nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2020‒07‒20
twenty papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. Exploring the trade (policy) narratives in economic elite discourse By Matthias Aistleitner; Stephan Puehringer
  2. Marx's Theory of Value: A Sympathetic Yet Critical Perspective. By Miguel D. Ramirez
  3. Is capacity utilization variable in the long run? An agent-based sectoral approach tomodeling hysteresis in the normal rate of capacity utilization By Federico Bassi; Tom Bauermann; Dany Lang; Mark Setterfield
  4. A Two-class Economy from the Multi-sectoral Perspective: The Controversy between Pasinetti and Meade-Samuelson-Modigliani Revisited By Kazuhiro Kurose
  5. "Distribution and Gender Effects on the Path of Economic Growth: Comparative Evidence for Developed, Semi-Industrialized, and Low-Income Agricultural Economies" By Ruth Badru
  6. A gender-transformative response to COVID-19 in Myanmar [in Burmese] By Lambrecht, Isabel; Mahrt, Kristi; Ragasa, Catherine; Wang, Michael; Ei Win, Hnin; Win, Khin Zin
  7. Regulating the European Data-Driven Economy. A Case Study on the General Data Protection Regulation By Laurer, Moritz; Seidl, Timo
  8. Innovative Entrepreneurship as a Collaborative Effort: An Institutional Framework By Elert, Niklas; Henrekson, Magnus
  9. Statistical Equilibrium Methods in Analytical Political Economy By Ellis Scharfenaker
  10. Toward a discursive approach to growth models: Social blocs in the politics of digital transformation By Rothstein, Sidney A.
  11. Global Sensitivity and Domain-Selective Testing for Functional-Valued Responses: An Application to Climate Economy Models By Matteo Fontana; Massimo Tavoni; Simone Vantini
  12. The odd fiscal ‘implicit bargain’ in the Eurozone. A continental view of sovereignty: List, Chartalism, and Keynes’ international economics By Ignacio Ramirez Cisneros
  13. V-, U-, L-, or W-shaped recovery after COVID? Insights from an Agent Based Model By Dhruv Sharma; Jean-Philippe Bouchaud; Stanislao Gualdi; Marco Tarzia; Francesco Zamponi
  14. Effects of the COVID-19 Related Economic Downturn on Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Austria By Franz Sinabell; Mark Sommer; Gerhard Streicher
  15. The Novel Coronavirus (Covid-19): Theoretical and practical perspectives on children, women and sex trafficking By Simplice A. Asongu; Usman M. Usman; Xuan V. Vo
  16. From Pink-Collar to Lab Coat. Cultural Persistence and Diffusion of Socialist Gender Norms By Naomi Friedman-Sokuler; Claudia Senik
  17. Walter Euckens Weg zum Ordoliberalismus By Vanberg, Viktor
  18. The non-universality of wealth distribution tails near wealth condensation criticality By Sam L. Polk; Bruce M. Boghosian
  19. Entwicklung der Rahmenbedingungen für das Bauen mit Holz in Deutschland: Eine Innovationssystemanalyse im Kontext der Evaluation der Charta für Holz 2.0 By Purkus, Alexandra; Lüdtke, Jan; Jochem, Dominik; Rüter, Sebastian; Weimar, Holger
  20. Blue uncertainty: Warding off systemic risks in the Anthropocene – Lessons from COVID-19 By Méndez, Pablo F.

  1. By: Matthias Aistleitner (Institute for Comprehensive Analysis of the Economy, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria); Stephan Puehringer (Institute for Comprehensive Analysis of the Economy, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria)
    Abstract: Trade liberalization during the neoliberal era since the 1980s has been on the political agenda of many countries. However, in recent years and especially in the course of rising populist movements, protectionist measures seem to be gaining importance again. Nationalist economic policies challenge the overly positive view on economic integration and the reduction of trade barriers established by standard economic theory. In contrast to politicians, for quite a long time the great majority of economists explicitly publicly supported trade liberalization policies. In this paper, we show how trade and trade related policies are addressed and framed in professional economic discourses. Thus, we follow a mixed-method-approach and combine quantitative textual analysis with critical discourse analysis to highlight dominant narratives and imaginaries present in these debates. By analyzing more than 400 trade-related research articles published in high-impact economic journals we highlight three core trade narratives which constitute the elite economists trade discourse: First, “free trade cheerleading†describes a clear link between the alleged lopsidedness of economists in favoring free trade (policies) in the public and academic debate. Second, “Ignorance in a world full of nails†relates to particular methodological and conceptual leanings in the profession, which seem to deepen the dominance of an overall positive evaluation of trade. And third, “success breeds exporting breeds success†postulates a positive causal relation between a firm’s economic performance and its export orientation. We conclude that the narrow perspective in economic elite debates prevents a more comprehensive understanding of the multifaceted challenges related to international integration.
    Keywords: trade narratives, trade policies, discourse analysis, sociology of economics, textual analysis, top economic journals
    Date: 2020–06
  2. By: Miguel D. Ramirez (Department of Economics, Trinity College)
    Abstract: This paper critically analyzes the important notion of value or exchange-value from a Marxian perspective as opposed to a neoclassical one. It is argued that the value of a commodity is a historically determined social relation between producers, rather than a subjective relation between man and commodities á la Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk and Stanley Jevons. Value, in the Marxian scheme, tends to assume certain specific forms more often than others depending on the particular stage of economic history, reaching its fullest expression under capitalist production–the highest form of commodity production based on private property. In turn, exchange value–a quantitative relation--is the manner in which value expresses its character of being the product of social (abstract) labor. The paper highlights the classical view of value as expounded by David Ricardo, and focuses on how Marx develops and attempts to resolve key problems in Ricardo’s labor theory of value. It is argued that Ricardo dealt not only with the problem of relative value, but, like Marx, also grappled with the concept of positive (absolute) value. The paper also reviews important challenges to Marx’s theory of value, ranging from the role of the composition of aggregate demand in determining “socially necessary labor†to the issue of whether the transformation of labor values into prices of production is an unnecessary and irrelevant exercise. Finally, the paper turns its attention to the economic role of time from a Marxian perspective as it relates to the determination of interest-bearing (loan) capital and Adam Smith’s important distinction between productive and unproductive labor–one whose clear comprehension rests on viewing value as a social relation.
    JEL: B10 B14 B24
    Date: 2020–07
  3. By: Federico Bassi (Dipartimento di Scienze Sociali ed Economiche - Università degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza" [Rome]); Tom Bauermann; Dany Lang (CEPN - Centre d'Economie de l'Université Paris Nord - USPC - Université Sorbonne Paris Cité - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Université Sorbonne Paris Nord); Mark Setterfield
    Abstract: ost Keynesian macrodynamic models make various assumptions about the normal rate of capacity utilization. Those rooted in the Classical and neo-Keynesian traditions assume the normal rate is fixed, whereas Kaleckian models treat it as a variable that is endogenous to the actual rate of capacity utilization. This paper contributes to the debate about the normal rate of capacity utilization by developing a model of strong or genuine hysteresis, in which firms make discrete decisions about the normal rate depending on the degree of uncertainty about demand conditions. An agent-based model based on empirical analysis of 25 sectors of the US economy is used to show that hysteresis can cause variation in the normal rate of capacity utilization within a subset of the range of observed variation in the actual capacity utilization rate. This suggests that the economy exhibits both constancy and (endogenous) variability in the normal rate of utilization over different ranges of variation in the actual rate. More broadly speaking, the genuine hysteresis model is shown to provide the basis for a synthesis of Post Keynesian macrodynamics that draws on both the Classical/neo-Keynesian and Kaleckian modeling traditions.
    Date: 2020–06–11
  4. By: Kazuhiro Kurose
    Abstract: We examine the Pasinettian two-class multi-sectoral model with a microfoundation of capitalists and workers, specifcally, two combinations of their behaviour. First, both act as in?nitely lived agents (ILA) and second, capitalists act as ILA while workers follow overlapping generations behaviour. We analyse the switch of equilibria simul- taneously with the paradox in capital theory. Pasinetti equilibrium is independent of technology and the microfoundation. Dual equilibrium depends on technology and dif- fers by microfoundation. Numerical examples of net output/capital ratio and capital intensity imply we should analyse income and wealth distribution by the models with capital as a bundle of reproducible commodities.
    Date: 2020–02
  5. By: Ruth Badru
    Abstract: This paper applies a robust empirical methodology, which considers issues relating to cross-country heterogeneity and cross-sectional dependence, to inspect the contributions of gender equality and factor income distribution to an economy's growth path. A dynamic model of aggregate demand is estimated on a unique panel dataset from 46 countries that are further grouped into developed (DC), semi-industrialized (SIEs), and low-income agricultural economies (LIAEs). The empirical findings suggest that, overall, growth is driven by investment in the short run and domestic demand in the long run. In the short run, the results suggest that low female wages act as a stimulus to growth in SIEs but may promote contractionary pressures on demand in the long run. For LIAEs and DCs, the effect of improved labor market conditions for women--leaving men's constant--on demand-led growth conditions are positive in the short run but may harm long-term growth prospects. In all, the empirical evidence, combined with the stylized facts about institutional and economic inequality, suggests that the impact of gender and income inequality on macroeconomic outcomes will differ depending on the economic structure and level of economic development.
    Keywords: Gender Equality; Demand-led Growth; Aggregate Demand; Functional Income Distribution; Economic Development; Autoregressive Distributed Lag Models (ARDL)
    JEL: E02 E12 E20 F41 I30
  6. By: Lambrecht, Isabel; Mahrt, Kristi; Ragasa, Catherine; Wang, Michael; Ei Win, Hnin; Win, Khin Zin
    Keywords: MYANMAR, BURMA, SOUTHEAST ASIA, ASIA, gender, Coronavirus, coronavirus disease, Coronavirinae, employment, migration, women, empowerment, decision making, maternal and child health, social protection, health, Covid-19, COVID-19 Economic Relief Plan (CERP), informal work, household chores, cash transfer
    Date: 2020
  7. By: Laurer, Moritz; Seidl, Timo
    Abstract: In recent years, data have become part and parcel of contemporary capitalism. This created tensions between the growing demand for personal data and the fundamental right to data protection. Against this background, the EU’s adoption of the general data protection regulation (GDPR) poses a puzzle. Why did the EU adopt a regulation that strengthens data protection despite intensive lobbying by powerful business groups? We make two arguments to explain this outcome. First, we use process tracing to show how institutional legacies triggered and structured the policy-formulation process by strengthening the position of data protection advocates within the Commission. Second, we use discourse network analysis to show that the Snowden revelations fundamentally changed the discursive and coalitional dynamics during the decision-making stage, ‘saving’ the GDPR from being watered down. Our paper contributes to the literature on the political economy of data protection while also offering a comprehensive explanation of the GDPR.
    Date: 2020–05–12
  8. By: Elert, Niklas (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN)); Henrekson, Magnus (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))
    Abstract: We demonstrate how successful entrepreneurship depends on a collaborative innovation bloc (CIB), a system of innovation that evolves spontaneously and within which activity takes place through time. A CIB consists of six pools of economic skills from which people are drawn or recruited to form part of a collaborative team, which is necessary for innovation-based venturing to flourish. The six pools include entrepreneurs, inventors, early- and later-stage financiers, key personnel, and customers. We show how the application of the CIB perspective can help make institutional and evolutionary economics more concrete, relevant, and persuasive, especially regarding institutional prescriptions. Generally, we envision an institutional framework that improves the antifragility of CIBs and the economic system as a whole, thus enabling individual CIBs and the broader economic system to thrive when faced with adversity.
    Keywords: Institutional economics; Evolutionary economics; Antifragility; Entrepreneurship; Innovation; Institutions
    JEL: D20 G32 L23 L26 O33
    Date: 2020–06–24
  9. By: Ellis Scharfenaker
    Abstract: Economic systems produce robust statistical patterns in key sate variables including prices and incomes. Statistical equilibrium methods explain the distributional proper- ties of state variables as arising from specific institutional and behavioral postulates. Two traditions have developed in political economy with the complementary aim of conceptualizing economic processes as irreducibly statistical phenomena but differ in their methodologies and interpretations of statistical explanation. These conceptual differences broadly mirror the methodological divisions in statistical mechanics, but also emerge in distinct ways when considered in the context of social sciences. This paper surveys the use of statistical equilibrium methods in analytical political economy and identifies the leading methodological and philosophical questions in this growing field of research.
    Keywords: Statistical equilibrium, Classical political economy, Maximum entropy, Information theory, Stochastic methods JEL Classification: B41, B51, C18, D30, E10
    Date: 2020
  10. By: Rothstein, Sidney A.
    Abstract: The growth models perspective analyzes the role of social blocs in crafting countries' economic policies, but its treatment of business power as purely structural prevents it from addressing an important question in the politics of digital transformation: How have new sectors with miniscule economic footprints been able to influence economic policy? This paper explores how tech and venture capital successfully lobbied for financial deregulation at the beginning of digital transformation in the United States. The paper argues that explaining the role of social blocs in digital transformation requires incorporating discourse analysis and develops a conceptual framework around three discursive components in the dynamics of social blocs: coordination, persuasion, and performativity. This framework contributes to theory development in the growth models perspective and illustrates how the concept of social blocs can help make sense of the politics of digital transformation.
    Keywords: digital transformation,discourse,growth models,social blocs,digitale Transformation,Diskurs,gesellschaftliche Koalitionen,Wachstumsmodelle
    Date: 2020
  11. By: Matteo Fontana; Massimo Tavoni; Simone Vantini
    Abstract: Complex computational models are increasingly used by business and governments for making decisions, such as how and where to invest to transition to a low carbon world. Complexity arises with great evidence in the outputs generated by large scale models, and calls for the use of advanced Sensitivity Analysis techniques. To our knowledge, there are no methods able to perform sensitivity analysis for outputs that are more complex than scalar ones and to deal with model uncertainty using a sound statistical framework. The aim of this work is to address these two shortcomings by combining sensitivity and functional data analysis. We express output variables as smooth functions, employing a Functional Data Analysis (FDA) framework. We extend global sensitivity techniques to function-valued responses and perform significance testing over sensitivity indices. We apply the proposed methods to computer models used in climate economics. While confirming the qualitative intuitions of previous works, we are able to test the significance of input assumptions and of their interactions. Moreover, the proposed method allows to identify the time dynamics of sensitivity indices.
    Date: 2020–06
  12. By: Ignacio Ramirez Cisneros (University of Missouri-Kansas City (US))
    Abstract: At present, the European customs and currency union finds itself in a transitional period. Without a path forward toward greater political unity, it has prematurely bound constituents by ‘hard law’ fiscal limitations (the Maastricht criteria, Stability and Growth pact, Fiscal Compact) not dissimilar to those applying to provinces, states, or Laender. In other words, it is caught in an odd 'implicit bargain’ (Goodhart) where members are expected to abide by de jure fiscal constraints with no central authority having the fiscal capabilities for stabilization, redistribution, and state-building (Arrighi) expenditures --all of which are indispensable in modern credit economies. The present paper makes use of European economic traditions reliant on statecraft to revisit the region's integration under the leitmotiv of economic sovereignty as a continental project. Specifically, we look at the work of List, Keynes, and the Chartalists. The work of F. List sets European economic unification in its historic place as a strategy founded in large part on exploiting economies of scale (demand and supply-side) by political and economic aggregation of smaller non-self sustaining economies into one market. This proposal for a new Continental System sought to lay the foundation for ‘catching-up’ or emulation of world economic leaders. Keynes’s international economics serves as the most useful orienting blueprint to begin to address the particularity of economic unification among sovereigns absent political unity. Chartalist insights into the political nature of central banks are of great value, and can help frame the European Central Bank's often clumsy attempts to hold together the Union within a broader scope. Despite its differential treatment of members thus far, the ECB could become a centerpiece institution in the consolidation of Europe as a self-sustaining pole of international effective demand. The overriding thematic principle encompassing the different authors (and traditions) discussed is that of European economic sovereignty in a region continuously struggling to balance political independence with economic co-dependence, and possibly unity.
    Keywords: sovereignty, eurozone, sovereign-constituent fiscal implicit bargain, continental political economy, international macroeconomic viability
    JEL: B15 B52 E12 F15 F45
    Date: 2020–07
  13. By: Dhruv Sharma; Jean-Philippe Bouchaud; Stanislao Gualdi; Marco Tarzia; Francesco Zamponi
    Abstract: We discuss the impact of a Covid-like shock on a simple toy economy, described by the Mark-0 Agent-Based Model that we developed and discussed in a series of previous papers. We consider a mixed supply and demand shock, and show that depending on the shock parameters (amplitude and duration), our toy economy can display V-shaped, U-shaped or W-shaped recoveries, and even an L-shaped output curve with permanent output loss. This is due to the existence of a self-sustained "bad" state of the economy. We then discuss two policies that attempt to moderate the impact of the shock: giving easy credit to firms, and the so-called helicopter money, i.e. injecting new money into the households savings. We find that both policies are effective if strong enough, and we highlight the potential danger of terminating these policies too early. While we only discuss a limited number of scenarios, our model is flexible and versatile enough to allow for a much wider exploration, thus serving as a useful tool for the qualitative understanding of post-Covid recovery.
    Date: 2020–06
  14. By: Franz Sinabell; Mark Sommer (WIFO); Gerhard Streicher
    Abstract: The measures taken to limit the spread of the COVID-19 virus, which at the same time severely restrict economic activity in many countries, have consequences not only on unemployment, trade, production, income and value added, but also on the environment. This analysis examines the effects on greenhouse gas emissions in Austria. For this purpose, a new, lean and very flexible model, ALICE, was developed, which quantifies the short to medium-term effects of changes in production and consumption with regard to output, value added and greenhouse gas emissions. In order to determine the consequences as precisely as possible, 74 economic activities and households are distinguished. The model results show not only the direct consequences, but also the consequences resulting from the interdependence of the economic system. The scenario presented here is based on the forecast published by WIFO in late June 2020, which forecasts a decline in gross domestic product by 7 percent in 2020. The sector-specific declines in value added and expected changes in household consumption behaviour are the input parameters for the model that calculates the associated greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gas emission – as defined by the Austrian inventory – is estimated to decline by 9.9 percent. This decline is due to the change of economic activities. Factors that also affect the level of emissions, such as ambient temperatures, changes in land use and forest growth, are not considered here. Following the conventions of the greenhouse gas inventory, international aviation is not included in the calculation either. There are several uncertainties because the economy may suffer even more than expected in June 2020. The actual production of industries and the behaviour of households throughout the year, especially with regard to their travel activities, may unfold in a different manner than expected.
    Keywords: TP_COVID
    Date: 2020–07–17
  15. By: Simplice A. Asongu (Yaounde, Cameroon); Usman M. Usman (University of Malaya, Malaysia); Xuan V. Vo (Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam)
    Abstract: The novel Coronavirus has spread internationally to more than two hundred countries and territories. At the same time, human trafficking in girls and women constitutes a global oppression in virtually all nations either as the source, transit, or destination. The feminist investigators have it that women are in destitute situations, which is a substantial trait of exploitation, especially in the light of the present Covid-19 pandemic. There is practically no research on the relevance of the current deadly respiratory disease to human trafficking from the gender dimension. This study fills the identified gap by providing theoretical and practical perspectives on children, women, and sex trafficking. It is a qualitative inquiry that employs process tracing as a primary research instrument. To better understand the present plague and gender situation, secondary data which are utilized consist of articles, books, reports, and integrated statistics. This research is arguably the first attempt that creates data evidence connecting the pandemic to female sexual exploitation. The paper illustrates that a policy is needed that will strengthen the capacity of existing structures in the fight against the underlying trafficking so that these attendant structures efficiently react to the corresponding threats to public health safety as well as contribute towards stopping the trafficking of girls and women during a pandemic.
    Keywords: Coronavirus, pandemic, human trafficking, girls and women, feminism
    Date: 2020–06
  16. By: Naomi Friedman-Sokuler (Bar-Ilan University [Israël]); Claudia Senik (PSE - Paris School of Economics, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, USPC - Université Sorbonne Paris Cité)
    Abstract: The fall of the Iron Curtain in 1989 led to a massive migration wave from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) to Israel. We document the persistence and transmission of the Soviet unconventional gender norms, both vertically across generations of immigrants, and horizontally through neighborhood and school peer effects. Tracking the educational and occupational choices of a cohort of young Israeli women, we identify the persistence of two important features of the Soviet culture: the prioritization of science and technology, and the strong female attachment to paid-work. Women born in the FSU, who immigrated in infancy, are significantly more likely than natives and other immigrants to major in STEM in high school. In tertiary education, they remain over-represented in STEM, but also differ significantly from other women by their specific avoidance of study fields leading to "pink collar" jobs, such as education and social work. They also display a specific choice of work-life balance reflecting a greater commitment to paid-work. Finally, the choice patterns of native women shift towards STEM and away from traditional female study fields as the share of FSU immigrants in their lower-secondary school increases.
    Keywords: culture,gender norms,education,STEM,occupational choice,immigration,Soviet Union,Israel
    Date: 2020–06
  17. By: Vanberg, Viktor
    Abstract: Die in diesem Band versammelten Beiträge überbrücken eine Zeitspanne von drei Jahrzehnten im wissenschaftlichen Wirken Walter Euckens, von seiner 1921 gehaltenen Antrittsvorlesung "Zur Würdigung Saint Simons" bis zum letzten von ihm verfassten Beitrag "Unser Zeitalter der Misserfolge", den er für seine Gastvorlesungen im März 1950 an der London School of Economics vorbereitetet hatte. Die fünfzehn hier wieder abgedruckten Beiträge sind über die dazwischen liegenden Jahre nicht nur recht ungleichmäßig verteilt, sie unterscheiden sich auch deutlich in ihrem Charakter. Elf von ihnen erschienen zwischen 1925 und 1932 in der Zeitschrift des - sich an der Philosophie von Rudolf Eucken, Walter Euckens Vater, ausrichtenden - Euckenbundes, die zunächst unter dem Namen Der Euckenbund, ab 1925 als Die Tatwelt erschien. Dem Charakter der Zeitschrift entsprechend, richteten sich diese Beiträge an ein allgemein gebildetes Publikum. Die übrigen vier richten sich an ein Fachpublikum, wie die beiden bereits genannten Beiträge, der 1932 erschienene Aufsatz "Staatliche Strukturwandlungen und die Krise des Kapitalismus", der gemeinhin als Gründungsdokument der Freiburger Schule gilt, und der 1948 in der Zeitschrift Economica veröffentlichte Aufsatz "On the Theory of he Centrally Planned Economy", der sich mit den planwirtschaftlichen Erfahrungen im Nationalsozialismus befasst. Das Thema, das die in diesen Band aufgenommenen Beiträge verbindet, ist die Wahrnehmung der Gegenwart als Krisenzeit und die Frage danach, worin die Ursachen der Krise zu sehen sind und auf welchem Wege ihre Lösung gefunden werden kann. Einen Schwerpunkt bildet dabei die Auseinandersetzung mit dem Anspruch des Sozialismus, einen solchen Weg aufzeigen zu können. Von Bedeutung für die Einordnung der Beiträge in Euckens Gesamtwerk ist der Umstand, dass sich in seiner Antwort auf die Frage der Krisenursache und Krisentherapie und in seiner Sozialismus-Kritik im Verlauf der 1920er Jahre eine charakteristische Akzentverschiebung zeigt. In dieser Einleitung wird es darum gehen, die Veränderung in Euckens Krisenanalyse aufzuzeigen und die Bedeutung deutlich zu machen, die ihr für die Herausbildung des von ihm maßgeblich initiierten ordoliberalen Forschungsprogramms zukommt.
    Date: 2020
  18. By: Sam L. Polk; Bruce M. Boghosian
    Abstract: In this work, we modify the Affine Wealth Model of wealth distributions to examine the effects of nonconstant redistribution on the very wealthy. Previous studies of this model, restricted to flat redistribution schemes, have demonstrated the presence of a phase transition to a partially wealth-condensed state, or "partial oligarchy", at the critical value of an order parameter. These studies have also indicated the presence of an exponential tail in wealth distribution precisely at criticality. Away from criticality, the tail was observed to be Gaussian. In this work, we generalize the flat redistribution within the Affine Wealth Model to allow for an essentially arbitrary redistribution policy. We show that the exponential tail observed near criticality in prior work is in fact a special case of a much broader class of critical, slower-than-Gaussian decays that depend sensitively on the corresponding asymptotic behavior of the progressive redistribution model used. We thereby demonstrate that the functional form of the tail of the wealth distribution of a near-critical society is not universal in nature, but rather is entirely determined by the specifics of public policy decisions. This is significant because most major economies today are observed to be near-critical.
    Date: 2020–06
  19. By: Purkus, Alexandra; Lüdtke, Jan; Jochem, Dominik; Rüter, Sebastian; Weimar, Holger
    Abstract: Die Charta für Holz 2.0 verfolgt das Ziel, Beiträge der Holznutzung aus nachhaltiger Forstwirtschaft zum Klimaschutz sowie zur Wertschöpfung und Ressourceneffizienz zu stärken. Die Verwendung von Holz in der Konstruktion von Gebäuden kann hierzu einen wichtigen Beitrag leisten. Neben der Kohlenstoffspeicherwirkung langlebiger Holzprodukte lassen sich Treibhausgasemissionen reduzieren, wenn Materialien, die in der Herstellung energieintensiver sind, substituiert werden. Die Schonung nicht erneuerbarer Rohstoffe trägt zur gesamtwirtschaftlichen Ressourceneffizienz bei. Gleichzeitig stärkt Bauen mit Holz die Wertschöpfung im Cluster Forst & Holz und bietet Beschäftigungsperspektiven auch in ländlichen Räumen. Allerdings treten verschiedene Herausforderungen auf, welche die Marktausweitung insbesondere im Bereich innovativer, mehrgeschossiger Holzbauweisen behindern. Hierzu zählen z. B. Pfadabhängigkeiten bei der Gestaltung des Bauordnungsrechts oder bei Ausbildungsstrukturen, Informationsdefizite bei potenziellen Auftraggebern sowie die Vernachlässigung von Umweltwirkungen, die mit der Herstellung und Entsorgung von Gebäuden einhergehen. In den letzten Jahren haben sich jedoch dynamische Entwicklungen in den Rahmenbedingungen für das Bauen mit Holz ergeben. In den Arbeitsgruppen, welche die Umsetzung der Charta für Holz 2.0 begleiten, werden weitere Maßnahmen entwickelt, um Hemmnisse zu adressieren. Ziel der vorliegenden Studie ist daher zu analysieren, inwiefern Änderungen in marktlichen, rechtlichen und politischen Rahmenbedingungen in den letzten fünf Jahren zur Adressierung von Herausforderungen beigetragen haben. Neben einer Literatur- und Dokumentenanalyse wurden zur Bewertung von Entwicklungen Interviews mit Experten aus Verbänden, Wissenschaft, Verwaltung und Holzbau-Praxis durchgeführt. Um ein systemisches Verständnis davon zu erhalten, wie Veränderungen zusammenwirken, wird der Innovationssystemansatz als theoretischer Analyserahmen verwendet. So sind aus der innovationswissenschaftlichen Literatur spezifische Systemfunktionen bekannt, welche die Entstehung, Verbreitung und Nutzung von Innovationen unterstützen. Durch eine Analyse, die zeigt, inwiefern Entwicklungen in Rahmenbedingungen zur Stärkung entsprechender Funktionen beigetragen haben, wird eine theoriegestützte Grundlage für die Ableitung weiteren Handlungsbedarfs gelegt. Die im Rahmen der lernorientierten Evaluation der Charta für Holz 2.0 erstellte Studie unterstützt so laufende Arbeiten im Charta-Dialogprozess.
    Keywords: Holzbau,nachhaltiges Bauen,Klimaschutz,Bioökonomie,Holznutzung,Innovationssystemanalyse,wood construction,sustainable construction,climate change mitigation,bioeconomy,wood use,innovation system analysis
    Date: 2020
  20. By: Méndez, Pablo F. (Institute for Innovation and Knowledge Management (INGENIO, Spanish Research Council-Universitat Politècnica de València))
    Abstract: COVID-19 has made evident that we are ill-prepared to respond to an international health emergency, the complex interdependence of social and ecological systems, and that to reduce the risk of future zoonotic pandemics we must safeguard nature. Approaches based on complexity science taking into account that interdependence and its associated systemic risks must be mainstreamed in current policy making, in general. However, at present, that could result in failure for three main reasons: (1) those approaches might be too sophisticated for current policy making pursuing sustainable development; (2) the reductionist views from conventional economics still deeply influence economic and environmental policy making; (3) it is unlikely that far-reaching policies aimed at stimulating post-pandemic economic development can be steered through radically innovative approaches that remain untested. Here, using COVID-19 as an example, I suggest that the use of innovative complexity-based approaches could be enabled through intermediary approaches equipped to resonate with the mindset pervading current policy making. In particular, I propose to understand the response to unexpected systemic threats as instances of reactive policy making driven by radical uncertainty, and advance three notions that could enhance that understanding: modulating contingency, adaptive inference and blue uncertainty.
    Date: 2020–06–17

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