nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2019‒11‒11
nineteen papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. Natural Resources in the Theory of Production: The Georgescu-Roegen/Daly versus Solow/Stiglitz Controversy By Quentin Couix
  2. The "new" crisis of the liberal order: Populism, socioeconomic imbalances, and the response of contemporary ordoliberalism By Dold, Malte; Krieger, Tim
  3. Game of Thrones or Game of Class Struggle? Revisiting the Demise of Feudalism and the Dobb-Sweezy Debate By Lambert, Thomas
  4. Making Pollution into a Market Failure Rather Than a Cost-Shifting Success: The Suppression of Revolutionary Change in Economics By Clive L. Spash
  5. Promoting Education within the Context of a Neo-Patrimonial State The Case of Nigeria By Edevbaro, Daniel
  6. Time Use and Gender in Colombia By B. Piedad Urdinola; Jorge A. Tovar
  7. Social norms and gender discrimination in the labor market: An agent-based exercise By Quintero Rojas, Coralia Azucena; Viianto, Lari Artur
  8. Counting Women's Work in South Africa: Estimates of Household Production across the Lifecycle in 2000 By Morné Oosthuizen
  9. Fiduciary - Asymmetrical Power, Asymmetrical Care By Helen Mussell
  10. Anatomy of the Italian occupational structure: concentrated power and distributed knowledge By Armanda Cetrulo; Dario Guarascio; Maria Enrica Virgillito
  11. Measuring the Impact of a Social Enterprise – Case Study CONCORDIA Bakery, Romania By Irina-Sinziana OPINCARU; Doina CRANGASU
  12. (In)Visibility, Care and Cultural Barriers: The Size and Shape of Women's Work in India By Ashwini Deshpande; Naila Kabeer
  13. Counting Women’s Work in Mauritius: Household Production across the Lifecycle in 2003 By Morné Oosthuizen; Kezia Lilenstein
  14. Counting Women’s Work in South Africa: Incorporating Unpaid Work into Estimates of the Economic Lifecycle in 2010 By Morné Oosthuizen
  15. From variety to economic complexity: empirical evidence from Italian regions By Roberto Antonietti; Chiara Burlina
  16. Social enterprises role in Romanian welfare system By Mihaela LAMBRU; Claudia PETRESCU
  17. The Distribution of Paid and Unpaid Work among Men and Women in Ghana: The National Time Transfer Accounts Approach By Eugenia Amporfu; Daniel Sakyi; Prince Boakye Frimpong; Eric Arthur; Jacob Novignon
  18. Rational Choices: An Ecological Approach By Abhinash Borah; Christopher Kops
  19. Hacer y deshacer la ley: los intentos de reforma agraria en Colombia 1960-2014 By Didier Hermida Giraldo; Mishell Tatiana Naranjo Valenzuela

  1. By: Quentin Couix (UP1 UFR02 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - UFR d'Économie - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne, CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This paper provides a theoretical and methodological account of an important controversy between neoclassical resources economics and ecological economics, from the early 1970s to the end of the 1990s. It shows that the assumption of unbounded resources productivity in the work of Solow and Stiglitz, and the related concepts of substitution and technical progress, rest on a model-based methodology. On the other hand, Georgescu-Roegen's assumption of thermodynamic limits to production, later revived by Daly, comes from a methodology of interdisciplinary consistency. I conclude that neither side provided a definitive proof of its own claim because both face important conceptual issues.
    Keywords: Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen,Robert Solow,Joseph Stiglitz,natural resources,theory of production
    Date: 2019–10–24
  2. By: Dold, Malte; Krieger, Tim
    Abstract: In recent years, commentators have noticed that the European liberal order is 'under attack'. Traditional parties of the center are in decline. Populist movements of the right and the left have won elections or significant shares in parliaments. In the face of this 'new' crisis of liberalism, our paper follows the spirit of Walter Lippmann's The Good Society and argues for a renewal of (ordo)liberal thinking. Similar to Lippman - who lamented, "liberalism had become a philosophy of neglect and refusal to proceed with social adaptation" -, we argue that our current liberal economic order is unfit to deal with fundamental social asymmetries. The benefits of open borders and economic integration are distributed unevenly in most societies with urban economic and political elites as main beneficiaries and supporters of the current order, while neglecting less-skilled, rural workers. In this paper, we argue for a contemporary ordoliberalism that takes up this distributional challenge. In spite of recurrent criticism of its value-laden nature, we argue that the normativity of ordoliberalism is actually an asset in the current debate on populism. Moral and ideological arguments are often at the heart of citizens' concerns. Following this rationale, we propose that contemporary ordoliberals advance their thinking in connection with the emerging field of Philosophy, Politics, and Economics (PPE).
    JEL: B25 B31 B41
    Date: 2019
  3. By: Lambert, Thomas
    Abstract: In 1947, the Marxist economist Maurice Dobb published a book that attempted to outline and explain how the feudalistic economic system of medieval times gave way to capitalism. Dobb’s Studies in the Development of Capitalism (1947) started a debate among economists and historians over the following decades that has continued until this day. One of his most prominent and earliest critics was Paul M. Sweezy who, although he commended Dobb on raising the question of why feudalism gave way to capitalism, disagreed with Dobb’s conclusions on why the transition from feudalism to capitalism occurred. In general, Dobb thought that feudalism went into decline and was replaced by capitalism because of endogenous causes rooted in the class struggles between serfs and noblemen. Sweezy and others, on the other hand, thought that the factors which led to the decline of feudalism and rise of capitalism were exogenous, and these factors included the development and growth of international trade, production for markets and money, the growth and importance of cities, and the need for European monarchies to finance their wars and overseas empires. Other economists and historians, both mainstream and Marxian, also joined the debate, and a long list of articles and books have been generated on the “transition debate” since the late 1940s. In doing research for this paper, no statistical work on the Dobb-Sweezy debate and its competing hypotheses was found, and so this paper attempts to do some empirical testing of these hypotheses using data from England from the middle ages up to the late nineteenth century. The findings of this note are informative in trying to better understand the transition and provide some food for thought on how capitalism may change in the future.
    Keywords: capitalism, feudalism, Dobb-Sweezy debate, econometrics, productivity, surplus value, and transition debate
    JEL: B20 B24 B25 N3 N33
    Date: 2019–10–29
  4. By: Clive L. Spash
    Abstract: This paper explores core failures of environmental economics as a scientific attempt to understand the ecological crises. The case of environmental pollution is used to show how neoclassical externality theory evolved to establish commitment to, and dogmatic support for, an elitist ethics and liberal market ideology. The public policy response to pollution then recommended is to internalise externalities by correcting market prices based on monetary valuation of the social costs (i.e., damages). Pollution as a market failure is deemed a correctible error of the price system. This is contrast with an alternative theory of pollution based on a classic institutional economic theory of cost-shifting that instead requires a public policy response involving regulation and planning. Reflection on the history of thought related to these two theories of pollution reveals how environmental economics became a marginalised field supporting the neoclassical economic orthodoxy with full commitment to its core paradigms. Why the critical and realist institutional approach had to be suppressed is explained as denying the potential for a revolutionary paradigm shift in economic price theory.
    Keywords: Environmental economics; externalities; cost-shifting; price theory; pollution; Arthur C Pigou; K William Kapp; paradigm shift; neoclassical economics; orthodoxy; institutional economics
    JEL: Q5 D62
    Date: 2019
  5. By: Edevbaro, Daniel
    Abstract: In the first two or three decades of independence, Nigeria, like the rest of Africa. placed heavy emphasis on expanding educational opportunities from primary school through university. This has resulted in a very impressive increase in the number of students enrolled in institutions at all levels. In spite of this, education today, like other social services, is in deep crisis. The population growth which greatly increases the number of children seeking access to schools combined with the recent economic decline has necessitated significant cutbacks in public spending on all social services. Complicating the problem of the declining economic fortunes are the general problems of policy implementation in Nigeria. In spite of the economic downturn, Nigeria is still arguably one of the richest countries in Africa. However, despite the nation's endowments both in human and natural resources, it has not been able to guarantee the minimum and steady provision of basic social services for the majority of its population. This has resulted in persistent mass illiteracy, and deterioration of health, housing and other related social services. Therefore, the main challenge facing Nigeria today is how to translate its wealth into policy outputs that will advance the provision of education and other social services. This paper presents a brief history of social services provision in Nigeria with special reference to education. It argues that the problems of implementation of social policies are due to state monopolies, the negative effects of structural adjustment conditionalities, central government bureaucracy, the neo-patrimonial nature of the state, and, the neglect of possible contributions from civil society. The suggestion that civil society in Africa might provide alternative, fruitful points of input to the provision of social services is dealt with at length. This is particularly relevant in Nigeria where resources for social services are channeled through state structures which are likely to be diverted or misappropriated by corrupt officials because of the neo-patrimonial structure of the state. This civil society is not seen as organized in a dynamic opposition to the state, but as an associational stratum intermediate to the state and its institutions and agents. It functions both to give organized expression to the private, unofficial domain and it acts out its intermediate position with the state (if needed). This aggregate of grassroots associations includes such organizations as professional associations. informal cooperatives, churches, cultural societies, mutual aid groups, market women's associations, hometown associations, 'old boys clubs' and the like. Its recommendation or rather its appeal is predictated by the fact that being the product of society, civil society is capable of creating economic and political resources as well as channels for bypassing distribution through officials, who might be corrupt. The paper concludes with a call for the encouragement of a viable civil society that will not only help to mitigate the present problem of a top-down approach to policy implementation, but will also help in generating additional resources for social services.
    Keywords: International Development
  6. By: B. Piedad Urdinola; Jorge A. Tovar (Universidad Nacional de Colombia-Bogotá; Associate Professor)
    Abstract: National Transfer Accounts’ (NTA) overt link to the System of National Accounts means that non-market services are rendered invisible in our conventional estimates of the generational economy. This is particularly problematic from the perspective of gender analyses of NTAs, since women allocate more time to producing non-market services than men. Thus, our assessment of the generational economy using gender-disaggregated NTAs may be misleading, particularly with respect to patterns of dependency. This paper applies the National Time Transfer Accounts (NTTA) methodology to South African data for 2000 to integrate estimates of household production into the gender-disaggregated NTAs to derive profiles of total economy production and consumption. The results value household production at 29.8 percent of GDP, while revealing significant gender specialisation in productive activities across the lifecycle. The total consumption of young children is found to be 2.0 to 4.5 times their market consumption, a fact that has important implications in terms of understanding decisions around fertility and for policy aimed at increasing women’s economic participation.
    Keywords: time distribution, gender, Colombia, National Transfer Accounts
    Date: 2018–07
  7. By: Quintero Rojas, Coralia Azucena; Viianto, Lari Artur
    Abstract: The incorporation of women into the labor market remains a challenge for most countries; likewise, gender gaps are observed in indicators such as employment, unemployment and participation. In this paper we study the role of social norms in the labor market performance per gender; that is, how gender gaps arise from conservative gender roles. To this end, we construct an agent-based model where discrimination appears when information on job vacancies is transmitted within a social network with preference to a given gender. Networks are defined by size, closeness and links per family. Our results show that: Social networks enhance the chance of getting a job. Discrimination deepens gender gaps. Discrimination does not favor the employment situation of households, since the share of non-income households (both members unemployed) is not reduced. Rather, discrimination reduces the number of two-income households in favor of the single-income households where only the man is employed.
    Keywords: social networks, social norms, gender inequality, discrimination, labor markets, economic systems.
    JEL: C63 D85 J71
    Date: 2019–10–20
  8. By: Morné Oosthuizen (University of Cape Town; Deputy Director)
    Abstract: National Transfer Accounts’ (NTA) overt link to the System of National Accounts means that non-market services are rendered invisible in our conventional estimates of the generational economy. This is particularly problematic from the perspective of gender analyses of NTAs, since women allocate more time to producing non-market services than men. Thus, our assessment of the generational economy using gender-disaggregated NTAs may be misleading, particularly with respect to patterns of dependency. This paper applies the National Time Transfer Accounts (NTTA) methodology to South African data for 2000 to integrate estimates of household production into the gender-disaggregated NTAs to derive profiles of total economy production and consumption. The results value household production at 29.8 percent of GDP, while revealing significant gender specialisation in productive activities across the lifecycle. The total consumption of young children is found to be 2.0 to 4.5 times their market consumption, a fact that has important implications in terms of understanding decisions around fertility and for policy aimed at increasing women’s economic participation.
    Keywords: Generational economy, National Transfer Accounts, South Africa, Gender, Women's work, labour
    Date: 2018–09
  9. By: Helen Mussell
    Abstract: The legal concept of fiduciary plays a fundamental role in all financial and business organisations. It acts as a moral safeguard of the relationship between trustee and beneficiary, ensuring that the beneficiaries’ best interests are met. It is often referred to as a duty of care. Originally formulated within familial law to protect property put into Trust, beneficiaries were women and children, allocated passive and subordinated roles. This paper investigates two aspects of the asymmetrical power relations central to the fiduciary. Firstly it reveals the gendered presuppositions regarding male and female agential capabilities on which the fiduciary is premised, drawing out the origins of the authority differential in the trustee-beneficiary relationship. Secondly, the paper engages with the ethical nature of the fiduciary relationship, arguing that Care Ethics offers a robust framework for explicating the history of the relationship, alongside delivering a morally-enhanced and future-fit fiduciary free of damaging gendered stereotypes.
    Keywords: Fiduciary; economic agency; care ethics; gender relations; gender politics;trustee; beneficiary; tort law; essentialism; history of finance; share-holder activism; history of economic thought; feminist economics
    JEL: A12 B40 B54 K1 N2
    Date: 2019–03
  10. By: Armanda Cetrulo; Dario Guarascio; Maria Enrica Virgillito
    Abstract: Which type of work do Italians perform? In this contribution we aim at detecting the anatomy of the Italian occupational structure by taking stock of a micro-level dataset registering the task content, the execution of procedures, the knowledge embedded in the work itself, called ICP (Indagine Campionaria sulle Professioni), the latter being comparable to the U.S. O*NET dataset. We perform an extensive empirical investigation moving from the micro to the macro level of aggregation. Our results show that the Italian occupational structure is strongly hierarchical, with the locus of power distinct by the locus of knowledge generation. It is also weak in terms of collaborative and worker involvement practices, and possibility to be creative. Our analysis allows to pinpoint the role exerted by hierarchical structures, decision making autonomy, and knowledge as the most relevant attributes characterizing the division of labour.
    Keywords: Occupational structure; power; knowledge; factor analysis.
    Date: 2019–10–29
  11. By: Irina-Sinziana OPINCARU (University of Bucharest, Doctoral School of Sociology, Bucharest (Romania)); Doina CRANGASU (CONCORDIA Humanitarian Organisation, Bucharest (Romania))
    Abstract: This paper presents the first impact study of a social enterprise in Romania, conducted on behalf of CONCORDIA Humanitarian Organization (Romania) to measure the effects and impact of the social enterprise CONCORDIA Bakery (developed by CHO) in Romania and to evaluate its contribution to social change. We aim to give accounts on how the interventions of a social enterprise can be assessed and put to use for the benefit of the organization in particular and of the larger environment in general. The purpose of the study was to develop and assess CONCORDIA Bakery’s program and activities, using the theory-based evaluation approach in order to better understand its contribution to improving the lives of its beneficiaries, customers, donors and its shareholder, by 1) showing insights of the main intended and unintended impacts achieved by CONCORDIA Bakery, 2) identifying what makes CONCORDIA Bakery work (or not work) and how it might be replicated, improved, adapted or up-scaled elsewhere, 3) exploring and analysing the changes in the external environment of CONCORDIA Bakery that have influenced its results and impact over time and 4) helping set realistic future objectives for CONCORDIA Bakery. The study covers the period 2011-2017 and it was carried out from 1st of August to 15th of December 2018 by the authors, as external evaluators. The evaluation had a strong exploratory component, since it has been the first time for the enterprise and for a Romanian social enterprise to go through such a process. A mix of quantitative and qualitative methods were used, in order to ensure the triangulation of the data obtained and the consistency of our results and conclusions, taking into account all the relevant perspectives. The methods included: documents analysis, in-depth interviews with relevant stakeholders and participative observation. Findings confirmed that CONCORDIA’s Social Businesses Model focuses on the impact it creates for beneficiaries rather than creating profits. CONCORDIA Bakery’s goal is in line with the agreed social business definition as it targets explicitly an increase of the employability rate of vulnerable young people and provides on-the-job professional training. In addition to the impact created by increasing the employability of vulnerable young people is also considered a therapeutic intervention in order to build responsibility by helping them to gain self-confidence and improve the abilities for an autonomous life.
    Keywords: Social enterprise, social economy, social impact, theory-based evaluation, theory of change
    JEL: A13 L30 L31 L39 O35
    Date: 2019
  12. By: Ashwini Deshpande (Department of Economics, Ashoka University); Naila Kabeer (Department of Gender Studies and Department of International Development, London School of Economics)
    Abstract: Based on primary data from a large household survey in seven districts in West Bengal in India, this paper analyses the reasons underlying low labor force participation of women. In particular, we try to disentangle the intertwined strands of choice, constraints posed by domestic work and care responsibilities, and the predominant understanding of cultural norms as factors explaining the low labor force participation as measured by involvement in paid work. We document the fuzziness of the boundary between domestic work and unpaid (and therefore invisible) economic work that leads to mis-measurement of women's work and suggest methods to improve measurement. We find that being primarily responsible for domestic chores lower the probability of “working†, after accounting for all the conventional factors. We also document how, for women, being out of paid work is not synonymous with care or domestic work, as they are involved in expenditure saving activities. We also find that religion and visible markers such as veiling are not significant determinants of the probability of working. Our data shows substantial unmet demand for work. Given that women are primarily responsible for domestic chores, we also document that women express a demand for work that would be compatible with household chores.
    Keywords: Women, Gender, Labor Force Participation, India
    Date: 2019–05
  13. By: Morné Oosthuizen; Kezia Lilenstein (University of Cape Town; Deputy Director)
    Abstract: Gender-disaggregated National Transfer Accounts (NTA) reveal significant differences in labour income across the lifecycle between men and women, the result of its link to the System of National Accounts (SNA) and its designation of non-market services as outside the production boundary. Since females specialise relative to males in nonmarket production, this creates problems when analysing the generational economy from a gender perspective. The National Time Transfer Accounts (NTTA) methodology aims to address this blindspot, by constructing estimates of time spent in household production activities across the lifecycle, valuing this time using a specialist replacement wage and integrating these estimates into standard NTA estimates of production and consumption. This paper applies the NTA and NTTA methodologies to data for Mauritius from 2003, and finds stark differences in labour income for males and females across the lifecycle. It is estimated that aggregate household production is equivalent to 29.0 percent of GDP, with almost three-quarters of this produced by females. The effect of including consumption of household production is to almost triple per capita consumption for infants and almost double consumption for five-year-olds. While narrowing the gender gap in labour income can have a strongly positive effect on the country’s demographic dividend, policies that aim for this outcome should account for the time reallocations needed to ensure an equitable distribution of work across gender and age.
    Keywords: Generational economy, National Transfer Accounts, Mauritius, Gender, Women's work, labour
    Date: 2018–10
  14. By: Morné Oosthuizen (University of Cape Town; Deputy Director)
    Abstract: National Transfer Accounts (NTA) have been used to describe the generational economy in countries around the world, including South Africa. However, gender disaggregations highlight the fact that the contributions made particularly by women within the household are invisible, the result of NTA’s link to the System of National Accounts. Women’s economic contribution (i.e. production) is therefore underestimated, giving a false sense of patterns of dependency by gender and age. This paper addresses this issue by constructing National Time Transfer Accounts (NTTA) for South Africa using timeuse and NTA data from 2010, allowing the construction of a more complete picture of total production and consumption across the lifecycle. Based on these estimates, household production is valued at 27.3 percent of GDP in 2010, of which almost three-quarters is contributed by females. While per capita consumption rises at all ages once household production is included, it is more than tripled for infants, revealing that the amajority of the consumption by infants and young children is of non-market services, particularly care. Reducing gender-based differences in labour income is found to have a beneficial impact on both the magnitude and duration of the first demographic dividend.
    Keywords: Generational economy, National Transfer Accounts, South Africa, Gender, Women
    Date: 2018–11
  15. By: Roberto Antonietti; Chiara Burlina
    Abstract: Taking an evolutionary economic geography approach, we test whether the level of industry variety in a region affects its economic complexity. With reference to Italy, we measure variety using a Theil index of information entropy, and complexity with the Hidalgo and Hausmann index. Our results show that regions where variety grows faster also have a higher rate of growth in economic complexity. This relationship only holds in regions with low initial levels of variety and/or complexity, however, which are mainly located in the South of Italy. We suggest that product diversification, by increasing regional specialization in high-tech industries, can explain regional development and Italian North-South disparities.
    Keywords: economic complexity, entropy, industry variety, unit root
    JEL: O33 R11 R12
    Date: 2019–10
  16. By: Mihaela LAMBRU (University of Bucharest, Faculty of Sociology and Social Work (Romania)); Claudia PETRESCU (Romanian Academy, Research Institute for Quality of Life, Bucharest (Romania))
    Abstract: Within a socio-economic and political context dominated by both the economic crisis and the pressure to find ways to reform and upgrade general interest services and develop sustainable work integration solutions for disadvantaged groups, Romanian decision makers showed interest towards social economy and social enterprise solutions. Starting with 2007 in Romania the key factor that pushed associations and foundations towards the institutionalization as social enterprises has been the progressive need and interest towards the development of income generating activities to enhance their social mission. This paper aims to analyze the role of social enterprises in Romanian welfare system. For this, we identify the challenges and opportunities for SE in the social service system, analyze legislative and fiscal framework impacting on social enterprises development within the welfare service delivery. The paper brings structured information regarding the size, dynamic and profile of social enterprises active in the social sector area in Romania, specific challenges and development perspectives. For each type of social enterprise, the paper identifies its role in the Romanian welfare system.
    Keywords: social economy, social enterprises, welfare systems
    JEL: L3 L31 L33 I3 I30 I31
    Date: 2019
  17. By: Eugenia Amporfu; Daniel Sakyi; Prince Boakye Frimpong; Eric Arthur; Jacob Novignon (KNUST; Senior Lecturer)
    Abstract: In this study the value and distribution of both paid and unpaid work is estimated, based on time-use survey data for Ghana in 2009. The differences between men and women in performing these activities are highlighted, revealing that there is marked gender specialisation in productive activities: women specialise in household production, whereas men specialise in market production. However, as national accounts are bereft of the time contributions of non-remunerated production – mainly because there is no explicit economic compensation – disaggregating the national production by sex is quite misleading. It also seems to suggest that women’s contribution to the national production is significantly lower than men’s. However, this study finds evidence of “double shift” – that is, women spending more time than men on productive activities for significant parts of their lives. The research also shows that there are substantial net transfers of household production flowing from adults to children and the elderly, in a seemingly equal proportion. Findings suggest that some key policies to free time for women to increase their participation in paid work include bridging the gender gap regarding access to high-level education, reducing total work load, and strengthening their support systems.
    Keywords: Generational economy, National Transfer Accounts, Ghana, Gender, Women's work, labour
    Date: 2018–05
  18. By: Abhinash Borah (Department of Economics, Ashoka University); Christopher Kops (Heidelberg University)
    Abstract: We address the oft-repeated criticism that the demands which the rational choice approach makes on the knowledge and cognition of a decision maker (DM) are way beyond the capabilities of typical human intelligence. Our key ï¬ nding is that it may be possible to arrive at this ideal of rationality by means of cognitively less demanding, heuristic-based ecological reasoning that draws on information about others’ choices in the DM’s environment. Formally, we propose a choice procedure under which, in any choice problem, the DM, ï¬ rst, uses this information to shortlist a set of alternatives. The DM does this shortlisting by a mental process of categorization whereby she draws similarities with certain societal members—the ingroup—and distinctions from others—the outgroup—and considers those alternatives that are similar (dissimilar) to ingroup (outgroup) members’ choices. Then, she chooses from this shortlisted set by applying her preferences, which may be incomplete owing to limitations of knowledge. We show that if a certain homophily condition connecting the DM’s preferences with her ingroup-outgroup categorization holds, then the procedure never leads the DM to making bad choices. If, in addition, a certain shortlisting consistency condition holds vis-a-vis non-comparable alternatives under the DM’s preferences, then the procedure results in rational choices.
    Keywords: Rational choice, ecological rationality, ingroup-outgroup categorization, fast and frugal heuristics, homophily
    Date: 2019–01
  19. By: Didier Hermida Giraldo; Mishell Tatiana Naranjo Valenzuela
    Abstract: En Colombia la tierra históricamente ha sido un elemento en disputa, por lo que su uso como factor de producción no se puede tomar como dado, sino que se debe tener en cuenta, entre otros aspectos, las formas de concentración de la misma. Este trabajo se pregunta por las construcciones normativas que han devenido en el estado actual de la cuestión agraria, para lo cual se transita por los principales hitos del espíritu reformista gubernamental y se plantea un paralelo histórico entre la situación de concentración de la tierra de los años 60 y la actualidad, a la luz de los datos recolectados por el Tercer Censo Nacional Agropecuario. ****** In Colombia the land historically has been a disputed element, hence its use as a factor of production can’t be taken as given, but must take into account, among other aspects, the forms of concentration of it. This paper asks about normative forms that have shaped the current state of the agrarian question, for which the main milestones of the governmental reformist spirit are covered, additionally we present a historical parallel between the situation of the concentration of land in the 60s and the present in light of the data collected by the Third National Agricultural Census.
    Keywords: reforma agraria, concentración de la tierra, certeza de la ley, campesinos, economía agrícola, datos censales
    JEL: B53 Q15 Q18
    Date: 2019–09–30

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