old world suffocating under fossil-fuel pollution, and a green new world matching the economic aspiration of a growing world middle class within a ‘safe operating space for humanity' (Steffen et al., 2015). The transition from one world to the other is not part of any handbook however, nor was it laid out in companion texts to the SDGs and the Paris Agreement. The recipe for turning coal, oil and gas into carbon-free watts and joules while curbing the seemingly irresistible rise of income and wealth inequalities seems as coveted as were alchemist formulae to turn sand into gold a few centuries ago. The practicality of the transition remains debatable, as global inequality and CO2 emissions seem stubbornly stuck to their long-term rising trend (Wid, 2018 ; Carbon Tracker Institute, 2019). To tackle the magnitude of inequality and environmental intertwined challenges, some scholars framed the concept of green welfare state or "ecostate" almost twenty years ago. They called for a transformation of the welfare state as we know it in most of OECD countries into a governance system supplying the insurance mechanisms and public goods and services to cope with environmental degradation and shocks. This paper is a quest of emerging ecostate in existing literature, and in most recent data. The first section presents a literature review on welfare state and ecostate, and on the expected transition from one to the other. In section two, we update Wood and Gough (2006) typology on welfare regimes to include the most recent available data covering income inequalities and environmental performance. We conduct an empirical multivariate analysis and come up with four distinct type of ecostates: unequal, super unequal, balanced and insecure. We focus in sections four and five on the particular case of insecure ecostates, which gathers a large share of emerging economies. Taking Nigeria as an example, we delineate the characteristics of ecostate insecurity and possible way forward, drawing on ongoing in-house research made in this country. Research gaps and bridging initiatives are hinted at in conclusion.
    Keywords: green welfare states,ecostates,developing countries,inequality,environment,insecurity,Nigeria,climate change adaptation
    Date: 2020
  21. By: Stang Alva, María Fernanda
    Date: 2019–11–13
  22. By: Nikulin, Alexander (Никулин, Александр) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: The conducted scientific research is mainly empirical, therefore it is focused on both micro-level – rural households, their traditional and innovative social-economic and social-cultural practices – and macro-level – several cases-regions that differ in the dominant models of rural formal and informal economies, their production-economic practices, and economic-environmental challenges. The study combined quantitative (secondary analysis of sociological and statistical data) and qualitative approaches (case study and “life story”, methods of observation and semi-formalized expert interviews), which allowed to provide an analytical review of traditional and innovative social-economic and environmental practices of rural households, taking into account the regional specifics of the environmental situation, and also to specify the priorities of regional and state policies so that they would support small forms of self-organization of agricultural production and development of rural territories.
    Date: 2020–04
  23. By: Amir, Md. Khaled; Amir, Md Zobayer
    Abstract: Since adopting all the possible plans, strategies, and containing measures to defy the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic, the world fails to prevent rapid contagion of a novel coronavirus, breaks down the regular all-inclusive socio-economic channels, damages countless lives and livelihoods and forces global economic downturn could be facing world’s worst depression since the 1930s. This research paper has two phases amid and after the impact of novel coronavirus on global Scio-economy, can be mitigated by focusing and implementing effective responsive and reconstructive socio-economic plans and frameworks covering emergency financing, robust capital market, independence of the central bank, and sound banking sector, currency swap, liquidity facilities, tax relief, loan forbearance, and expanded unemployment insurance, concessional financing, grants, debt relief, global collaboration, innovating new diversified technologies, job transition, reskilling, re-deployment, setting watchdog for corruption, global collaboration, adding resilience, response, and re-configurability in existing supply chain metrics are essential to lighten the global socio-economic imbalances including financial distress, economic stress, food crisis, rising hunger, job layoffs, educational institutions closure, supply chain interruptions and shutting down businesses. Declining Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission creating an opportunity of establishing a low carbon economy and reducing air pollution and environmental crisis, a chance on focusing clean energy, and emphasize more on hi-tech like cloud computing and artificial intelligence are positive outcomes from coronavirus pandemic, will help to accelerate response and recovery plans against COVID-19.
    Keywords: COVID-19, Socio-Economy, Clean Energy, Cloud Computing, Job Transition, Fiscal Aid JEL Code: A120, B55, L86, J62, H87
    JEL: A13 D6 E61 H3 M2 M21 O2
    Date: 2020–06–17

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