nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2020‒03‒23
nineteen papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. Is the Most Unproductive Firm the Foundation of the Most Efficient Economy? Penrosian Learning Confronts the Neoclassical Fallacy By William Lazonick
  2. Gender and assets in rural Myanmar: A cautionary tale for the analyst: By Lambrecht, Isabel; Mahrt, Kristi
  3. The Impact of Deunionization on the Growth and Dispersion of Productivity and Pay By Giovanni Dosi; Richard B. Freeman; Marcelo C. Pereira; Andrea Roventini; Maria Enrica Virgillito
  4. A research paper of Hossein Sabzian (2019), Theories and Practice of Agent based Modeling: Some practical Implications for Economic Planners, ArXiv, 54p By Ngo-Hoang, Dai-Long
  5. Sustainable Development of Territories: The Pathway of Functioning and Cooperation Economics By Christian Du Tertre; Patrice Vuidel; Claire Pinet
  6. The Classical Theory of Supply and Demand By Sabiou M. Inoua; Vernon L. Smith
  7. Novel Insights in the Levy-Levy-Solomon Agent-Based Economic Market Model By Maximilian Beikirch; Torsten Trimborn
  8. Women’s empowerment in agriculture: Lessons from qualitative research By Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela; Rubin, Deborah; Elias, Marlène; Mulema, Annet Abenakyo; Myers, Emily
  9. Biodiversity Offsetting and the Production of 'Equivalent Natures': A Marxist Critique By Evangelia Apostolopoulou; Elisa Greco; William Adams
  10. Agricultural Cooperative mergers and efficiency gains: An ex-ante analysis By Ofori, Eric Makafui; Yeager, Elizabeth; Briggeman, Brian
  11. Stakeholder discourses on urban mangrove conservation and management By Katherine Vande Velde; Jean Huge; Daniel D.A. Friess; Nico Koedam; Farid Dahdouh-Guebas
  12. Payment vs. Funding: The Law of Reflux for Today By Perry Mehrling
  13. Who are the economists Germany listens to? By Stephan Puehringer; Karl Beyer
  14. Anciennes et nouvelles classes moyennes turques : émergence, identification, caractérisation et politiques publiques By Didem Asli Danis; Jean-Philippe Berrou; Matthieu Clément; François Combarnous; Dominique Darbon; Burak Gurbuz; Jean-François Pérouse; Eric Rougier
  15. ‘We Are the Middle Class’ The New Turkish Middle Class: Identification, Behaviors and Expectations By François Combarnous; Jean-Philippe Berrou; Matthieu Clément; Dominique Darbon; Eric Rougier
  16. Cash holdings and the financialisation of Latin American nonfinancial corporations By Joel Rabinovich; Rodrigo Perez Artica
  17. What business models for food justice? By Emilie Lanciano; Alexandrine Lapoutte; Séverine Saleilles
  18. Markups, Labor Market Inequality and the Nature of Work By Greg Kaplan; Piotr Zoch
  19. Theory and Empirics of Capability Accumulation: Implications for Macroeconomic Modelling By Matthias Aistleitner; Claudius Graebner; Anna Hornykewycz

  1. By: William Lazonick (The Academic-industry Research Network)
    Abstract: Edith PenroseÕs 1959 book The Theory of the Growth of the Firm [TGF] provides intellectual foundations for a theory of innovative enterprise, which is essential to any attempt to explain productivity growth, employment opportunity, and income distribution. Properly understood, PenroseÕs theory of the firm is also an antidote to the deception that is foundational to neoclassical economics: The theory, taught by PhD economists to millions upon millions of college students for over seven decades, that the most unproductive firm is the foundation of the most efficient economy. The dissemination of this ``neoclassical fallacy`` to a mass audience of college students began with Paul A. SamuelsonÕs textbook, Economics: An Introductory Analysis, first published in 1948. Over the decades, the neoclassical fallacy has persisted through 18 revisions of Samuelson, Economics and in its countless ``economics principles`` clones. This essay challenges the intellectual hegemony of neoclassical economics by exposing the illogic of its foundational assumptions about how a modern economy functions and performs. The neoclassical fallacy gained popularity in the 1950s, during which decade Samuelson revised Economics three times. Meanwhile, Penrose derived the logic of organizational learning that she lays out in TGF from the facts of firm growth, absorbing what was known in the 1950s about the large corporations that had come to dominate the U.S. economy. Also, during that decade, the knowledge base on the growth of firms on which economists could subsequently draw was undergoing an intellectual revolution, led by the business historian, Alfred D. Chandler, Jr. He was engaged in the first stage of a career that would span more than a half century, during which Chandler documented and analyzed the centrality to U.S economic development of what he would come to call ``the managerial revolution in American business.`` In combination, the works of Penrose and Chandler form intellectual foundations for my own work on the Theory of Innovative EnterpriseÑan endeavor that has enabled me, as an economist, to recognize not only the profound importance of organizational learning for economic theory but also the illogic of the neoclassical theory of the firm for our understanding of the central institution of a modern economy, the business corporation. In this essay, I argue that the key characteristic of the innovative enterprise is fixed-cost investment in the productive capabilities of the companyÕs employees to engage in organizational learning. The purpose of this investment in organizational learning is to develop a higher-quality product than was previously available. When successful, the development of the higher-quality product enables the firm to capture a large extent of the market, transforming high fixed cost into low unit cost. The result is sustainable competitive advantage that enables the growth of the firm, contributing to the growth of the economy as a whole. I argue that to get beyond the neoclassical fallacy, economists have to stop relying on constrained-optimization methodology. Rather, they need to be trained in a ``historical transformation`` methodology that integrates history and theory. It is a methodology in which theory serves as both a distillation of what we have learned from the study of history and a guide to what we need to learn about reality as the ``present as history`` unfolds.
    Keywords: Theory of the firm, Penrosian learning, Chandlerian history, innovative enterprise, economic performance, Paul Samuelson, neoclassical fallacy, constrained optimization, historical transformation
    JEL: A2 B3 B4 D2 D4 D8 J3 L1 L2 M2 N8 O1 O3
    Date: 2020–01
  2. By: Lambrecht, Isabel; Mahrt, Kristi
    Abstract: This paper uses evidence from Southeast Asia to challenge current interpretations of quantitative data on individual, formal asset ownership in relation to women’s decision-making power and empowerment. By overlaying quantitative data with a qualitative understanding of gender norms in rural households in Myanmar, we challenge common interpretations that have been assumed to universally reflect women’s empowerment. The paper warns that measures of individual asset ownership and decision-making may be poor indicators of women’s empowerment in Southeast Asia, and that a proper understanding of context is required for appropriate and meaningful interpretation of what have now become standard indicators.
    Keywords: MYANMAR, BURMA, SOUTHEAST ASIA, ASIA, gender, assets, entities, rural areas, analysis, ownership, quantitative analysis, women, empowerment, indicators, qualitative analysis, mixed methods,
    Date: 2019
  3. By: Giovanni Dosi (Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna); Richard B. Freeman (Harvard University and NBER); Marcelo C. Pereira (University of Campinas and Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna); Andrea Roventini (Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna and OFCE, Sciences Po); Maria Enrica Virgillito (Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna)
    Abstract: This paper presents an Agent-Based Model (ABM) that seeks to explain the concordance of sluggish growth of productivity and of real wages found in macro-economic statistics, and the increased dispersion of firm productivity and worker earnings found in micro level statistics in advanced economies at the turn of the 21st century. It shows that a single market process unleashed by the decline of unionization can account for both the macro and micro economic phenomena, and that deunionization can be modeled as an endogenous outcome of competition between high wage firms seeking to raise productive capacity and low productivity firms seeking to cut wages. The model highlights the antipodal competitive dynamics between a “winner-takes-all economy” in which corporate strategies focused on cost reductions lead to divergence in productivity and wages and a “social market economy” in which competition rewards the accumulation of firm-level capabilities and worker skills with a more egalitarian wage structure.
    Keywords: Unionisation, productivity slowdown, market selection, reallocation, agent-based model
    JEL: J51 E02 E24 C63
    Date: 2020–02
  4. By: Ngo-Hoang, Dai-Long
    Abstract: Nowadays, we are surrounded by a large number of complex phenomena such as virus epidemic, rumor spreading, social norms formation, emergence of new technologies, rise of new economic trends and disruption of traditional businesses. To deal with such phenomena, social scientists often apply reductionism approach where they reduce such phenomena to some lower-lever variables and model the relationships among them through a scheme of equations (e.g. Partial differential equations and ordinary differential equations). This reductionism approach which is often called equation based modeling (EBM) has some fundamental weaknesses in dealing with real world complex systems, for example in modeling how a housing bubble arises from a housing market, the whole market is reduced into some factors (i.e. economic agents) with unbounded rationality and often perfect information, and the model built from the relationships among such factors is used to explain the housing bubble while adaptability and the evolutionary nature of all engaged economic agents along with network effects go unaddressed. In tackling deficiencies of reductionism approach, in the past two decades, the Complex Adaptive System (CAS) framework has been found very influential. In contrast to reductionism approach, under this framework, the socio-economic phenomena such as housing bubbles are studied in an organic manner where the economic agents are supposed to be both boundedly rational and adaptive. According to CAS framework, the socio-economic aggregates such as housing bubbles emerge out of the ways agents of a socio-economic system interact and decide. As the most powerful methodology of CAS modeling, Agent-based modeling (ABM) has gained a growing application among academicians and practitioners. ABMs show how simple behavioral rules of agents and local interactions among them at micro-scale can generate surprisingly complex patterns at macro-scale. Despite a growing number of ABM publications, those researchers unfamiliar with this methodology have to study a number of works to understand (1) the why and what of ABMs and (2) the ways they are rigorously developed. Therefore, the major focus of this paper is to help social sciences researchers get a big picture of ABMs and know how to develop them both systematically and rigorously.
    Date: 2019–01–27
  5. By: Christian Du Tertre (LADYSS (UMR_7533) - Laboratoire Dynamiques Sociales et Recomposition des Espaces - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - UP8 - Université Paris 8 Vincennes-Saint-Denis - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - UPD7 - Université Paris Diderot - Paris 7 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, ATEMIS); Patrice Vuidel (ATEMIS); Claire Pinet (ATEMIS)
    Abstract: "The article deals with the monitoring of territories engaged in a trajectory of social, economic and ecological development, mobilizing the framework of the Economy of Functioning andCooperation (EFC). The hypothesis is that the main challenge to be faced is the ability to think and put into practice an articulation between a development model that responds jointly to the ecological, societal and economic challenges of the territory; and the emergence of a new enterprise-level economic model, whatever its status. This articulation would take the form of cooperative and territorialized ecosystems."
    Abstract: "O artigo trata do acompanhamento de territórios engajados em uma trajetória de desenvolvimento social, econômico e ecológico, mobilizando o referencial da Economia da Funcionalidade e da Cooperação (EFC). A hipótese é a de que o principal desafio a enfrentar é a capacidade de pensar e colocar em prática uma articulação entre um modelo de desenvolvimento que responda conjuntamente aos desafios ecológicos, societais e econômicos do território; e a emergência de um novo modelo econômico ao nível da empresa, seja qual for seu status. Essa articulação assumiria a forma de ecossistemas cooperativos e territorializados. Palavras chave: desenvolvimento sustentável; economia da funcionalidade; cooperação. Abstract The article deals with the monitoring of territories engaged in a trajectory of social, economic and ecological development, mobilizing the framework of the Economy of Functioning and Cooperation (EFC). The hypothesis is that the main challenge to be faced is the ability to think and put into practice an articulation between a development model that responds jointly to the ecological, societal and economic challenges of the territory; and the emergence of a new enterprise-level economic model, whatever its status. This articulation would take the form of cooperative and territorialized ecosystems." (source éditeur)
    Keywords: sustainable development,functionality economics,cooperation,cooperação,economia da funcionalidade,desenvolvimento sustentável
    Date: 2019–12
  6. By: Sabiou M. Inoua (Economic Science Institute, Chapman University); Vernon L. Smith (Economic Science Institute, Chapman University)
    Abstract: This paper introduces and formalizes the classical view on supply and demand, which, we argue, has an integrity independent and distinct from the neoclassical theory. Demand and supply, before the marginal revolution, are defined not by an unobservable criterion such as a utility function, but by an observable monetary variable, the reservation price: the buyer’s (maximum) willingness to pay (WTP) value (a potential price) and the seller’s (minimum) willingness to accept (WTA) value (a potential price) at the marketplace. Market demand and supply are the cumulative distribution of the buyers’ and sellers’ reservation prices, respectively. This WTP WTA classical view of supply and demand formed the means whereby market participants were motivated in experimental economics although experimentalists (trained in neoclassical economics) were not cognizant of their link to the past. On this foundation was erected a vast literature on the rules of trading for a host of institutions, modern and ancient. This paper documents textually this reappraisal of classical economics and then formalizes it mathematically. A follow-up paper will articulate a theory of market price formation rooted in this classical view on supply and demand and in experimental findings on market behavior.
    Keywords: History of Economic Thought; Methodology of Economics; Microeconomic Theory; Experimental Economics
    JEL: B C D
    Date: 2020
  7. By: Maximilian Beikirch; Torsten Trimborn
    Abstract: The Levy-Levy-Solomon model (A microscopic model of the stock market: cycles, booms, and crashes, Economic Letters 45 (1))is one of the most influential agent-based economic market models. In several publications this model has been discussed and analyzed. Especially Lux and Zschischang (Some new results on the Levy, Levy and Solomon microscopic stock market model, Physica A, 291(1-4)) have shown that the model exhibits finite-size effects. In this study we extend existing work in several directions. First, we show simulations which reveal finite-size effects of the model. Secondly, we shed light on the origin of these finite-size effects. Furthermore, we demonstrate the sensitivity of the Levy-Levy-Solomon model with respect to random numbers. Especially, we can conclude that a low-quality pseudo random number generator has a huge impact on the simulation results. Finally, we study the impact of the stopping criteria in the market clearance mechanism of the Levy-Levy-Solomon model.
    Date: 2020–02
  8. By: Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela; Rubin, Deborah; Elias, Marlène; Mulema, Annet Abenakyo; Myers, Emily
    Abstract: There is growing recognition of the importance of women’s empowerment in its own right and for a range of development outcomes, but less understanding of what empowerment means to rural women and men. The challenge of measuring empowerment, particularly across cultures and contexts, is also garnering attention. This paper synthesizes qualitative research conducted conjointly with quantitative surveys, working with eight agricultural development projects in eight countries, to develop a project-level Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (pro-WEAI). The qualitative research sought to identify emic meanings of “empowerment,†validate the domains and indicators of the quantitative index, provide greater understanding of the context of each project and of strategies for facilitating empowerment, and test a methodology for integrating emic perspectives of empowerment with standardized etic measures that allow for comparability across contexts.
    Keywords: empowerment, gender, women, indicators, qualitative research, emic perspectives, Women's empowerment,
    Date: 2019
  9. By: Evangelia Apostolopoulou (Department of Geography, University of Cambridge); Elisa Greco (ESPOL - European School of Political and Social Sciences / École Européenne de Sciences Politiques et Sociales - ICL - Institut Catholique de Lille - UCL - Université catholique de Lille); William Adams (Department of Geography, University of Cambridge)
    Abstract: In this paper we explore the logic of biodiversity offsetting, focusing on its core promise: the production of 'equivalent natures'. We show how the construction of equivalence unravels the environmental contradictions of capitalism by exploring how and why it is achieved, and its profound implications for nature-society dialectics. We focus on the construction of an ecological equivalence between ecosystems, the construction of ecological credits that are considered equivalent in monetary terms, and, finally, the construction of an equivalence between places. The existing critical literature, in some cases implicitly and unwittingly, assumes that biodiversity offsetting creates value. In contrast to this argument, we draw onMarx's labortheory of value to conclude that in the majority of instances offsetting does not create value, rather it is an instance of rent. We also draw on Marxist analyses on the production of nature and place to show that biodiversity offsetting radically rescripts nature as placeless,obscuring the fact that it facilitates the production of space, place, and nature according to the interests of capital while emphasizing that at the core of offsetting lie social struggles over rights and access to land and nature. Biodiversity offsetting's dystopian vision for the future makes it an important focus for all critical scholars seeking to understand and challenge the contradictions of the capitalist production of nature.
    Date: 2019–09–16
  10. By: Ofori, Eric Makafui; Yeager, Elizabeth; Briggeman, Brian
    Keywords: Farm Management, Agribusiness
  11. By: Katherine Vande Velde; Jean Huge; Daniel D.A. Friess; Nico Koedam; Farid Dahdouh-Guebas
    Abstract: In Southeast Asia, mangrove forest cover and biodiversity has shown a rapid decline in recent decades, despite extensive conservation efforts. Identifying and analysing discourses on biodiversity conservation improves our knowledge and understanding of stakeholder perspectives (including normative values and socially constructed viewpoints) on biodiversity conservation within a specific social-ecological context. Considering these perspectives in a decision-making context contributes to the long-term sustainability of resulting conservation approaches, thus contributing to continued biodiversity conservation efforts in the far future. We consider the urban City State of Singapore to identify and interpret stakeholder discourses -including values and socially constructed viewpoints-on (effective) mangrove biodiversity conservation and management in an urban context. Using the Q methodology, we: (i) delineate and describe mangrove conservation and management discourses in Singapore and (ii) extract consensual perspectives common to discourses as a basis for management recommendations. Areas of agreement and disagreement on motivation, prioritization and responsibilities related to mangrove conservation and management are described based on numerical (i.e. sorting of statements along an ordinal scale) and qualitative data (i.e. structured interviews). There was a large overlap between discourses, suggesting that disagreement between various stakeholders may not be a prominent inhibitor of future decision making regarding mangrove conservation and management. It seems stakeholders realise the urban context strongly limits the range of realistic conservation and management approaches of mangrove forests, resulting in the larger overlap between discourses. Generally, all participants agree no further loss of existing Singapore mangroves should be allowed. The most important recommendations to reach this ultimate objective include indefinite legal protection and increase of mangrove areas under national park and nature reserve status, as well as continued promotion of mangrove's cultural ecosystem services. The identified discourses can inform decision-making by deducing shared stakeholder objectives based on the consensus values and perspectives. These shared objectives can readily be incorporated in decision-making processes on mangrove conservation and management in an urban context.
    Keywords: Inclusive conservation; Mangrove forest; Q methodology; Singapore; Stakeholder discourses; Urban biodiversity
    Date: 2019–08–01
  12. By: Perry Mehrling (Pardee School of Global Studies, Boston University)
    Abstract: The analytical tension in post-Keynesian thought between the theory of endogenous (credit) money and the theory of liquidity preference, brought to our attention by Dow and Dow (1989), can be viewed through the lens of the money view (Mehrling 2013) as a particular case of the balance between the elasticity of payment and the discipline of funding. Further, updating FullartonÕs 1844 Òlaw of refluxÓ for the modern condition of financial globalization and market based credit, the same money view lens offers a critical entry point into TobinÕs fateful 1963 intervention ÒCommercial Banks as Creators of ÔMoneyÕÓ which established post-war orthodoxy, and also to the challenge offered by so-called Modern Money Theory.
    Keywords: credit creation, financial intermediation, law of reflux
    JEL: B2 E5
    Date: 2020–01
  13. By: Stephan Puehringer (Institute for Comprehensive Analysis of the Economy, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria); Karl Beyer (Institute for Comprehensive Analysis of the Economy, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria)
    Abstract: Building on recent work on the political and societal impact of economics and distinct economists, respectively, this chapter aims to examine individual, research and institutional characteristics as well as existing professional networks of what are considered to be “influential economists†in Germany. For the purpose of identifying the most influential economists, we make use of the popular impact ranking of the German newspaper Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (FAZ) entitled “The economists, Germany listens to†(“Auf diese Ökonomen hört das Land†), which distinguishes research, media and political impact. Through biographical research and the application of social network analysis we show that most influential economists are involved in co-authorship and/or institutional networks and that there are substantial connections to different levels of public governance. We find a tremendous gender bias within the sample as well as some hints for internationalization and division of labor. Our analysis moreover indicates a much less hierarchical structure of the German-speaking economics profession when compared to the U.S. A breakdown also reveals some considerable differences between the different impact rankings. We find that while a striking majority of media and policy advice economists have connections to (inter)national public governance bodies, only a minority of research economists have. Furthermore, the ordoliberal bias, which is a crucial feature of the German economics profession, is mainly restricted to media and policy advice economists. Finally, our analysis indicates the central role of (partly also geographically organized) research hubs among influential research economists.
    Keywords: political and societal impact of economists, German economics, socio-economics, professional networks, social network analysis, biographical research, co-authorship, power in economics
    Date: 2020–03
  14. By: Didem Asli Danis; Jean-Philippe Berrou (LAM - Les Afriques dans le monde - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Matthieu Clément (GREThA - Groupe de Recherche en Economie Théorique et Appliquée - UB - Université de Bordeaux - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); François Combarnous (GREThA - Groupe de Recherche en Economie Théorique et Appliquée - UB - Université de Bordeaux - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Dominique Darbon (LAM - Les Afriques dans le monde - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Burak Gurbuz; Jean-François Pérouse (IFEAGD - Institut français d'études anatoliennes - Georges Dumezil - MIN AFF ETRANG - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Eric Rougier (GREThA - Groupe de Recherche en Economie Théorique et Appliquée - UB - Université de Bordeaux - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: En Turquie, de nombreux ménages ont connu une amélioration sensible de leurs revenus et une modification conséquente de leur style de vie depuis la série de réformes libérales engagée dans les années 80. Il ne fait aucun doute que la classe moyenne émergente turque constitue un ensemble disparate dont les contours et les différents groupes constitutifs méritent d'être explorés. Notre objectif consiste ici à identifier et à caractériser de la manière la plus précise possible la diversité des groupes constitutifs de la classe moyenne turque et à envisager la façon dont ceux-ci influencent ou sont influencés par les politiques publiques. Nous identifions quatre groupes très distincts au sein de la classe moyenne de revenu turque : (i) la classe moyenne des retraités et inactifs (39 %) ; (ii) la classe moyenne supérieure des employeurs et cadres (17 %) ; (iii) la classe moyenne des travailleurs du secondaire et du tertiaire formel et des « petits patrons » (31 %) ; (iv) la classe moyenne des exploitants agricoles (13 %). Les quatre classes moyennes ainsi identifiées et caractérisées permettent de formaliser de façon multidimensionnelle la diversité et les « fractures » existant au sein de la classe moyenne de revenu en Turquie. Ainsi, il apparaît assez clairement que les deux premières classes s'apparentent, au moins en grande partie, aux « anciennes classes moyennes laïques », plutôt en perte de vitesse et que les deux autres classes s'identifient assez nettement aux « nouvelles classes moyennes conservatrices » émergeant depuis le début des années 2000 en milieu urbain (travailleurs du secondaire et du tertiaire formel, « petits patrons ») comme en milieu rural (exploitants agricoles).
    Keywords: classes moyennes,identification,politiques publiques
    Date: 2019
  15. By: François Combarnous; Jean-Philippe Berrou (LAM - Les Afriques dans le monde - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Matthieu Clément; Dominique Darbon (LAM - Les Afriques dans le monde - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Eric Rougier
    Abstract: This article aims to identify and characterise the Turkish middle class. Our objective is to improve its description by implementing a clustering method combining an economic and a sociological approach. Using the Income and Living Conditions Survey (2014), we first identify the middle-class on the basis of an income interval. We then use information about employment and education to characterise the heterogeneity of this middle-income class. The distinctive behaviors and aspirations of four middle class groups are explored in depth by using the results of original qualitative field research carried out among middle class households from two contrasting regions.
    Keywords: Social stratification,Income distribution,Middle class,Turkey,Clustering methods
    Date: 2019–09
  16. By: Joel Rabinovich (CEPN - Centre d'Economie de l'Université Paris Nord - UP13 - Université Paris 13 - USPC - Université Sorbonne Paris Cité - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Rodrigo Perez Artica
    Abstract: The growth in cash holdings by non-financial corporations in emerging economies in general and Latin American in particular has received less attention compared to their peers from advanced economies. Taking into account that cash holdings contain not only cash but also short-term, interest-bearing assets, we test whether financial profitability measured by the weight of financial income over total revenues was one motive behind the increase in this type of financial asset as it is claimed in analyses of the financialisation of the firm. We use a panel of nonfinancial firms from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru to test this hypothesis and find supporting evidence for the Brazilian case only.
    Date: 2020–02–11
  17. By: Emilie Lanciano (COACTIS - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UJM - Université Jean Monnet [Saint-Étienne]); Alexandrine Lapoutte (COACTIS - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UJM - Université Jean Monnet [Saint-Étienne]); Séverine Saleilles (SAF - Laboratoire de Sciences Actuarielle et Financière - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon)
    Abstract: The Food Justice Movement is a grassroots initiative now reaching public, political and academic spheres. Our purpose in this article is to explore how do these organizations manage to solve the coexistence of food justice imperatives and economical ones in their business models. Thanks to a qualitative study, we propose and discuss a typology of business models for the food justice.
    Abstract: Les questions de l'accès à l'alimentation de qualité pour tous et de justice alimentaire constituent un impératif d'action publique, politique et académique. L'objectif de notre contribution est d'explorer comment des organisations se saisissent des enjeux de justice alimentaire à travers leurs modèles d'affaires. À partir d'une enquête qualitative, nous proposons et discutons une typologie de modèles d'affaires favorisant la justice alimentaire.
    Keywords: Food justice,business model,hybrid organization,social enterprise,Justice alimentaire,modèle d’affaires,organisation hybride,entreprise sociale,food justice,business models
    Date: 2019–12–04
  18. By: Greg Kaplan; Piotr Zoch
    Abstract: We demonstrate the importance of distinguishing between the traditional use of labor for production, versus alternative uses of labor for overhead, marketing and other expansionary activities, for studying the distribution of both factor income and labor income. We use our framework to assess the impact of changes in markups on the overall labor share and on labor income inequality across occupations. We identify the production and expansionary content of different occupations from the co-movement of occupational income shares with markup-induced changes in the labor share. We find that around one-fifth of US labor income compensates expansionary activities, and that occupations with larger expansionary content have experienced the fastest wage and employment growth since 1980. Our framework can rationalize a counter-cyclical labor share in the presence of sticky prices and can be used to study the distributional effects of demand shocks, monetary policy and secular changes in competition.
    JEL: D2 D3 D4 E3 E5 J2 L1
    Date: 2020–02
  19. By: Matthias Aistleitner (Institute for Comprehensive Analysis of the Economy, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria); Claudius Graebner (Institute for Socio-Economics, University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany; Institute for Comprehensive Analysis of the Economy, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria); Anna Hornykewycz (Institute for Comprehensive Analysis of the Economy, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria)
    Abstract: The accumulation of new technological capabilities is of high empirical relevance, both for the development of countries and the business success of firms. In this paper, we aim to delineate strategies how these processes of capability accumulation can be considered more accurately in comprehensive macroeconomic models. To this end, we conduct an interdisciplinary review of the literature specialized on capability accumulation by analyzing both empirical as well as theoretical literature on the firm and aggregated level. In doing so, we collect evidence various determinants and mechanisms of capability accumulation and align them with the current representation of capability accumulation in macroeconomic models. Based on these results, we make some suggestions on how macroeconomists may integrate these determinants derived from the specialized literature into their models.
    Keywords: Capability accumulation, complexity, economic development, innovation, technological change, agent-based modeling, endogeneous growth, knowledge accumulation and learning
    Date: 2020–03

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