nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2020‒03‒16
twenty-one papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. Empowerment in agricultural value chains: Mixed methods evidence from the Philippines: By Malapit, Hazel J.; Ragasa, Catherine; Martinez, Elena M.; Rubin, Deborah; Seymour, Gregory; Quisumbing, Agnes R.
  2. Development of the project-level Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (pro-WEAI) By Malapit, Hazel J.; Quisumbing, Agnes R.; Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela; Seymour, Gregory; Martinez, Elena M.; Heckert, Jessica; Rubin, Deborah; Vaz, Ana; Yount, Kathryn M.
  3. Can Women's Self-Help Groups Contribute to Sustainable Development? Evidence of Capability Changes from Northern India By Anand, Paul; Saxena, Swati; Gonzales Martinez, Rolando; Dang, Hai-Anh
  4. Electrification and Women's Empowerment : Evidence from Rural India By Samad,Hussain A.; Zhang,Fan
  5. Landownership and the gender gap in agriculture: Disappointing insights from Northern Ghana: By Yokying, Phanwin; Lambrecht, Isabel
  6. A Brief Sketch of the Economic Causes of War and Peace By Jon D. Wisman
  7. The Social Lives of Married Women : Peer Effects in Female Autonomy and Investments in Children By Kandpal,Eeshani; Baylis,Kathy
  8. The controversy over intellectual property in nineteenth-century France: a comparative analysis between Proudhon and Walras By Rémy Guichardaz
  9. Inégalités mondiales et changement climatique By Céline Guivarch; Nicolas Taconet
  10. Modern Monetary Theory and the public purpose By Ehnts, Dirk H.; Höfgen, Maurice
  11. Gender and quality at top economics journals Abstract: Articles written by male economists are cited less than articles published by women in the same journals, a new study on gender and quality in economics finds. The authors also find that men’s citations rise when they coauthor with women, and that women’s citations fall while they co-author with men, conditional on acceptance. By Erin Hengel; Eunyoung Moon
  12. A simple Ricardo-Malthusian model of population, deforestation and biodiversity loss By Late Lawson; Lawson Late
  13. The Conservative Legacy of Neoliberalism By Martin Beddeleem; Nathanael Colin-Jaeger
  14. Between constitution and interpretation: On narrating Identities By Hilt, Annette
  15. La présence de biais cognitifs en analyse économique : une étude de cas By Marc-Olivier Bessette; Mariame Dioubate; Myriane Hébert; Miriam Elsie Kuimi Tchana; Laura Morissette; Jean-Charles Toupin; Raoul Yaro; Maurice Doyon
  16. Gender and agricultural mechanization: A mixed-methods exploration of the impacts of multi-crop reaper-harvester service provision in Bangladesh: By Theis, Sophie; Krupnik, Timothy J.; Sultana, Nasrin; Rahman, Syed-Ur; Seymour, Gregory; Abedin, Naveen
  17. A note on "zero growth and structural change in a post Keynesian growth model" By Antoine Monserand
  18. Financial replicator dynamics: emergence of systemic-risk-averting strategies By Indrajit Saha; Veeraruna Kavitha
  19. Vom Leben her denken: Annäherungen an eine Theorie der Gesellschaftsgestaltung By Hochmann, Lars
  20. Les sphères d’influence dans les régimes monétaires : l’expérience de la Corne de l’Afrique (1860-1950) By AMAN, Moustapha
  21. Growth models in advanced countries before and after the 2008 crisis: competitiveness, financial cycles and austerity By Karsten Kohler; Engelbert Stockhammer

  1. By: Malapit, Hazel J.; Ragasa, Catherine; Martinez, Elena M.; Rubin, Deborah; Seymour, Gregory; Quisumbing, Agnes R.
    Abstract: Women’s participation and empowerment in value chains are goals that concern many development organizations, but there has been limited systematic, rigorous research to track these goals between and within value chains (VCs). We use the survey-based project-level Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (pro-WEAI) to measure women’s and men’s empowerment in the abaca, coconut, seaweed, and swine VCs in the Philippines. Results show that most women and men in all four VCs are disempowered, but unlike in many other countries, Filipino women in this sample are generally as empowered as men. Pro-WEAI results suggest that respect within the household and attitudes about gender-based violence (GBV) are the largest sources of disempowerment for both women and men, followed by control over use of income and autonomy in income-related decisions. Excessive workload and lack of group membership are other important sources of disempowerment, with some variation across VCs and nodes along VCs. Across all four VCs, access to community programs is associated with higher women’s empowerment, and access to extension services and education are associated with higher men’s empowerment. Our results show that, despite the egalitarian gender norms in the Philippines, persistent gender stereotypes influence men’s and women’s empowerment and VC participation.
    Keywords: PHILIPPINES, SOUTH EAST ASIA, ASIA, empowerment, agriculture, supply chain, women's participation, gender, livelihoods, agricultural markets, Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index,
    Date: 2019
  2. By: Malapit, Hazel J.; Quisumbing, Agnes R.; Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela; Seymour, Gregory; Martinez, Elena M.; Heckert, Jessica; Rubin, Deborah; Vaz, Ana; Yount, Kathryn M.
    Abstract: In this paper, the authors describe the adaptation and validation of a project-level WEAI (or pro-WEAI) that agricultural development projects can use to identify key areas of women’s (and men’s) disempowerment, design appropriate strategies to address identified deficiencies, and monitor project outcomes related to women’s empowerment. The 12 pro-WEAI indicators are mapped to three domains: intrinsic agency (power within), instrumental agency (power to), and collective agency (power with). A gender parity index compares the empowerment scores of men and women in the same household. The authors describe the development of pro-WEAI, including: (1) pro-WEAI’s distinctiveness from other versions of the WEAI; (2) the process of piloting pro-WEAI in 13 agricultural development projects during the Gender, Agriculture, and Assets Project, phase 2 (GAAP2); (3) analysis of quantitative data from the GAAP2 projects, including intrahousehold patterns of empowerment; and (4) a summary of the findings from the qualitative work exploring concepts of women’s empowerment in the project sites. The paper concludes with a discussion of lessons learned from pro-WEAI and possibilities for further development of empowerment metrics.
    Keywords: agricultural development, empowerment, gender, women, gender equality, agency, multidimensional measurement, Women's empowerment,
    Date: 2019
  3. By: Anand, Paul (The Open University); Saxena, Swati (Rajiv Gandhi Trust); Gonzales Martinez, Rolando (Agder University College); Dang, Hai-Anh (World Bank)
    Abstract: This paper offers an evaluation of a supported women's self help program with over 1.5 million participants in one of the poorest rural regions of the world (Uttar Pradesh, India). Methodologically, it shows how indicators from the direct capability measurement literature can be adapted for program evaluation in a low income country setting. Unique data on capabilities across a range of dimensions are then developed for some 6000 women and used to estimate a number of propensity score matching models. The substantive empirical results of these models indicate that many of the capability indicators are higher for program members, that the difference appears robust, and that there are significant benefits for those from scheduled tribes and lower castes. The discussion highlights two points. First, human development improvements offered by multi-strand programs can help to explain the paradox as to why nearly 100 million women (in India alone) have participated in self help programs despite modest global research evidence for micro-finance impacts on nominal incomes. Second, results argue strongly for the use of capability measures over agency measures focused solely on household decision-making to assess women's empowerment when structural causes of disempowerment, external to the household, are present and significant.
    Keywords: propensity score matching, sustainable development, self-help groups, capability measurement, Sen, poverty, female empowerment
    JEL: I31 I32 O35
    Date: 2020–01
  4. By: Samad,Hussain A.; Zhang,Fan
    Abstract: Electrification has been shown to accelerate opportunities for women by moving them into more productive activities, but whether improvements in economic outcomes also change gender norms and practices within the household remains unclear. This paper investigates the causal link between electricity access and women's empowerment, using a large gender-disaggregated data set on India. Empowerment is measured by women's decision-making ability, mobility, financial autonomy, reproductive freedom, and social participation. Using propensity score matching, the study finds that electrification enhances all measures of women's empowerment and is associated with an 11-percentage point increase in the overall empowerment index. Employment and education are identified as the two most important causal channels through which electrification enables empowerment.
    Keywords: Energy Policies&Economics,Gender and Development,Electric Power,Educational Sciences,Health Care Services Industry
    Date: 2019–03–28
  5. By: Yokying, Phanwin; Lambrecht, Isabel
    Abstract: Land provides the basis for food production and is an indispensable input for economic livelihoods in rural areas. Landownership is strongly associated with social and economic power, not only across communities and households, but also within households. The link between landownership and women’s empowerment has been relatively well documented in general, but not specifically in relation to agriculture. This paper aims to fill this gap by analyzing how ownership of land is associated with agency and achievements in agriculture among female and male farmers in northern Ghana, a region transitioning from customary land tenure without individual ownership rights towards a more individualized and market-based tenure system. We use a recursive bivariate probit model and focus on eight different indicators in four distinct domains: decisions on agricultural cultivation, decisions on farm income, agricultural association membership, and time allocation. Our empirical estimates indicate that landownership is positively correlated with men’s and women’s agency in agriculture, namely in decisions on agricultural cultivation and membership in agricultural association. Yet, we also find that the gender gaps in participation in cultivation decisions, the use of agricultural earnings, and in agricultural workload continue to persist among those who own land. While the results underscore the importance of land as a resource that can enhance women’s agency, they also point out that policies aiming to solely advance land rights may not be sufficient to eradicate or even reduce gender inequality in agriculture.
    Keywords: GHANA, WEST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, empowerment, gender, women, agriculture, land tenure, decision making, agricultural decision making, landownership,
    Date: 2019
  6. By: Jon D. Wisman
    Abstract: At the most basic level, warlike behavior can be understood in terms of the fundamental economic problem of scarcity. A historical overview of war and peace through differing modes of production, from hunter-gatherer economies through agricultural economies to capitalist economies, reveals the evolution of differing economic returns to war and peace. Economic theories of war and peace are surveyed. When supplemented with insights drawn from evolutionary biology, the deep socioeconomic dynamics of our vulnerability to warlike behavior are revealed. Especially critical for this understanding is the enhanced group cohesion and loyalty to leaders provoked by perception of external threats.
    Keywords: bluffing, cost-benefit analysis, financial capital, free-rider problem, game theory, gene-culture co-evolution, sexual selection, heterodox economics, monopoly capital school, negative-sum game, neolithic revolution, nomadic mode of production, pax romana
    Date: 2020
  7. By: Kandpal,Eeshani; Baylis,Kathy
    Abstract: In patriarchal societies, sticky norms affect married women's social circles, their autonomy, and the outcomes of intra-household bargaining. This paper uses primary data on women's social networks in Uttarakhand, India; the modal woman has only three friends, and over 80 percent do not have any friends of another caste. This paper examines the effect of a shock to friends'empowerment on a woman's autonomy, specifically physical mobility, access to social safety nets, and employment outside the household; perceived social norms; and an outcome of household bargaining: investments in her children. The analysis instruments for endogenous network formation using a woman's age and her caste network in the village. The key peer effect is the impact of having a friend who received an empowerment shock on a woman who did not receive that shock. The results show significant peer effects on only a few of the examined measures of women's autonomy. In contrast, peer effects exist on all considered outcomes of a daughters? diet and time spent on chores. The findings suggest a large decay rate between effects on own empowerment and peer effects. Interventions targeting child welfare through women's empowerment may generate second-order effects on intra-household decision-making, albeit with substantial decay rates, and thus benefit from targeted rather than randomized rollout. In contract, interventions on gender roles and women's autonomy may be limited by the stickiness of social norms.
    Keywords: Educational Sciences,Gender and Development,Hydrology,Services&Transfers to Poor,Access of Poor to Social Services,Economic Assistance,Disability,Health Care Services Industry
    Date: 2019–04–25
  8. By: Rémy Guichardaz (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: The debate over intellectual property in nineteenth-century France was structured as follows: liberal economists advocated a system of perpetual intellectual property rights, while socialist thinkers called for their total abolition. Between these two extremes, other economists supported a temporary form of intellectual property: in particular, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and Léon Walras both converged towards this third solution. This article shows that they in fact provide two different analyses of intellectual property rights, which partly overlap with positions in current debates in innovation studies.
    Keywords: copyright,Intellectual property,Walras (Léon),Proudhon (Pierre-Joseph)
    Date: 2020
  9. By: Céline Guivarch (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Nicolas Taconet (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Dans cet article, nous synthétisons les travaux récents sur les liens entre climat et inégalités pour montrer comment les enjeux liés aux impacts et à l'atténuation du changement climatique affectent les inégalités, à la fois entre pays et entre individus. Dans un premier temps, nous analysons les inégalités d'exposition et de vulnérabilité aux impacts du changement climatique. Puis, nous nous intéressons aux inégalités dans la contribution aux émissions de gaz à effet de serre entre pays et entre individus. Dans un dernier temps, nous montrons comment les inégalités face au changement climatique permettent d'éclairer l'équité de la répartition des actions pour lutter contre le changement climatique.
    Date: 2020–01–16
  10. By: Ehnts, Dirk H.; Höfgen, Maurice
    Abstract: This paper investigates how the concept of public purpose is used in Modern Monetary Theory (MMT). As a common denominator among political scientists, the idea of public purpose is that economic actions should aim at benefiting the majority of the society. However, the concept is to be considered as an ideal of a vague nature, which is highly dependent on societal context and, hence, subject to change over time. MMT stresses that government spending plans should be designed to pursue a certain socio-economic mandate and not to meet any particular financial outcome. The concept of public purpose is heavily used in this theoretical body of thought and often referred to in the context of policy proposals as the ideas of universal job guarantee and banking reform proposals show. MMT scholars use the concept as a pragmatic benchmark against which policies can be assessed. With regards to the definition of public propose, MMT scholars agree that it is dependent on the social-cultural context. Nevertheless, MMT scholars view universal access to material means of survival as universally applicable and in that sense as the lowest possible common denominator.
    Keywords: Modern Monetary Theory,Public Purpose,Economy for the Common Good,Fiscal Policy,Monetary Policy
    Date: 2020
  11. By: Erin Hengel; Eunyoung Moon
    Keywords: Solution
    Date: 2020–02
  12. By: Late Lawson (BETA, CNRS, INRAE & University of Strasbourg); Lawson Late
    Abstract: This paper assesses the interactions between human societies and nature, arguing that population growth and forest resources harvest cause natural habitat conversion, which resolves into biodiversity loss. Relying on profit and utility maximization behaviours, we describe the joint evolution of population, forest and species stock by a dynamic system characterized by a locally stable steady state. Compared to existing studies, we enlighten the possibility of total extinction of biological species (empty forests). Furthermore, our analysis supports an impossible peaceful cohabitation, as in presence of human population growth, forest resources and species stock diverge from their carrying capacity. Finally, scenarios analyses associated with high fertility and preference for the resource-based good globally indicate rapid population growth followed by a sudden drop.
    Keywords: Economic growth, Population, Forest clearing, Habitat destruction, Species loss
    JEL: Q32 Q57 R11
  13. By: Martin Beddeleem (Aarhus University [Aarhus]); Nathanael Colin-Jaeger (TRIANGLE - Triangle : action, discours, pensée politique et économique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - IEP Lyon - Sciences Po Lyon - Institut d'études politiques de Lyon - Université de Lyon - UJM - Université Jean Monnet [Saint-Étienne] - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: The 1930s and 1940s marked a period of crisis for liberalism. Authors as diverse as Hayek, Röpke, Lippmann, Polanyi and Rougier came together at two founding events, the Walter Lippmann Colloquium in 1938 and the creation of the Mont-Pèlerin Society in 1947, to rethink liberalism. This rethinking of the liberal project led them to establish a diagnosis of the crisis of liberalism, which, for the authors mentioned, goes back to the French Revolution. This article proposes to show the coherence of the neoliberal project from their historical diagnosis in this period of crisis. Indeed, by criticizing the French Revolution and its effects as part of a harmful rationalism, which gave rise to both laissez-faire and various collectivisms, neoliberals explicitly take up concepts from critics of the revolution, especially Edmund Burke. The concept of tradition, understood as covering social and legal rules that have slowly evolved to constitute coordination mechanisms that allow our actions, is thus very largely taken up and valued by neoliberals. We thus interpret neoliberal theory on the basis of this recategorization of the concept of tradition, and point out the affinities of neoliberal positions with philosophical conservatism. This rapprochement reveals several conceptual tensions between cultural evolutionism on the one hand and the defence of substantial Western values on the other.
    Abstract: Les années 1930 et 1940 marquent une période de crise pour le libéralisme. Des auteurs aussi divers que Hayek, Röpke, Lippmann ou encore Polanyi et Rougier se réunissent, lors de deux événements fondateurs, le Colloque Walter Lippmann en 1938 et la création de la Société du Mont Pèlerin en 1947, pour repenser le libéralisme. Cette refonte du projet libéral les pousse à établir un diagnostic relatif à la crise du libéralisme, remontant, pour les auteurs mentionnés, à la Révolution Française. Cet article se propose de montrer la cohérence du projet néolibéral à partir de leur diagnostic historique dans cette période de crise. En effet en critiquant la Révolution Française et ses effets comme participant d'un rationalisme néfaste, ayant donné naissance aussi bien au laissez-faire qu'aux divers collectivismes, les néolibéraux reprennent explicitement des concepts des critiques de la révolution, au premier rang desquels Edmund Burke. Le concept de tradition, compris comme recouvrant des règles sociales et juridiques ayant lentement évoluées de façon à constituer des dispositifs de coordination permettant nos actions, est ainsi très largement repris et valorisé par les néolibéraux. Nous interprétons ainsi la théorie néolibérale à partir de cette recatégorisation du concept de tradition, et pointons les affinités des positions néolibérales avec le conservatisme philosophique. Ce rapprochement fait apparaître plusieurs tensions conceptuelles entre d'une part un évolutionnisme culturel et d'autre part la défense de valeurs occidentales substantielles.
    Keywords: Néoliberalisme,Conservatisme,tradition,Hayek,Röpke
    Date: 2019–10
  14. By: Hilt, Annette
    Abstract: Identity is rooted in a shared reality, where we also experience limits of this (social) reality. The shared reality is right the reality where our specific experiences gain their typical orientating strength. The heuristic point of an approach starting from limits of shared experiences (i.e. "finite provinces of meaning" that define common grounds and rules of our understanding) is the insight in those structures of our capacity to deal with ambiguous and even failing understanding. This topic will be explored through a dialogue between Alfred Schutz's phenomenological categories of constituting and understanding meaning and Imre Kertész' literary expression of a life lived at the edge of the social sphere and a mutually recognized identity.
    Keywords: Phenomenology of the social world,Alfred Schutz,Thomas Luckmann,Hermeneutics,Narrative Identity,Concepts of Self and Identity
    Date: 2020
  15. By: Marc-Olivier Bessette; Mariame Dioubate; Myriane Hébert; Miriam Elsie Kuimi Tchana; Laura Morissette; Jean-Charles Toupin; Raoul Yaro; Maurice Doyon
    Abstract: Bien que l’économie a le mérite de simplifier des problèmes complexes et de faire des prédictions testables par des observations, elle est parfois remise en cause pour l’utilisation de modèles qui reposent sur des hypothèses traduisant mal la réalité, affectant négativement la crédibilité des économistes. Or, la résolution de problèmes complexes tels que les changements climatiques nécessitera l’application de concepts économiques. Dans une perspective de marché, le rôle et l’image de l’économiste devraient donc croître positivement. Toutefois, la crédibilité des économistes auprès des décideurs et du grand public ne semble pas aller dans cette direction. Nous argumentons que la présence de biais cognitif génère une demande sous-optimale d’analyse économique et de la reconnaissance des économistes. Dans ce contexte, comme jeunes chercheurs, nous croyons qu’il est important de prendre conscience des différents pièges ou biais qui guettent le chercheur outre celui du choix de spécification des modèles. Nous estimons que lorsque les biais contribuent à générer des recommandations contradictoires, impraticables ou peu crédibles, c’est la pertinence de tous les économistes qui s’en trouve affectée négativement. Cet article met en lumière la persistance de différents types de biais en économique en proposant une revue de la littérature des différents biais susceptibles d’être rencontrés en économie. Puis, un article a fort déploiement médiatique est utilisé comme cas type et analysé à partir des biais précédemment identifiés.
    Keywords: , Biais cognitif,Économiste,Jeune,Crédibilité
    Date: 2020–03–02
  16. By: Theis, Sophie; Krupnik, Timothy J.; Sultana, Nasrin; Rahman, Syed-Ur; Seymour, Gregory; Abedin, Naveen
    Abstract: Farmer hiring of agricultural machinery services is common in South Asia. Informal fee-for-service arrangements have positioned farmers so they can access use of machinery to conduct critical, timesensitive agricultural tasks like land preparation, seeding, irrigation, harvesting and post- harvesting operations. However, both the provision and rental of machinery services are currently dominated by men, and by most measures, it appears that women have comparatively limited roles in this market and may receive fewer benefits. Despite the prevailing perception in rural Bangladesh that women do not participate in agricultural entrepreneurship, women do not necessarily lack a desire to be involved. Using a mixed methods approach involving literature review, secondary data collection, focus groups and key informant interviews, and a telephone survey, we studied the gendered differences in women’s and men’s involvement in emerging markets for rice and wheat reaper-harvester machinery services in Bangladesh. We find that women benefit from managing and sometimes owning machinery services, as well as from the direct and indirect consequences of hiring such services to harvest their crops. However, a number of technical, economic, and cultural barriers appear to constrain female participation in both reaper service business ownership and in hiring services as a client. In addition, women provided suggestions for how to overcome barriers constraining their entry into rural machinery services as an entrepreneur. Men also reflected on the conditions they would consider supporting women to become business owners. Our findings have implications for addressing social norms in support of women’s rural entrepreneurship and technology adoption in South Asia’s smallholder dominated rural economies.
    Keywords: BANGLADESH, SOUTH ASIA, ASIA, gender, farm equipment, agricultural mechanization, technology, role of women, rural women, agricultural technologies, scale-appropriate mechanization, rural machinery service provision, reaper-harvester,
    Date: 2019
  17. By: Antoine Monserand (CEPN - Centre d'Economie de l'Université Paris Nord - UP13 - Université Paris 13 - USPC - Université Sorbonne Paris Cité - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This note is a critique of the results found by Rosenbaum concerning zero growth and structural change in a post-Keynesian growth model, some of which are shown to be problematic. First, the (im)possibility for a neo-Kaleckian model of growth and distribution to generate a profit-led growth regime is discussed. Next, we review the role played by the "paradox of costs" when introducing the depreciation of capital and how this changes the stability characteristics of the model presented by Rosenbaum. Finally we show that, contrary to what is claimed in the article, the proposed model is not able to show that zero growth is compatible with a positive net rate of profit.
    Keywords: Kaleckian,Stability,Wage-led/Profit-led,Profit rate,Zero growth
    Date: 2020
  18. By: Indrajit Saha; Veeraruna Kavitha
    Abstract: We consider a random financial network with a large number of agents. The agents connect through credit instruments borrowed from each other or through direct lending, and these create the liabilities. The settlement of the debts of various agents at the end of the contract period can be expressed as solutions of random fixed point equations. Our first step is to derive these solutions (asymptotically), using a recent result on random fixed point equations. We consider a large population in which agents adapt one of the two available strategies, risky or risk-free investments, with an aim to maximize their expected returns (or surplus). We aim to study the emerging strategies when different types of replicator dynamics capture inter-agent interactions. We theoretically reduced the analysis of the complex system to that of an appropriate ordinary differential equation (ODE). We proved that the equilibrium strategies converge almost surely to that of an attractor of the ODE. We also derived the conditions under which a mixed evolutionary stable strategy (ESS) emerges; in these scenarios the replicator dynamics converges to an equilibrium at which the expected returns of both the populations are equal. Further the average dynamics (choices based on large observation sample) always averts systemic risk events (events with large fraction of defaults). We verified through Monte Carlo simulations that the equilibrium suggested by the ODE method indeed represents the limit of the dynamics.
    Date: 2020–02
  19. By: Hochmann, Lars
    Abstract: Der Aufsatz begründet zehn Axiome einer ökonomischen Bildung "for-future", die zur verantwortungsvollen Bewältigung gesellschaftlicher Krisen sowie zu einem guten Leben befähigt. Gesellschaft wird als Ensemble von Kulturtechniken rekonstruiert, das sich selbst instituiert, sodass Ermöglichungsbedingungen transformativer Praxis bestimmt werden können. Dafür entwickelt der Aufsatz einen sozial- und kulturtheoretisch informierten Bezugsrahmen für unternehmerische Initiativen als gesellschaftliche Akteur*innen, die mit ihren Strategien und Organisationsformen zur so oder anders gerichteten Gestaltung der Gesellschaft beitragen.
    Keywords: Gesellschaft,Gestaltung,Kultur,Praxis,Wirtschaft,Unternehmen
    JEL: A22 A23 B59
    Date: 2020
  20. By: AMAN, Moustapha
    Abstract: Résumé La monnaie est souvent considérée comme un instrument permettant de projeter pouvoir et influence. L’article retrace l’évolution des rapports de force et des hiérarchies monétaires dans la corne de l’Afrique où se sont mêlés les intérêts français, anglais et italiens en lutte d’expansion impériale autour de la mer rouge et en Éthiopie, et où paradoxalement une monnaie autrichienne s’est répandit sans aucune domination politique. L’article souligne le lien étroit existant entre monnaie et géopolitique et défend l'utilisation des notions théoriques d'espace/réseau essentiels tant d’un point de vue conceptuel qu’opérationnel pour l’analyse de rapport entre les acteurs politico-économiques et les relations géostratégiques. Abstract Currency is often seen as an instrument for projecting power and influence. The article traces the evolution of power relations and monetary hierarchies in the Horn of Africa, where French, English and Italian interests mingled in the struggle for imperial expansion around the Red Sea and Ethiopia, and where paradoxically an Austrian currency spread without any political domination. The article underlines the close link between currency and geopolitics and promotes the use of theoretical notions of space/network that are essential from both a conceptual and operational point of view for the analysis of the relationship between political-economic actors and geostrategic relations.
    Keywords: Régime monétaire, Banque centrale, Développement économique, Histoire régionale; monetary regime, Central Bank, Economic development, Regional History
    JEL: B50 E41 E5 E50 N1 N17 N9 O17
    Date: 2018–12
  21. By: Karsten Kohler (King’s College London); Engelbert Stockhammer
    Abstract: The paper contributes to the recent growth models debate through a cross-country analysis of macroeconomic growth drivers after the 2008 crisis. It examines the role of competitiveness, finance, and fiscal policy as sources of foreign, private and public demand. While all countries experienced a slowdown in economic growth and a stronger export-orientation, macroeconomic performance has been highly uneven. Growth drivers have partly changed, calling for reconsideration of some key topics in the growth models debate. We argue that (i) non-price competitiveness has gained importance compared to price competitiveness, (ii) debt-driven growth models are cyclical and financial booms come with busts and debt overhang, (iii) post-crisis growth models are strongly shaped by fiscal policy. Northern Europe reinforced its export-orientation despite some wage and property price inflation, but with limited effects on growth. Eastern Europe benefitted from an improvement in export sophistication prior to the crisis and outperforms in terms of growth. Southern Europe underwent a debt-driven depression, exacerbated by contractionary austerity policies. While also affected by the downturn of a financial cycle, the English-speaking countries sustained demand through slower fiscal consolidation.
    Keywords: growth models, austerity, financial cycles, comparative political economy, post-Keynesian macroeconomics
    JEL: B50 O47 O57
    Date: 2020–03

This nep-hme issue is ©2020 by Carlo D’Ippoliti. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.