nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2019‒08‒19
ten papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. De l’intérêt de créer un nouveau concept: la lucrativité limitée By Laetitia DRIGUEZ
  2. New Trends in the Social and Solidarity Economy Regarding Agriculture and Food: A Comparison between France and India By Antoine PERRIN
  3. Italian cooperatives: an analysis of their economic performances, employment characteristics and innovation processes based on combined used of official data By Carlo BORZAGA; Manlio CALZARONI; Chiara CARINI; Massimo LORI
  4. Gender and Multidimensional Poverty in Nicaragua, An Individual-based Approach By José Espinoza-Delgado; Stephan Klasen
  5. From income poverty to multidimensional poverty?an international comparison By Francesco Burchi; Nicole Rippin; Claudio E. Montenegro
  6. The power of economic textbooks: A discourse analysis By Bäuerle, Lukas
  7. Persamaan Dan Perbedaan Perilaku Konsumen Dalam Ekonomi Konvensional Dan Hukum Ekonomi Islam By Gunarso, Gatot Hadi
  8. Competition and productivity: Do commonly used metrics suggest a relationship? By David C. Maré; Richard Fabling
  9. Research Motivations and Undergraduate Researchers’ Disciplinary Identity By Shannon N. Davis; Sarah E. Wagner
  10. Bilder in der Geschichte der Ökonomie: Das Beispiel der Metapher von der Wirtschaft als Maschine By Ötsch, Walter

  1. By: Laetitia DRIGUEZ (Maître de conférences à l’Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, Ecole de droit de la Sorbonne – IREDIES, Institut des Sciences Sociales du Travail, France)
    Abstract: The Interest in Creating a New Legal Concept: Limited Lucrativity The notion of non-profit is one of the foundations of the social economy. However, this reality is never accepted as a structuring criterion in Union law. Based on an analysis of European Union law rules and the case law of the European Court of Justice (ECJ), the purpose of this article is first to show that the concept of non-profitmaking is not operational to distinguish profit-making enterprises from social economy enterprises. On this basis, the second question will be to determine what can be done to promote a better legal recognition of the social economy and its particularities in the European system. The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union defines two categories of organisations: on the one hand, those organisations that do not seek profit and, on the other hand, civil or commercial law companies, which include cooperative companies. Under European Union law, certain associations, as well as all mutuals and cooperatives, are grouped together with profit-making companies. Wheter an entity is described, under its national law, as a non-profit or for-profit entity never has any beary on the application of Union’s law. It is therefore difficult to find examples in positive law where the absence of profit is valued per se and could be considered in the application of internal market and competition legislation. However, this reality has an impact on the way economic activity is carried out. Social economy enterprises therefore do not find their place in the current legal 6 frameworks. They are positioned in the same competitive perimeter as for-profit companies. How can the singularity of social economy enterprises in terms of limited profit distribution be reflected in the European Union laws? According to the binary classification currently used, neither their complete assimilation into the for-profit category nor their classification as non-profit enterprises reflect what social economy enterprises are and their needs. The first step of a useful response was taken by the ECJ in a decision concerning cooperatives. The ongoing work of the European Commission and the European Parliament to promote the concept of social enterprise in European Union law also offers interesting avenues for reflection. To go even further, we propose to introduce into EU law the notion of limited lucrativity, which would define all organisations (sometimes also called “not-for-profit entities”) which are likely to make profits but which are not intended to distribute them to their owners because their final purpose is different. This European concept would be operational because it could lead to the application of specific rules, for example on competition, public procurement or taxation. In any case, the aim would be to restore the conditions for free and undistorted competition with profit-making companies that are not subject to the same constraints on access to capital. The introduction of this concept into Union law would lead to better political recognition and legal translation at European level of one of the strong characteristics of social economy enterprises.
    Keywords: European Union law; non-profit making entities - not-for-profit entities; limited lucrativity; competition law; freedom of establishment; freedom of service provision; social enterprises, social economy
    JEL: A13 K20 K21 L21 L30
    Date: 2019–08
  2. By: Antoine PERRIN (Université de Lorraine, Nancy (France))
    Abstract: On the question of food and livelihood, international institutions and States call for efforts towards food security under the form of help in subsidies or better access to the market for farmers. Such efforts rely on large scale solutions and make food security depend on tall vertical institutions aiming at bringing change in a very large area at a time. On the other hand, small initiatives are born everywhere and take up on the question of access to healthy sustainable food. Farmers’ self-help groups, shared gardens, community supported agriculture, cooperative supermarket and other organisations make up this landscape and are being born everywhere. Such initiatives are often missed by observers as case studies of single organisations can not bring into light the global effort of such initiatives. Nevertheless, they can be put together and showed as being part of the same global movement. If their juridic forms, organisations, and goals are somewhat different, some trends can be established in the justification they offer to their action (Boltanski, Thévenot, 1991). In order to discover these justifications and establish trends, a study of the discourse and practices of such initiatives is offered in the following article. Namely, our study takes 20 initiatives dealing with agriculture and food. In order to find out trends, this article elaborates on the fieldwork of about 500 hours spent within said initiatives, and 50 interviews with project planners, coordinators, and motnitors. In order to show global trends, these initiatives have been chosen in two vastly different social and economic contexts: one takes place in Nancy, a medium French town, the other takes place in Ahmedabad, a very large Indian city. The results of the study show three major common trends between France and India, and between initiatives pertaining with small farmers, shared gardens, cooperatives and other social and solidarity initiatives. Firstly, there is a general call for localized, short food circuits, namely producers and consumers ask for a direct connection to each other, and even to grow the food they eat and eat the food they grow. Secondly, participants in said initiatives do not claim to be part of a recent innovative wave, but rather fall back on traditional ways to grow, sell, and cook food. Thirdly, despite the small size of such initiatives – with 200 participants at most and sometimes as small as 2 members – the ambition of these organisations is to change things on a global scale, make people from every path of life ask themselves questions and change their behaviour, and even, struggle against global climate change through small localized actions.
    Keywords: self-help groups; agriculture; France; India; social and solidarity economy; rural development; ecology
    JEL: A13 A14 D71 O52 O53 Q13
    Date: 2019–12
  3. By: Carlo BORZAGA (University of Trento (Italy) and European Research Institute on Cooperative and Social Enterprises (Euricse)); Manlio CALZARONI (Expert in Statistics, former Director of the Central Directorate for economic censuses and statistical registers at the Italian National Institute of Statistics (Istat), Italy); Chiara CARINI (Euricse); Massimo LORI (Italian National Institute of Statistics (Istat), Italy)
    Abstract: Researchers and policymakers have identified the need to accurately and quantitatively evaluate cooperatives and their economic, social and employment effects, as well as their evolution over time, in a way that is as reliable as possible and not subject to interpretation. This need was also manifested in the adoption by the 20th International Conference of Labour Statisticians of the Guidelines Concerning Statistics of Cooperatives, which aim to facilitate the development of a set of statistics on cooperatives that can be compared at the international level. This study provides informative insights and analyses based on a unified statistical representation of the structure, economic performance and profiles of cooperatives—including cooperative groups— within the Italian economy. Through the integration of several official statistical data sources released by the Italian National Institute of Statistics with the Cooperative Register managed by the Ministry of Economic Development, on the one hand, the paper highlights the peculiarities of cooperatives compared to other companies; on the other hand, it analyses in depth the composition of the cooperative sector with respect to both economic and structural variables.
    Keywords: Italy, Cooperatives, Statistics, Economic and employment size, Innovation and digitalization
    JEL: C81 J21 P13 J54
    Date: 2019–06
  4. By: José Espinoza-Delgado; Stephan Klasen
    Abstract: Most existing empirical papers concerned about multidimensional poverty use the house- hold as the unit of analysis, meaning that multidimensional poverty status of the household is equated with the multidimensional poverty status of all individuals in the household. This assumption, nonetheless, overlooks important within-household features and ignores the intra-household inequalities. Besides, by definition, households containing both a female and a male cannot contribute to a gender gap, so gender differentials cannot be estimated. But, the Sustainable Development Goals have put special emphasis on gender equality along their targets; therefore, new measures able to capture the gender differences are needed. Consequently, in this paper, we propose an individual-based multidimensional poverty mea- sure in order to estimate the three Is of multidimensional poverty (incidence, intensity, and inequality) in Nicaragua as well as the gender differentials. We also estimate logit regres- sions to better understanding the determinants of multidimensional poverty in this country. Overall, we find that there are statistically significant gender differences in multidimensional poverty in Nicaragua; but, they are estimated to be small and lower than 5%. However, the gender differential in inequality is larger than 10%, and it suggests that multidimensional poor women are living in very intense poverty when compared with multidimensional poor men. We also find that the elderly and children are the most vulnerable people in terms of multidimensional poverty in this country; furthermore, when information on employment, domestic work, and social protection is considered in the analysis, the gender gaps become more substantial, and women are more likely to be poor than men.
    Keywords: multidimensional poverty; poverty measurement; intra-household inequality; gender differences in poverty; Nicaragua; Latin America
    JEL: I3 I32 D1 D13 D6 D63 O5 O54
    Date: 2017–08–09
  5. By: Francesco Burchi (IPC-IG); Nicole Rippin (IPC-IG); Claudio E. Montenegro (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "The first Sustainable Development Goal of the 2030 Agenda calls for ending 'poverty in all its forms everywhere', therefore recognising that poverty is more than just a lack of a sufficient income. Nevertheless, some scholars argue that an income-based measure of poverty is able to sufficiently capture poverty in other dimensions as well. This claim, however, has so far not been substantiated by any cross-country empirical evidence. Currently available international indicators of multidimensional poverty suffer from several weaknesses and cannot be directly compared with the existing monetary measures of poverty. This One Pager summarises the main findings of a broader study (Burchi, Rippin, and Montenegro 2018) on poverty measurement and analysis". (...)
    Keywords: Income, poverty, multidimensional, international, comparison
    Date: 2019–07
  6. By: Bäuerle, Lukas
    Abstract: By conducting a discourse analysis (SKAD) in the field of academic economics textbooks, this paper aims at reconstructing frames and identity options offered to undergraduate students relating to the questions "Why study economics?"and "Who do I become by studying economics?". The analysis showed three major frames and respective identity offerings, all of which are contextualized theoretically, with prominent reference to the Foucauldian reflection of the science of Political Economy. Surprisingly, none of them encourages the student to think critically, as could have been expected in a pedagogical context. Taken together, economics textbooks appear as a "total structure of actions brought to bear upon possible action" (Foucault), therefore, as a genuine example of Foucauldian power structures.
    Keywords: Economic education,textbook economics,discourse analysis,SKAD,Foucault,subjectivation
    JEL: A11 A14 A20 A22
    Date: 2019
  7. By: Gunarso, Gatot Hadi
    Abstract: The equation between consumer behavior in carrying out consumption activities in conventional economics and Islamic economics is three. Among them in terms of understanding, philosophical foundation, motives and purpose of consumption, and the theory of consumer behavior. Meanwhile, differences in consumer behavior in conventional economics and Islamic economics, first, lie in the foundation of consumer behavior philosophy. Conventional economics views that world life is an absolute right for humans while Islamic economics teaches that world life is based on the principle of accountability to the Creator. Second, lies in the principle of consumption. There are three principles of consumption in a conventional economy, namely freedom, self-interest, and material. Islamic economic perspective, consumer behavior is based on the philosophy of divinity so that in each of its activities meeting the needs of consumers is required to always be guided by the principles of tawhid and also justice. The principle teaches individuals the moral awareness to live in obedience by worshiping Allah, and is responsible for everything he does, especially in terms of consumption
    Keywords: Consumers, Conventional Economy, Islamic Economics
    JEL: A1 D11 E0
    Date: 2019–07–27
  8. By: David C. Maré (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research); Richard Fabling (Independent Researcher)
    Abstract: We demonstrate the power of recently redeveloped productivity microdata to produce a range of meaningful competition indicators highlighting different aspects of industry competitiveness. Combining these competition metrics into composite indicators, we summarise the diverse range of competitive environments in New Zealand by clustering industries into four distinct groups. Estimating the relationship between competition and productivity within these groups provides some suggestive results that the tail of unproductive firms may be truncated when competition is greater, in part due to greater selection-to-exit based on productivity. Overall, the limited evidence we find for a direct relationship between competition and productivity does not necessarily imply that the two are unrelated, but more likely reflects that changes in competition in New Zealand over the sample period have not been particularly pronounced, making it difficult to identify a systematic relationship.
    Keywords: competition, profit elasticity, price-cost margin, industry concentration, multifactor productivity
    JEL: D22 D24 L11
    Date: 2019–08
  9. By: Shannon N. Davis; Sarah E. Wagner
    Abstract: Disciplinary identity, or connection to a particular academic discipline, is constructed through a developmental process across a scholar’s academic life course.
    Keywords: undergraduate research, research motivations, college student identity, disciplinary identity
  10. By: Ötsch, Walter
    Abstract: In der ökonomischen Theorie haben Metaphern (als Formen eines bildhaften Sprachgebrauchs) immer eine besondere Rolle gespielt. Nach einem historischen Überblick über das Konzept von Metaphern wird die Geschichte des dominanten Stranges in der ökonomischen Theorie als Geschichte einer Metapher von der Maschine skiziiert In der Geschichte der ökonomischen Theorie finden sich immer Metaphern, diese können als Formen eines bildhaften Sprachgebrauchs verstanden werden. Eine besondere Rolle hat im Hauptrang der Theorieentwicklung die Metapher von der Maschine gespielt. Nach einem historischen Überblick über das Konzept von Metaphern (Kap. 1) und der Kulturgeschichte der Metapher von der Maschine (Kap. 3) wird die Geschichte der ökonomischen Theorie als achtstufige Geschichte einer Metapher von der Maschine skizziert: Bei Quesnay als einer machine économique mit Bezug auf die Philosophie von Descartes, bei Smith eine natural order mit Bezug auf die Mechanik bei Newton, bei Malthus und Ricardo als Konzept von ökonomischen Gesetzen in Analogie zu Naturgesetzen in einer Neuinterpretation von Newton - ähnlich auch bei John Stuart Mill, bei Jevons und Walras als explizit ausformulierte "mechanistische Nationalökonomie", bei Autoren wie Gérald Debreu als Neuformulierung des Ansatzes von Walras als einer Informationsmechanik, sowie bei Friedrich August von Hayek als Konzept von "dem Markt" als einem Informationsnetzwerk in Analogie zu einem Telekommunikationssystem.
    Keywords: Mechanistische Metapher,Mechanistik,Sozialphysik,Marktbegriff,Ordnungsbegriff,Philosophie der Ökonomie,naturwissenschaftliches Weltbild,Mensch als Maschine
    JEL: B10 B21 B25 B30 B53 Z13
    Date: 2018

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