nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2020‒05‒04
23 papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. The Institutions of Livelihood and Social Enterprise Systems By Silvia Sacchetti; Carlo Borzaga; Ermanno C. Tortia
  2. La Cooperazione come Strumento di Emancipazione delle Classi Lavoratrici nel Pensiero degli Economisti Inglesi del XIX Secolo By Antonio Zanotti
  3. Contexts and gender: Looking back and thinking forward By Welter, Friederike
  4. L’Economie solidaire en Turquie et son écosystème : un avenir encore incertain By Olivier GAJAC; Selin PELEK
  5. Who Benefits from Better Roads and Why ? Mixed Methods Analysis of the Gender-Disaggregated Impacts of a Rural Roads Project in Vietnam By Mannava,Aneesh; Perova,Elizaveta; Tran,Phuong Thi Minh
  6. Income Differences, Productivity and Input-Output Networks By Harald Fadinger; Christian Ghiglino; Mariya Teteryatnikova
  7. Matter and regulation: socio-metabolic and accumulation regimes of French capitalism since 1948 By Cahen-Fourot, Louison; Magalhães, Nelo
  8. Apuntes sobre perspectivas y dimensiones del conflicto social distributivo By Manuel Rubio García; Santiago Castaño Salas
  9. Jean-Baptiste Fourier at the Moscow Conjuncture Institute: Harmonic Analysis of Business Cycles By Marco Paulo Vianna Franco; Leonardo Costa Ribeiro; Eduardo da Motta e Albuquerque
  10. Pratiques et doctrine des banques centrales au défi du changement climatique : rupture ou continuité ? By Laurence Scialom
  12. Induced Innovation and Economic Environment By Tom\'a\v{s} Evan; Vladim\'ir Hol\'y
  13. Platform Cooperativism in Italy and in Europe By Francesca MARTINELLI, , & Giuseppe GUERINI; Samuele BOZZONI; Simone CAROLI; Francesca TAMASCELLI; Giuseppe GUERINI
  14. Finance, Property Rights and Productivity in Italian Cooperatives By Donald A. R. George; Eddi Fontanari; Ermanno C. Tortia
  16. Development and interdisciplinarity: a citation analysis By Sophie Mitra; Michael Palmer; Vu Anh Vuong
  17. Venturing the Definition of Green Energy Transition: A systematic literature review By Pedro V Hernandez Serrano; Amrapali Zaveri
  18. Economic Freedom and the CO2 Kuznets Curve By Bjørnskov, Christian
  19. Socially Responsible Indices : What contribution for Sustainability? By Abdelbari El Khamlichi
  20. Le Potenzialità del Trust come Veicolo Istituzionale Prescelto per Responsabilizzare il Terzo Settore nel Recupero e nella Valorizzazione del Patrimonio Culturale Degradato di Proprietà di un Comune By Andrea Cuccia
  21. Developing a typology for mission-oriented innovation policies By Wittmann, Florian; Hufnagl, Miriam; Lindner, Ralf; Roth, Florian; Edler, Jakob
  22. Ethiopia Social Accounting Matrix 2015/16 By Mengistu Andualem T.; Woldeyes Firew Bekele; Dessie Ermias; Ayalew Zewdu; Yeshineh Alekaw; Alfredo Mainar Causape; Emanuele Ferrari; Arnaldo Caivano; Javier Castro Malet
  23. L’idée de régulation dans les sciences : hommage à l’épistémologue Jean Piaget By Claude Diebolt

  1. By: Silvia Sacchetti; Carlo Borzaga; Ermanno C. Tortia
    Abstract: This paper considers resource coordination in production systems featuring the presence of enterprises and organizations pursuing social, health-related, educational, cultural, and environmental aims, or social enterprises (SEs). The resource coordination problem is one of allocating and distributing resources towards these aims. By their very nature, these goals are very close to the Polanyian idea of the primacy of society over the self-regulating market. We ask what the specificities of organisations that pursue social aims are, and what coordination mechanisms underpin their production. The premise is that individuals are driven by plural motivations, including pro-social motivations besides self-interested ones, thus requiring a plurality of coordination mechanisms. The paper suggests that SEs make principal use of cooperative pacts based on norms of reciprocity, but include also market and state-led coordination, both at organisational and systemic levels. We consider specific institutional solutions in support of cooperation and reciprocity. These are: combined rules on profit and asset distribution, surplus accumulation and redistribution, and multi-stakeholding.
    Keywords: Social enterprise, Polanyi, Resource coordination, Cooperation, Motivations, Multi-stakeholding, Deliberation, Public interest, Systemic governance
    JEL: L31 L21 P00
    Date: 2019
  2. By: Antonio Zanotti
    Abstract: Il tema della cooperazione fu largamente discusso fra gli economisti del XIX secolo. La ricostruzione di questo dibattito è complessa perché lo stesso concetto di cooperazione subí profonde modificazioni. Inizialmente la parola “cooperazione†fu usata come contrario di “concorrenza†, ritenuta dai socialisti utopisti la causa della povertà dei lavoratori. La cooperazione era quindi intesa come una comunità organizzata sulla base di valori comuni condivisi, fra cui la proprietà stessa dei mezzi di produzione. A fine secolo, “cooperazione†significava invece una forma specifica di proprietà dell’impresa, diversa da quella basata sulla proprietà del capitale. I protagonisti di questa ricerca sono Ricardo, Mill e Marshall che rappresentano questa evoluzione del concetto stesso di cooperazione. Ricardo era focalizzato sul concetto di cooperazione elaborato da Owen all’inizio del secolo. Mill rappresenta la svolta, il passaggio dal comunitarismo, che egli identificava col Socialismo, alla nascita delle prime esperienze di cooperative di lavoro che si diffusero in Francia dalla rivoluzione del 1848. Marshall, infine, ebbe come quadro di riferimento un movimento in crescita, inserito nel contesto dell’economia capitalistica, ma che aveva preso una nuova strada: la cooperazione come unione di consumatori e non di lavoratori. Questi studi partivano dalla medesima domanda: può la cooperazione essere strumento di emancipazione delle classi lavoratrici? Per motivi ancora poco indagati, questa domanda perse consistenza dal XX secolo che segnò anche un forte declino degli studi sulla cooperazione. Solo recentemente, con la crisi scoppiata nel 2007, sembra essersi riproposto questa domanda, ma in modo assai timido.
    Keywords: Cooperative movement, Workers cooperatives, Working classes
    JEL: B15 J54 L21
    Date: 2019
  3. By: Welter, Friederike
    Abstract: Purpose: The paper aims to illustrate the main contributions of the context-gender discussion in entrepreneurship research and its main developments over time, in order to identify promising future research avenues. Design/Methodology/Approach: The paper builds on the author's extensive knowledge of the context-gender debate and on several recent overviews and reviews of the debate. It is written as essay, introducing its main themes through a personal reflection and complemented by a selective review of research on gendered contexts and women's entrepreneurship. Findings: The context-gender discussion has moved forward. In a first wave of context-gender studies, research contextualized gender, considering the impact of contexts on women's entrepreneurship. Nowadays, research studies how contexts are gendered and how they are constructed in gendered ways, through for example, words, images, cognitions, as well as how women entrepreneurs can impact on and enact their contexts. Originality/Value: This paper contributes novel insights into contextualizing gender and gendering contexts. It is unique in suggesting that a perspective on gendering contexts will allow to explore the diversity of entrepreneurship and further develop theories related to contexts and gender.
    Keywords: context,contextualizing gender,gendering contexts,contextual entrepreneurship
    Date: 2020
  4. By: Olivier GAJAC (Université Galatasaray, Département de Sociologie, Istanbul (Turquie)); Selin PELEK (Université Galatasaray, Département d’Economie, Istanbul (Turquie))
    Abstract: The emergence of solidarity economy initiatives in Turkey calls us more generally to question the relationship between the actors of social entrepreneurship and the public authorities, and more particularly, the way that they evolve in an unfavourable ecosystem. If history reminds us that the actors of social entrepreneurship (foundations, cooperatives and associations) in Turkey have suffered from recurrent political instability, and that they have more or less deviated from the legal essence of their vocation, we would like to better understand solidarity economy initiatives in an ecosystem marked by the decline of rights and freedoms. Consequently, our aim here is to question the Western conception of civil society based on an ideal of solidarity linked to a process of individualisation and allowing individuals to move from the private to the public sphere, and to raise the question of its conversion in areas where the conditions for its emergence would not be found. To do this, we relied on research based on several field surveys carried out between September 2017 and September 2019 in six sectors (short food circuits, alternative education, self-construction, popular university, help to refugees, as well as collective catering and culture). These data allow us to claim that solidarity economy initiatives are taking up issues in order to meet expectations, aspirations and more justice compared to society market and state structures. Secondly, it emerges that they also do not renounce the principles of law and freedom of the rule of law in modern democratic societies. On the contrary, their more horizontal functioning than traditional civil society organizations calls for a participatory democracy that would promote a process of emancipation of individuals, even of those historically rooted in village community membership. Finally, if the ecosystem still does not seem inclined to recognise solidarity economy initiatives as implementations of public action, their mode of self-organisation, based on a principle of reciprocity, does not lock itself into an organisational vision. Conversely, by inserting themselves into a mutualism of sectoral (or intersectoral at the local level) networks, solidarity economy initiatives tend to demonstrate both the viability of their economic model and their capacity to instil civic governance with positive externalities in terms of local development.
    Keywords: Solidarity Economy; Reciprocity; Social Networks; Otherness Ecosystem
    JEL: L3
    Date: 2020–02
  5. By: Mannava,Aneesh; Perova,Elizaveta; Tran,Phuong Thi Minh
    Abstract: The literature lends empirical support for the idea that improvements to transport infrastructure lead to economic development. How and why the benefits of better transport differ between genders is less clear. This paper attempts to answer this question by combining a nonexperimental impact evaluation of a large-scale rural roads project in Vietnam with qualitative data collection. The paper finds that roads improve economic opportunities for agricultural production and trade: all households increase agricultural trade. Yet only households headed by men capitalize on these opportunities, experiencing an increase in agricultural output and income. Production and income do not increase in households headed by women. The result seems to be driven by a lower level of household labor and access to capital in female-headed households, which constrains their ability to make up-front investments to increase production and income. Overall, the results indicate that female-headed households face constraints in taking advantage of newly created economic opportunities. Coordinating transport investments with complementary development programs addressing these constraints can improve the benefits of better transport for such households.
    Keywords: Economics and Gender,Gender and Economic Policy,Gender and Poverty,Gender and Economics,International Trade and Trade Rules,Climate Change and Agriculture,Crops and Crop Management Systems,Transport Services,Gender and Development
    Date: 2020–04–20
  6. By: Harald Fadinger; Christian Ghiglino; Mariya Teteryatnikova
    Abstract: We study the importance of input-output (IO) linkages and sectoral productivity (TFP) levels in determining cross-country income differences. Using data on IO tables and sectoral TFP levels for 38 countries, we uncover important differences in the interaction of IO structure with sectoral TFP levels across countries: while highly connected sectors are more productive than the typical sector in poor countries, the opposite is true in rich ones. To assess the quantitative role of linkages and sectoral TFP differences in cross-country income differences, we decompose cross-country variation in real GDP per worker using a multi-sector general equilibrium model. We find that these features explain between 8 and 10 percent of cross-country income variation.
    Keywords: input-output structure, productivity, cross-country income differences, development accounting
    JEL: O11 O14 O47 C67 D85
    Date: 2020–04
  7. By: Cahen-Fourot, Louison; Magalhães, Nelo
    Abstract: This paper aims at integrating macroeconomic and institutional analyses of long run dynamics of capitalism with material flow analysis. We investigate the links between accumulation and socio-metabolic regimes by studying French capitalism from a material perspective since 1948. We characterize its social metabolism both in production- and consumption-based approaches. We show that the periodization of accumulation regimes in terms of Fordism and Neoliberalism translates into material terms. The offshore materiality of Neoliberalism partly substitutes for and partly complements the more domestic materiality inherited from Fordism. The transition phase between the two socio-metabolic regimes clearly corresponds to the emergence of the offshoring-financialization nexus of French capitalism indicating the shift from the fordist accumulation regime to the neoliberal accumulation regime. Acknowledging that socio-metabolic regimes have their own logic, we highlight strong inter-linkages between accumulation and material dynamics and discuss how materials may be instrumental in shaping accumulation regimes. This work therefore illustrates the relevance of combining institutional macroeconomics with methods and approaches derived from Ecological Economics.
    Keywords: Material Flow Analysis; Material footprint; Socio-metabolic regime; Financialization; Offshoring; Accumulation regime
    Date: 2020
  8. By: Manuel Rubio García; Santiago Castaño Salas
    Abstract: A partir de la experiencia de la apertura económica, financiera y comercial en muchos países de América Latina, ha revivido el interés del impacto de la distribución del ingreso sobre la dinámica de la acumulación de capital y, el crecimiento económico de largo plazo (Serrano & Medeiros, 2001). Sin embargo, se hace necesario volver la mirada sobre aspectos teóricos de la distribución del ingreso, especialmente lo que se refiere a resaltar la “naturaleza” conflictiva de la distribución del ingreso, las esferas de realización del conflicto distributivo (ordenes) y, por tanto, las relaciones sociales subyacentes a cada una. En este artículo se subraya el rol del Estado y el mercado en el conflicto distributivo como dimensiones privilegiadas, a partir de una mirada sintética de la economía política clásica y de una visión de Polanyi y la Escuela de la Regulación Francesa sobre el cambio institucional.
    Keywords: Conflicto distributivo, Distribución del ingreso, Economía política clásica, Escuela de la regulación francesa, Estado, mercado.
    JEL: B14 B15 B24 B25 E24
    Date: 2020–04–27
  9. By: Marco Paulo Vianna Franco (Fundação João Pinheiro); Leonardo Costa Ribeiro (Cedeplar-UFMG); Eduardo da Motta e Albuquerque (Cedeplar-UFMG)
    Abstract: This article proposes a historical assessment of harmonic analysis of business cycles. For that purpose, it presents Jean-Baptiste Fourier’s main idea and addresses its reception at the Moscow Conjuncture Institute, mediated by Henry L. Moore and Albert L. Vainshtein, which led to Eugen Slutsky’s well-known 1927 article on the random causes of cyclical processes. In addition, more recent approaches to business cycles, such as real business cycle theory and spectral analysis, are traced back to Fourier and key figures working on economic applications of harmonic analysis in the first decades of the 20th century. Revolving around its ability to both decompose and build cycles, this tool still presents an untapped potential for contemporary analyses of long-term economic dynamics. Hence, it is worthwhile to determine Fourier’s role in the history of economic thought, what necessarily leads to the long-lasting contributions of the creative institute headed by Nikolai Kondratiev.
    Keywords: harmonic analysis; business cycles; Fourier transform; spectral analysis; Eugen Slutsky
    JEL: B16 B23 C02 E32
    Date: 2020–04
  10. By: Laurence Scialom
    Abstract: Central banks are faced with the financial challenge of climate change: on the one hand, the need for a massive reallocation of financial flows from "brown" to "green" activities and sectors and on the other hand climate related financial risks considered as systemic. Responding to this challenge will lead to profound changes in their doctrine and practices. This article shows that history is punctuated by such rapid changes in central banking. It analyses the arguments for integrating financial climate risks into central banks' doctrine and operational framework and attempts to explore what a greening of central bank actions might mean in practice.
    Keywords: central banking, climate change, climate related financial risk
    JEL: E5 N Q5
    Date: 2020
  11. By: Christian Saad (LC2S - Laboratoire caribéen de sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UA - Université des Antilles)
    Abstract: Le positionnement des économistes classiques (comme Adam Smith ou Jean Baptiste Say par exemple) face à l'esclavage avait déjà fait l'objet de nombreux travaux. A l'opposé, la pensée des économistes socialistes utopistes ou scientifiques face à cette question de l'esclavage, restait explicitement à réaliser. Dans un autre colloque, la pensée de Marx et d'Engels sur cette question de l'esclavage a déjà été présenté. Cependant afin d'avoir une vision plus globale de la pensée socialiste du XIXème siècle, la pensée des économistes utopiques restait à défricher et approfondir. L'importance de l'économie dans la réflexion sur l'esclavage est absolument centrale car c'est précisément au nom d'arguments d'efficacité économique que s'est installée la traite et c'est aussi comme nous le verrons, toujours au nom de cette soi disant efficacité économique que de nombreux économistes (y compris libéraux) préconisèrent l'abolition d'un système qui devenait fondamentalement ruineux et inefficace sur le plan de la rationalité économique. Que pensaient ces économistes socialistes utopiques d'un mouvement et d'un système esclavagiste encore existant de leur vivant ? Se sont ils contentés d'avoir un simple positionnement abolitionniste eu égard à leur humanisme et à leur philanthropie ? Ou ont-ils véritablement analysé théoriquement l'esclavage comme phénomène économiquement essentiel à leurs yeux ? Ont-ils considéré ou construit une analogie forte entre l'esclavage colonial et la situation des prolétaires d'Europe ou ont-ils vu une différence de nature entre ces deux phénomènes historiques ?
    Date: 2020–04–17
  12. By: Tom\'a\v{s} Evan; Vladim\'ir Hol\'y
    Abstract: The Hicks induced innovation hypothesis states that a price increase of a production factor is a spur to invention. We propose an alternative hypothesis restating that a spur to invention require not only an increase of one factor but also a decrease of at least one other factor to offset the companies' cost. We illustrate the need for our alternative hypthesis in a historical example of the industrial revolution in the United Kingdom. Furthermore, we econometrically evaluate both hypotheses in a case study of research and development (R&D) in 29 OECD countries from 2003 to 2017. Specifically, we investigate dependence of investments to R&D on economic environment represented by average wages and oil prices using panel regression. We find that our alternative hypothesis is supported for R&D funded and/or performed by business enterprises while the original Hicks hypothesis holds for R&D funded by the government and R&D performed by universities.
    Date: 2020–04
  13. By: Francesca MARTINELLI, , & Giuseppe GUERINI (Fondazione Centro Studi Doc, Verona (Italy)); Samuele BOZZONI (Confcooperative Lombardia (Italy)); Simone CAROLI (Confcooperative Modena (Italy)); Francesca TAMASCELLI (Legacoop Estense – Culture and Media (Italy)); Giuseppe GUERINI (Cecop – Cicopa Europe)
    Abstract: This research investigates some cases of cooperative platforms in the field of workerowned cooperation and consumer cooperation and explores the effects of the merger of platform technology with cooperation. The research focuses on the main consequences of this merger on the organizational model and the engagement level of individuals and studies the change of attitudes of providers and consumers when they are engaged in a cooperative project. The argument is that a cooperative platform can offer solutions and answers to both platform workers’ needs and problems of modern consumption by allowing both providers and consumers to join the entrepreneurial project, share resources – and, in specific cases, earnings – in an equal way, and be part of a community. Against the outsourcing and dispersive models of a classical digital platform, such as Deliveroo, Uber or Airbnb, where providers and consumers are separated and isolated, a cooperative platform enables the propensity of providers and consumers to engage in collective actions and become the protagonist of the platform activity. In this way, the organizational form of a cooperative platform is both an alternative to classical digital platforms and an evolution of traditional cooperative models.
    Keywords: Platform cooperativism, Gig workers, Prosumers, Digital platform, Platform work
    JEL: O35
    Date: 2019
  14. By: Donald A. R. George; Eddi Fontanari; Ermanno C. Tortia
    Abstract: Standard economic theory predicts that the accumulation of capital by means of indivisible reserves would lead to underinvestment and undercapitalization due to the truncated temporal horizon of worker-members in cooperatives (the so-called “Furubotn-Pejovich effect†). An inefficiently low stock of capital would imply, other conditions being equal, lower labour productivity. We test the real effects of collective capital on productivity using a large panel of Italian worker and social cooperatives. Firm-level balance sheet data from Bureau van Dijk Aida database are used to estimate the effects of collective and individual reserves of capital on total factor productivity using an augmented Cobb-Douglas production function. Social security data on employment contracts in all Italian enterprises are used to measure firm-level full-time worker equivalents employment. Collective ownership and total factor productivity are positively and significantly related after controlling for factor productivity, individual capital ownership and other standard firm-level and sectoral controls. This result is robust to different specifications of the model and suggests a positive role of collective capital in strengthening financial sustainability, patrimonial and employment stability in the long run, favouring also firm specific investments.
    Keywords: Cooperatives, Total factor productivity, Self-finance, Under capitalization, Collective capital, Individual capital
    JEL: J54 P13 P14
    Date: 2020
  15. By: Christian Saad (LC2S - Laboratoire caribéen de sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UA - Université des Antilles)
    Abstract: La crise des gilets jaunes, pour exceptionnelle qu'elle soit, interpelle à plusieurs titres. D'une part, par son ampleur, sa régularité et son espace géographique, elle exige un champ analytique vaste et profond que les chercheurs en sciences humaines et autres théoriciens du social, mettront longtemps à comprendre. D'autre part, cette crise des gilets jaunes est aussi la résultante d'une crise sociétale, d'une crise politique et démocratique évidente voire même selon certains, une crise de régime ou civilisationnelle. Un tel mouvement social est aussi difficile à comprendre car il est la résultante d'un ressentiment, d'une colère et de frustrations provenant de nombreux milieux sociaux : salariés du privés à faibles revenus, de fonctionnaires d'exécution de la fonction publique, d'artisans et de petits commerçants se sentant écrasés par les impôts et les taxes, de retraités parfois en dessous du seuil de pauvreté, de travailleurs précarisés, d'agriculteurs et du monde rural en général… C'est donc l'identité même d'un tel mouvement social qui semble problématique mais comme le disent conjointement les philosophes Judith Butler, Slavoj Zizek et Ernesto Laclau, : « Les nouveaux mouvements sociaux reposent souvent sur des revendications identitaires, mais « l'identité » elle-même n'est jamais complètement constituée en réalité, puisque l'identification n'est pas réductible à l'identité. (…) Il ne s'ensuit pas que l'échec de l'identité à accéder à une détermination complète ruine les mouvements sociaux en question. (…) Aucun mouvement social ne peut avoir le statut d'une articulation politique ouverte et démocratique sans présupposer et rendre opératoire la négativité au coeur de l'identité ». Ce mouvement surprend aussi car la France est habituée à traiter les revendications sectorielles avec parfois l'aide des revendications syndicales et des partis politiques. Le mouvement des gilets jaune à ceci de particulier qu'il ne correspond en rien à ce séquençage classique des mouvements sociaux français provenant de mais 68. Depuis mai 68 en effet, un certain séquençage consubstantiel à la société française se perçoit avec une lisibilité politique limpide : les mouvements sociaux sont déclenchés soit par les syndicats, accompagnés par la suite par les partis politiques, soit ils sont le fruit d'actions catégorielles spontanées rapidement encadrés par les syndicats et les partis politiques. Les syndicats s'occupent des intérêts des travailleurs et les partis politiques sont chargés d'articuler et de donner sens aux revendications catégorielles en propositions politiques concrètes via le parlement ou le gouvernement. Le mouvement des gilets jaune à ceci de particulier qu'il ne correspond en rien à ce séquençage classique des mouvements sociaux français. Au-delà des événements chronologiques précis et des actions plurielles qui ont conduit à cette crise majeure, peut-on trouver un élément implicite, un facteur déclencheur à l'origine de ce mouvement ? Autrement dit, à partir d'un mouvement ayant des conséquences hétérogènes parfois même contradictoires, la question du sens profond d'un tel mouvement se pose avec acuité.
    Date: 2020–03–30
  16. By: Sophie Mitra (Department of Economics, Fordham University, NY, USA); Michael Palmer (Economics Discipline, Business School, University of Western Australia); Vu Anh Vuong (Economics Discipline, Business School, University of Western Australia)
    Abstract: Development is often defined as an inherently interdisciplinary field of study. Yet there has been limited examination of this interdisciplinarity. Using Web of Science data, we present citation patterns since 1990 between leading journals of two fields of development, development economics and development studies, and other social science disciplines, economics, geography, political science and sociology). We find negligible interdisciplinary interactions in development, with the bulk of cross-disciplinary citations taking place between development economics, development studies, and economics. There exists an increasing trend since the mid-2000s in the number of citations between development economics and development studies. We explore a number of potential contributing factors and conclude that the most likely explanation is rising numbers of economists publishing in development studies journals in response to increasing relative competition in development economics journals. Notwithstanding, cross-citation rates between the two development fields remain low at two-three percent. Overall, results suggest that development is not an interdisciplinary field of study as measured by flows of citations.
    Keywords: Development; Interdisciplinarity; Development Studies; Development Economics; Social Sciences
    Date: 2020
  17. By: Pedro V Hernandez Serrano; Amrapali Zaveri
    Abstract: The issue of climate change has become increasingly noteworthy in the past years, the transition towards a renewable energy system is a priority in the transition to a sustainable society. In this document, we explore the definition of green energy transition, how it is reached, and what are the driven factors to achieve it. To answer that firstly, we have conducted a literature review discovering definitions from different disciplines, secondly, gathering the key factors that are drivers for energy transition, finally, an analysis of the factors is conducted within the context of European Union data. Preliminary results have shown that household net income and governmental legal actions related to environmental issues are potential candidates to predict energy transition within countries. With this research, we intend to spark new research directions in order to get a common social and scientific understanding of green energy transition.
    Date: 2020–04
  18. By: Bjørnskov, Christian (Aarhus University and)
    Abstract: Politicians and international organisations advocate for increased regulation and government control of industry in order to handle climate change and reduce overall greenhouse gas emissions. However, it remains an open question how economic freedom is associated with environmental damage and whether deregulation is harmful to the environment or incentivises the use of green technology. On one hand, more government control and regulation may force firms and individuals to reduce their emissions. On the other hand, more economic freedom is likely to enable innovation and the adoption of green technological development. In this paper, I therefore combine data on growth in greenhouse gas emissions and GDP per capita with the Fraser Institute’s Economic Freedom of the World indices in order to test if economic freedom affects emissions. I do so in the context of estimating a standard Environmental Kuznets Curve in which economic freedom can both reduce overall levels as well as shift the shape of the curve. The results suggest that economic freedom reduces greenhouse gas emissions but also shifts the top point of the Kuznets Curve to the left. Part of this effect may be due to the effect of economic freedom on the adoption of renewable energy.
    Keywords: Economic freedom; Environmental performance; Greenhouse gases; Kuznets Curves
    JEL: H23 O31 P16 Q55
    Date: 2020–04–20
  19. By: Abdelbari El Khamlichi (CleRMa - Clermont Recherche Management - Clermont Auvergne - École Supérieure de Commerce (ESC) - Clermont-Ferrand - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne, UCD - University of Chouaîb Doukkali)
    Abstract: Les indices boursiers socialement responsables font partie de la finance dite éthique. Ils proposent aux investisseurs des opportunités d'investissement conformes à leurs orientations sociales, environnementales et de gouvernance. Ils suivent l'évolution d'un portefeuille constitué uniquement de sociétés cotées respectant des exigences éthiques, et sont des sous-ensembles d'univers d'investissement parce qu'ils sont obtenu après un processus de filtrage. Les critères utilisés dans le filtrage sont essentiellement basés sur l'exclusion sectorielle, et varient d'un pays à l'autre, d'une agence de notation à l'autre, voire d'un fournisseur d'indices à l'autre. Dans cet article, nous nous proposons d'abord de passer en revue les indices socialement responsables, de mentionner leur lien avec l'éthique, et d'analyser leurs critères de filtrage, et d'explorer leur contribution au respect des principes du développement durable. Ensuite, nous proposons une étude empirique où nous comparons l'indice S&P500 avec son homologue socialement responsable (S&P 500 Environnemental and Socially Responsible)
    Keywords: Ethics,Susntainable development,Equity indices,SRI,screening,éthique,développement durable,indices boursiers,ISR,filtrage
    Date: 2019–12–04
  20. By: Andrea Cuccia
    Abstract: In Italia, la tutela del patrimonio culturale è sempre stata demandata principalmente allo Stato o, più in generale, al settore pubblico, soprattutto alla luce della naturale vocazione degli attori pubblici a perseguire interessi generali. Tuttavia, oggigiorno tale “automatismo burocratico†è stato messo in discussione da due macro-trends in atto: da un lato la fine del monopolio degli attori pubblici nella cura dell’interesse generale, in ragione dei crescenti vincoli di bilancio; dall’altro, la speculare emersione a livello comunale di iniziative di “cittadini attivi†disposti a farsi carico della tutela di interessi generali e del proposito di recupero e di valorizzazione del patrimonio culturale pubblico attualmente in stato di degrado. La presente ricerca si prefigge di colmare il gap di letteratura esistente tra la prospettiva della public governance applicata alla gestione del patrimonio culturale e gli attuali macro-trends registrati. In termini concreti, la ricerca intende, in primis, definire le interrelazioni ravvisabili fra il Trust, il patto di collaborazione - concepito quale genus di forme di amministrazione condivisa diffuse a livello comunale - ed il suddetto mainstream della public governance. In seguito, mira a far emergere il potenziale contributo del Trust alla gestione dei beni culturali inquadrati come beni comuni. Infine, la ricerca intende spiegare in che termini l'istituto giuridico del Trust potrebbe essere un veicolo istituzionale idoneo per recuperare e valorizzare le proprietà culturali in stato di degrado di proprietà di qualsiasi Comune coinvolgendo organizzazioni del terzo settore ancorate alla comunità e, di riflesso, intende enucleare quali leve politiche possono essere all’uopo attivate rispetto alle tre forme di impresa comunitaria tipizzate in seno alla letteratura anglo-sassone.
    Keywords: Trust, Patrimonio culturale, Imprese comunitarie
    JEL: L31 L38
    Date: 2019
  21. By: Wittmann, Florian; Hufnagl, Miriam; Lindner, Ralf; Roth, Florian; Edler, Jakob
    Abstract: The goal to address broader societal problems by mission-oriented research and inno-vation policy has brought new demands for the governance and implementation to the forefront and led to a great diversity of missions. By developing a typology for the clas-sification of different types of missions, this working paper can serve as a first step for studying the impact of the missions of the German High-Tech Strategy 2025 (HTS). Combining existing literature on mission-oriented innovation policy with insights from governance structures, we identify four types of missions - two subtypes of transformer and accelerator missions each - and demonstrate that this typology can be successfully applied to the 12 missions of the German HTS 2025. Thereby, we contribute to a more fine-grained understanding of the different demands and challenges inherent to different missions and thus provide the opportunity for a systematic comparison and a reflection on the varying requirements for assessing the impact of mission-oriented policies.
    Date: 2020
  22. By: Mengistu Andualem T. (Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI)/Policy Studies Institute (PSI) (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia)); Woldeyes Firew Bekele (Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI)/Policy Studies Institute (PSI) (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia)); Dessie Ermias (Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI)/Policy Studies Institute (PSI) (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia)); Ayalew Zewdu (Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI)/Policy Studies Institute (PSI) (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia)); Yeshineh Alekaw (Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI)/Policy Studies Institute (PSI) (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia)); Alfredo Mainar Causape (European Commission – JRC); Emanuele Ferrari (European Commission – JRC); Arnaldo Caivano (European Commission – JRC); Javier Castro Malet (European Commission – JRC)
    Abstract: A Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) is a comprehensive and economy-wide database recording data on all transactions between economic agents in a certain economy during a certain period of time; its interest is twofold. First a SAM is a standard database for most whole economy modellers as it provides comprehensive data for economic modelling (multi-sectorial linear models or more complex CGE models). Second a SAM shows a complete and intuitive snapshot of the economy at hand. This report presents the Social Accounting Matrix of Ethiopia for the year 2015/16, describing its specific structure and the basis for its estimation. In this sense, it is necessary to highlight the special structure of this SAM to reflect the Home Production for Home Consumption (HPHC) issue and a high disaggregation of agricultural and food sectors, both aspects so relevant in developing countries. Finally, a complete on-line application is presented, both for the download of the SAM, and for the visualization of some indicators derived directly from it.
    Keywords: Nutrition, CGE, Kenya, Agricultural policy
    JEL: C68
    Date: 2019–12
  23. By: Claude Diebolt (University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France)
    Date: 2020

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