nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2018‒05‒14
25 papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. Economic inequality and Islamic Charity: An exploratory agent-based modeling approach By Hossein Sabzian; Alireza Aliahmadi; Adel Azar; Madjid Mirzaee
  2. A közös ős nyomában: modern nyugati közgazdasági gondolkodás és az iszlám hagyomány By Olah, Daniel
  3. Big Business and Management: Too Many Bosses and Too Much Pay? By Lambert, Thomas
  4. From Elitist to Sustainable Earnings: Is there a group legitimacy in financial flows? By Charles, Aurelie; Vujić, Sunčica
  5. Inequality, Redistributive Policies and Multiplier Dynamics in an Agent-based Model with Credit Rationing By Elisa Palagi; Mauro Napoletano; Andrea Roventini; Jean-Luc Gaffard
  6. Jusqu’où l’économie écologique pense-t-elle l’inégalité environnementale ? Autour de l’oeuvre de Joan Martinez-Alier By Laura Centemeri; Gildas Renou
  7. Les modèles multi-agents et leurs conséquences pour l’analyse macroéconomique By Mauro Napoletano
  8. Innovation, Finance, and Economic Growth : an agent-based model By Giorgio Fagiolo; Daniele Giachini; Andrea Roventini
  9. On the question of the relevance of Economics as a science: Postmodern filosofia critique By Jackson, Emerson Abraham
  10. Des jardins partagés dans les quartiers d’habitat social : un moyen de repenser les pratiques alimentaires ? By Nicole Darmon; Pauline Martin; Pascale Scheromm; Florence Ghestem; Paul Marchand; Jean-Noël Consalès
  11. "Reflections on the New Deal: The Vested Interests, Limits to Reform, and the Meaning of Liberal Democracy" By John F. Henry
  12. The Rehn-Meidner Model of Wage and Productivity Policy. A Sraffian Analysis By Zoltàn Pogàtsa
  13. Beyond technology: Towards sustainability through behavioral transitions By Bodenheimer, Miriam
  14. Structural change in times of increasing openness: assessing path dependency in European economic integration By Claudius Graebner; Philipp Heimberger; Jakob Kapeller; Bernhard Schuetz
  15. Economics in the Anthropocene: Species Extinction or Steady State Economics By Joeri Sol
  16. Sulle critiche e gli ostacoli alla proposta dello Stato come "Occupatore di ultima istanza" By Enrico Sergio Levrero
  17. Interbank Contagion: An Agent-based Model Approach to Endogenously Formed Networks By Anqi Liu; Mark Paddrik; Steve Yang; Xingjia Zhang
  18. Ni tanto que queme al santo ni tan poco que no lo alumbre. Economía colaborativa: ¿evolución de mercado o competencia desleal? Una visión desde el análisis económico del derecho By Alexis Faruth Perea S
  19. United Nations Guiding Principles and the Business and Human Rights in India By Chakraborty, Adrij; Mehra, Anahita
  20. Scenario techniques for energy and environmental research: An overview of recent developments to broaden the capacity to deal with complexity and uncertainty By Céline Guivarch; Robert Lempert; Evelina Trutnevyte
  21. Structural Change, Employment and Institutions By Sebastiano Fadda
  22. Revenu pour toutes et tous : l'introuvable universalité By Anne Eydoux
  23. Transition towards socially sustainable behavior? An analysis of the smartphone sector By Bodenheimer, Miriam
  24. État de la macroéconomie environnementale appliquée By Gissela Landa; Paul Malliet; Aurélien Saussay; Frédéric Reynès
  25. Vers une macroéconomie non-walrasienne By Jean-Luc Gaffard

  1. By: Hossein Sabzian; Alireza Aliahmadi; Adel Azar; Madjid Mirzaee
    Abstract: Economic inequality is one of the pivotal issues for most of economic and social policy makers across the world to insure the sustainable economic growth and justice. In the mainstream school of economics, namely neoclassical theories, economic issues are dealt with in a mechanistic manner. Such a mainstream framework is majorly focused on investigating a socio-economic system based on an axiomatic scheme where reductionism approach plays a vital role. The major limitations of such theories include unbounded rationality of economic agents, reducing the economic aggregates to a set of predictable factors and lack of attention to adaptability and the evolutionary nature of economic agents. In tackling deficiencies of conventional economic models, in the past two decades, some new approaches have been recruited. One of those novel approaches is the Complex adaptive systems (CAS) framework which has shown a very promising performance in action. In contrast to mainstream school, under this framework, the economic phenomena are studied in an organic manner where the economic agents are supposed to be both boundedly rational and adaptive. According to it, the economic aggregates emerge out of the ways agents of a system decide and interact. As a powerful way of modeling CASs, Agent-based models (ABMs) has found a growing application among academicians and practitioners. ABMs show that how simple behavioral rules of agents and local interactions among them at micro-scale can generate surprisingly complex patterns at macro-scale. In this paper, ABMs have been used to show (1) how an economic inequality emerges in a system and to explain (2) how sadaqah as an Islamic charity rule can majorly help alleviating the inequality and how resource allocation strategies taken by charity entities can accelerate this alleviation.
    Date: 2018–04
  2. By: Olah, Daniel
    Abstract: This scientific essay aims to examine the relationship between Western mainstream economics and its Islamic counterpart. It shows that the creation of Islamic economics is a new scientific program, and representatives of this discipline do not agree on its methodological foundations. Islamic economics does not make a distinction between normative and positive scientific attitudes and sets the influence of human behavior as one of its important goals. To prove that there is potential for future convergence the author argues that the „Schumpeterian gap” in history of economic thought does not exist. Analysing the thoughts of Ibn Khaldun, the paper sets the ground for a new paradigm by representing Khaldun as a common ancestor of Western and Islamic economics.
    Keywords: history of thought, islamic thought, Ibn Khaldun
    JEL: B11 B31
    Date: 2016–11
  3. By: Lambert, Thomas
    Abstract: The mainstream or neoclassical economics view that labor is rewarded according to its productivity has been extended to managers and management teams as justification for the levels of compensation that they receive. Additionally, the management concept of “span of management” or “span of control” has been used to explain the total number of and per employee number of managers in any organization along with the assumption that the appropriate span of management is where the marginal productivity of the last manager employed should equal his/her marginal cost, or wage. On the other hand, Marxists and institutionalists hold different views of the roles and purposes of managers within organizations and attempt to explain these through either the view of managers exploiting workers on behalf of owners or the view of managers exploiting both workers and owners in order to advance their own agenda. This research note examines managerial compensation and intensity from both traditional/mainstream and alternative views by focusing on measures of managerial salaries, employee productivity, return on owners’ equity, return on assets, and rates of worker exploitation.
    Keywords: big business, bureaucracy, economic systems, management, and productivity
    JEL: B51 D2 D43
    Date: 2018–04
  4. By: Charles, Aurelie; Vujić, Sunčica
    Abstract: Elite occupations are characterised by the magnitude of income accumulation which has been particularly exacerbated in the financialisation process. This paper however shows that the cumulative effects on group earnings is a pattern visible across the labour force. The case studies on the US and UK labour force in the financialisation era in effect show that elitist earnings are a group phenomenon for a dominant group, mainly white male or female, at the expense of other racial, ethnic, and gender groups. Learning from such group behaviour on financial accumulation and drawing on Sen’s rules of legitimacy (1981) in market interactions, the discussion then looks at the possibility of “sustainable earning” trends that feed into the financial needs for the green transition. The paper concludes that economic actors should be aware of the group legitimacy to financial flows, but that the group boundaries should be based on ecological-based entitlements rather than social-based entitlements to financial flows.
    Keywords: elite,income,inequality,social norms,stratification
    JEL: J31 J71 C32
    Date: 2018
  5. By: Elisa Palagi; Mauro Napoletano (Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques); Andrea Roventini (Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM)); Jean-Luc Gaffard (Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques)
    Abstract: We build an agent-based model populated by households with heterogenous and timevarying financial conditions in order to study how different inequality shocks affect income dynamics and the effects of different types of fiscal policy responses. We show that inequality shocks generate persistent falls in aggregate income by increasing the fraction of credit-constrained households and by lowering aggregate consumption. Furthermore, we experiment with different types of fiscal policies to counter the effects of inequality-generated recessions, namely deficit-spending direct government consumption and redistributive subsidies financed by different types of taxes. We find that subsidies are in general associated with higher fiscal multipliers than direct government expenditure, as they appear to be better suited to sustain consumption of lower income households after the shock. In addition, we show that the effectiveness of redistributive subsidies increases if they are financed by taxing financial incomes or savings.
    Keywords: Income inequality; Fiscal multipliers; Redistributive Policies; Credit-rationing; Agent-based models
    JEL: E63 E21 C63
    Date: 2017–11
  6. By: Laura Centemeri (IMM - Institut Marcel Mauss - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Gildas Renou (SAGE - Sociétés, Acteurs, Gouvernement en Europe - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: L’objectif de cette contribution est, d’abord, de présenter l’oeuvre de l'économiste catalan Joan Martinez-Alier, un des fondateurs de l'économie écologique, en la situant dans sa trajectoire politique et intellectuelle. Il s’agira ensuite de développer une réflexion plus large concernant le type de pluralisme des valeurs qui est en question dans une critique écologique ayant l’ambition d’être attentive aux inégalités environnementales mais également à la pluralité des modes qu’ont les humains de tenir à l’environnement.
    Keywords: critique écologique, valeur, décroissance, transition écologique, inégalités environnementales , justice environnementale,economie écologique, mouvements sociaux
    Date: 2017
  7. By: Mauro Napoletano (Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques)
    Abstract: Cet article analyse les progrès récents de la modélisation multi-agents appliquée à l'analyse macroéconomique. Je présente d'abord les principaux ingrédients des modèles multi-agents. Ensuite, en s'appuyant sur des exemples tirés de travaux récents, je montre que les modèles multi-agents apportent des éclairages complémentaires ou nouveaux sur des questions macroéconomiques clés telles que les cycles économiques endogènes, les interactions entre cycles et croissance à long terme, le rôle des ajustements de prix versus quantités dans le retour au plein emploi. Enfin, je discute certaines limites des modèles multi-agents et comment ils sont actuellement abordés dans la littérature.
    Keywords: Modèles multi-agents; Analyse macroéconomique; Cycles économiques endogènes; Politique monétaire et budgétaire
    Date: 2017–12
  8. By: Giorgio Fagiolo (Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM)); Daniele Giachini (Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna); Andrea Roventini (Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM))
    Abstract: This paper extends the endogenous-growth agent-based model in Fagiolo and Dosi (2003) to study the financegrowth nexus. We explore industries where firms produce a homogeneous good using existing technologies, perform R&D activities to introduce new techniques, and imitate the most productive practices. Unlike the original model, we assume that both exploration and imitation require resources provided by banks, which pool agent savings and finance new projects via loans. We find that banking activity has a positive impact on growth. However, excessive financialization can hamper growth. In- deed, we find a significant and robust inverted-U shaped relation between financial depth and growth. Overall, our results stress the fundamental (and still poorly understood) role played by innovation in the finance-growth nexu
    Keywords: Agent based model; Innovation; Exploration vs exploitation; Endogenous Growth; Banking sector; Finance Growth Nexus
    JEL: C63 G21 O30 O31
    Date: 2017–11
  9. By: Jackson, Emerson Abraham
    Abstract: This article has adopted an open discourse in addressing pertinent concerns about the scientific existence of economics as a discipline. In doing so, some (critical) Filosofia arguments have been provided in ensuring that a well balanced approach is taken on the subject. Obviously, the approach of Popperian falsification used by economic science to address scientific justification through its varied scientific platform of technology applications like EVIEWS, STATA, MatLab and many more, have been applauded. Albeit such advances, the views of modern and postmodern critics have also come out saliently in a bid to ensuring open discourses are brought to the fore as a way of adding scientific value to the subject matter. In concluding, it was acknowledged that more is needed in ensuring that economic science as practiced by economists takes an open approach to critical discourse(s), reflecting reality about its pursed scientific ventures, given the persistence of economic volatility manifested across the global community.
    Keywords: Economic Science; Scientific Methodology; Filosofia; Postmodern Critique
    JEL: B41 B5
    Date: 2018–02–01
  10. By: Nicole Darmon (UMR MOISA - Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - INRA Montpellier - Institut national de la recherche agronomique [Montpellier] - CIHEAM - Centre International des Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier, NORT - Nutrition, obésité et risque thrombotique - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - INSERM - Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale); Pauline Martin (AMU - Aix Marseille Université, INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, MMSH Telemme - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Pascale Scheromm (UMR Innovation - Innovation et Développement dans l'Agriculture et l'Alimentation - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement); Florence Ghestem (PADES - Programme d’Autoproduction et Développement Social); Paul Marchand (AMU - Aix Marseille Université, Telemme - MMSH - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Jean-Noël Consalès (AMU - Aix Marseille Université, , Telemme - MMSH - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Social inequalities in diet are attributed to sociocultural determinants, economic constraints, and unequal access to healthy food. Fruits and vegetables are lacking in the diets of disadvantaged populations. The objective was to test the hypothesis that, in poor neighborhoods, community gardeners will have larger supply of healthy food, especially fruit and vegetables, than non-gardeners. We examined community gardens from the perspective of production, economics and nutrition, and social and symbolic dimensions, through multidisciplinary investigations involving women with access to a community garden plot in a poor neighborhood of Marseille, France. Gardeners’ monthly household food supplies (purchases and garden production) were analyzed and compared with those of women with a similar socio-economic profile living in the same neighborhoods, without access to a garden. Twenty-one gardeners participated. Only eleven of them harvested during the month of the study, and the amount they collected averaged 53g of produce per household member per day. Whether they harvested or not, most gardeners gave preference to diversity, taste and healthiness of produce over quantity produced. Interviews revealed a value assigned to social, cultural and symbolic dimensions: pride in producing and cooking their own produce, related self-esteem, and sharing their produce at the meal table. The only significant difference between the food supplies of gardener and non-gardener households was seen for fruit and vegetables (369 vs. 211g/d per person). This difference was due to larger purchases of fruit and vegetables, and not to higher quantities produced. In spite of the cross-sectional nature of our study and the small quantities harvested, our results suggest that having access to a community garden could encourage socio-economically disadvantaged women to adopt dietary practices that more closely meet dietary recommendations.
    Abstract: Il existe de fortes inégalités sociales en matière d’alimentation, notamment pour la consommation de fruits et de légumes. L’objectif de cette étude était de tester l’hypothèse selon laquelle, dans les quartiers pauvres, les jardiniers cultivant dans des jardins partagés auraient des approvisionnements en fruits et légumes plus élevés que des non-jardiniers. Une enquête pluridisciplinaire a été réalisée auprès de femmes ayant accès à une parcelle individuelle dans des jardins partagés de quartiers pauvres de Marseille. Les approvisionnements alimentaires mensuels des foyers de ces jardinières (achats et production du jardin) ont été analysés et comparés à ceux de femmes de profil socioéconomique similaire, vivant dans les mêmes quartiers mais n’ayant pas accès à un jardin. Au total, 21 jardinières ont participé à l’enquête. Seulement 11 d’entre elles ont récolté des produits potagers au jardin durant le mois d’enquête, les quantités produites s’élevant en moyenne à 53g de produits potagers par personne vivant dans le foyer et par jour. Qu’elles aient récolté ou non, les jardinières privilégiaient la diversité, le goût et la valeur santé des produits plutôt que les quantités produites. Les enquêtes ont révélé les valeurs sociale, culturelle et symbolique du jardinage (fierté de produire et de cuisiner sa propre production, estime de soi, commensalité). Concernant les approvisionnements alimentaires, la seule différence significative entre les foyers des jardinières et des non-jardinières concernait les fruits et légumes : 369 vs. 211 g par personne et par jour, respectivement, du fait d’achats plus importants de légumes dans les foyers des jardinières. Bien que l’étude soit transversale et malgré la faible quantité de produits potagers récoltés, nos résultats suggèrent que l’accès à un jardin partagé pourrait favoriser l’adoption de pratiques alimentaires plus favorables à la santé par les habitants de quartiers défavorisés.
    Keywords: poverty,fruit and vegetable,food purchases,social inequality,sociocultural determinant,economic constraint,dietary practice,women,garden,urban life,food consumption,buying,rural poverty,femme,vie urbaine,jardin,jardin collectif,fruit et légume,consommation alimentaire,achat,pauvreté,nutrition,budget alimentaire,france
    Date: 2018
  11. By: John F. Henry
    Abstract: I subject some aspects of Roosevelt's "New Deal" to critical analysis, with particular attention to what is termed "liberal democracy." This analysis demonstrates the limits to reform, given the power of "vested interests" as articulated by Thorstein Veblen. While progressive economists and others are generally favorably disposed toward the New Deal, a critical perspective casts doubt on the progressive nature of the various programs instituted during the Roosevelt administrations. The main constraint that limited the framing and operation of these programs was that of maintaining liberal democracy. The New Deal was shaped by the institutional forces then dominant in the United States, including the segregationist system of the South. In the end, vested interests dictated what transpired, but what did transpire required a modification of the understanding of liberal democracy. The following paper provides a compressed account of this tradition of endogenous financial market instability.
    Keywords: Vested Interests; New Deal; Planning; Liberalism
    JEL: B52 N2 N4 P1
    Date: 2018–05
  12. By: Zoltàn Pogàtsa
    Abstract: The mainstream neoclassical school treats labour as any other commodity, where demand and supply meet on a voluntary and equal basis. It also assumes that the best method for its allocation is open market coordination. The paper first outlines the epistemological faults in this model. It then continues to discuss the alternative model, as charted by two Swedish economists, Gösta Rehn and Rudolf Meidner.
  13. By: Bodenheimer, Miriam
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present a heterodox and heuristic model to analyze what we will call behavioral transitions to sustainability (BTS), using a combination of the Multi-Level Perspective (MLP), Dialectic Issue Lifecycles (DILC) and two behavioral models. With strong roots in science and technology studies, transition theories like the MLP approach have to date had a strong focus on technological transitions. However, in the context of sustainability transitions, which often require a change in behavior (Kemp, van Lente 2011), technological innovations are not always an effective solution (Lachman 2013). Particularly in the context of social sustainability, which so far has been neglected in the field of sustainability transitions, the focus of transitions needs to be first and foremost on changing attitudes, behaviors and the criteria used for decision-making, rather than on changing the technology employed, both on the part of producers and consumers (Lachman 2013). The focus in BTS is therefore on social innovations that involve changing existing behaviors to address specific sustainability issues.
    Date: 2018
  14. By: Claudius Graebner (Institute for Comprehensive Analysis of the Economy, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria); Philipp Heimberger (Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies); Jakob Kapeller (Institute for Comprehensive Analysis of the Economy, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria); Bernhard Schuetz (Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the dynamics of structural polarization and macroeconomic conver- gence vs. divergence in the context of European integration, where the latter is understood primarily as an increase in economic and financial openness. In the process of estimating the dynamic effects of openness shocks on 26 EU countries, we develop a taxonomy of Euro- pean economies that consists of core, periphery, financialized and Eastern European catch-up economies. As these four country groups have responded in a distinct way to the openness shocks imposed by European integration, we argue that the latter should be seen as an evolutionary process that has given rise to different path-dependent developmental trajectories. These trajectories relate to the sectoral development of European economies and the evolution of their technological capabilities. We propose a set of interrelated policy measures to counteract structural polarization and to promote macroeconomic convergence in Europe.
    Keywords: structural change, economic integration, european union
    Date: 2018–02
  15. By: Joeri Sol (University of Amsterdam)
    Abstract: Using IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (2016v2) data, I calculate an expected extinction rate for the coming century that is 759 to 7,582 times the natural background rate. Extinction rates exceed the planetary boundary formulated by Rockström et al. (2009) nearly everywhere (521 out of 538 regions) and do so beyond the zone of uncertainty introduced by Steffen et al. (2015) in 329 regions (or 51.5 percent of land surface). I show that species extinction increases with population density and GDP per capita, and while I cannot claim causal links, my findings suggest that the conservation of nature requires degrowth or at least a transition to a steady state economy.
    Keywords: Biodiversity; species extinction; planetary boundaries; steady state; degrowth
    JEL: A10 Q57
  16. By: Enrico Sergio Levrero
    Abstract: Insieme alle proposte di Beveridge ([1945] 1948) per assicurare la piena occupazione, l’idea più famosa di ispirazione Keynesiana di lotta alla povertà è stata quella avanzata da Minsky (1965) dello Stato come occupatore di ultima istanza, poi ripresa da Burgess e Mitchell (1989), Forstater (1998 e 1999), Harvey (1989), Mitchell (1998), Tcherneva (2007) e Wray (1998a). Dopo aver brevemente esposto la proposta di Minsky (Sezione 2) ed avere calcolato le risorse finanziarie che potrebbero essere necessarie per una sua implementazione in Italia (Sezione 3), scopo di questo lavoro sarà di discutere gli ostacoli che tale proposta potrebbe incontrare e le possibili misure necessarie per superarli (Sezione 4). La conclusione che si trarrà (Sezione 5) è che una combinazione del sistema dell’“Employer of Last Resort” (ELR) con politiche di sostegno alla domanda aggregata nella forma di investimenti pubblici e specifiche spese correnti dello Stato potrebbe essere la misura migliore al fine di garantire la piena occupazione, posto che si abbia una cornice istituzionale favorevole al raggiungimento di tale obiettivo. Seguendo Kalecki (1943) si sottolineerà però che tale cornice istituzionale richiederebbe uno spostamento di potere a favore dei lavoratori che contrasta con quanto verificatosi nei principali paesi industrializzati dalla fine degli anni settanta del secolo scorso.
    Date: 2018–05
  17. By: Anqi Liu (Stevens Institute of Technology); Mark Paddrik (Office of Financial Research); Steve Yang (Stevens Institute of Technology); Xingjia Zhang (Stevens Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: The potential impact of interconnected financial institutions on interbank financial systems is a financial stability concern for central banks and regulators. A number of algorithms/methods have been developed to extrapolate latent interbank risk exposures. However, most use highly stylized network models and reconstruction methods with global optimality lending allocation approaches such as maximizing entropy or minimizing costs. This paper argues that U.S. bank lending and borrowing decisions are largely suboptimal and performance-driven. We present an agent-based model to endogenously reconstruct interbank networks based on 6,600 banks' decision rules and behaviors reflected in quarterly balance sheets. The model formulation reproduces dynamics similar to those of the 2007-09 financial crisis and shows how bank losses and failures arise from network contagion and lending market illiquidity. When calibrated to post-crisis data from 2011-14, the model shows the banking system has reduced its likelihood of bank failures through network contagion and illiquidity, given a similar stress scenario.
    Keywords: Interbank lending market, agent-based simulation, contagion risk, network topology, financial crisis
    Date: 2016–12–20
  18. By: Alexis Faruth Perea S
    Abstract: En el presente artículo, el autor expondrá las razones por las cuales considera que la economía colaborativa constituye un nuevo reto para la regulación económica, en la medida que, si bien ella, en principio, muestra una evolución de los mercados, el hecho de que las personas no comerciantes presten servicios que tradicionalmente contaban con barreras regulatorias y de que haya consumidores dispuestos a pagar por tales servicios, pese a no ser empresas vigiladas por el Estado, puede constituir, a la luz del derecho vigente, un acto de competencia desleal, concretamente, de violación de normas. Dicho acto consiste en que los competidores no saquen ventajas competitivas significativas frente a otros, mediante la infracción de normas jurídicas. Este es un tema importante para el Análisis Económico del Derecho, pues se debe estudiar el fenómeno desde la teoría de costos de transacción. Al final del texto, se pondrá en evidencia que esta nueva forma de transar en los mercados es una solicitud del mercado para la desregulación, pero también presupone la necesidad de reconocer que, mientras ello ocurre, aquellos competidores que se encuentran soportando los costos de transacción impuestos por el Estado están en desventaja frente a estos nuevos competidores, que, con menores recursos, pueden generar un mayor nivel de satisfacción en el consumidor.
    Keywords: Economía colaborativa, competencia desleal, costos de transacción.
    Date: 2018–04–27
  19. By: Chakraborty, Adrij; Mehra, Anahita
    Abstract: The early 1990s opened up the Indian Economy for the world market to set up their businesses and corporations in India. While the advent of private corporations served to up the Indian Economy and turn it into one of the biggest business hubs for Asia, business enterprises also came in with an externality of private profit maximization. This article outlines how India deals with corporate rights to set up business enterprises, as well as the corporate responsibility to respect and abide by the regulations that prohibit them from abusing human rights in the interest of private welfare. The article champions the present Indian scenario where a company’s failure to exercise due diligence creates a rebuttable conjecture of causation and liability towards those employed. An instrument dedicated to supervision of Business and Human Rights in India providing legal solutions to cure ambiguities and unchecked excesses in the current framework of international law is necessary. The narrative does not restrict its ambit to labour rights and includes land rights as a part of human rights in the agrarian context of India. It cites the lack of proper infrastructure to address such as issue and stresses on the importance of an imposing form legal instrument, founded on a softer outline of regulation such as the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights.
    Keywords: Business and Human Rights, Land, Labour, United Nations Guiding Principles, Corporate Responsibility
    JEL: E2 J7 M2
    Date: 2018–04–16
  20. By: Céline Guivarch (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Robert Lempert (RAND Corporation - Santa Monica); Evelina Trutnevyte (Department of Environmental Systems Science, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich - Swiss Federal Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: Scenario techniques are a teeming field in energy and environmental research and decision making. This Thematic Issue (TI) highlights quantitative (computational) methods that improve the development and use of scenarios for dealing with the dual challenge of complexity and (deep) uncertainty. The TI gathers 13 articles that describe methodological innovations or extensions and refinements of existing methods, as well as applications that demonstrate the potential of these methodological developments. The TI proposes two methodological foci for dealing with the challenges of (deep) uncertainty and complexity: diversity and vulnerability approaches help tackle uncertainty; multiple-objective and multiple-scale approaches help address complexity; whereas some combinations of those foci can also be applied. This overview article to the TI presents the contributions gathered in the TI, and shows how they individually and collectively bring new capacity to scenarios techniques to deal with complexity and (deep) uncertainty.
    Keywords: scenarios,uncertainty,complexity,diversity,vulnerability,multiple-objective,multiple- scale
    Date: 2017–11–01
  21. By: Sebastiano Fadda (dpt. Economia)
    Abstract: The aim of the paper is not so much to describe the structural changes that have occurred (or that are occurring) during a certain period of time, but rather to detect the dynamic forces which drive the process of structural change and to detect the institutions that influence these forces and therefore the areas in which the State can play a role in governing the process.
    JEL: E24 J24 O33
  22. By: Anne Eydoux (Centre d'études de l'emploi)
    Abstract: Les propositions d’expérimenter ou de généraliser un revenu universel ont refleuri dans le débat public en France, dans un contexte marqué par la récession et les élections présidentielles. Ce revenu universel est censé porter une redistribution de nature à éviter certains problèmes posés par la conditionnalité des minima sociaux classiques (non recours, non accès). Mais son universalité mérite d’être interrogée. Cet article commence par une analyse détaillée des propositions de revenu universel récemment débattues en France. Il étudie ensuite, à partir de l'examen d'expériences ou d'expérimentations se réclamant du dispositif, la possibilité d'une mise en œuvre à grande échelle. Il questionne également les propositions de revenu universel dans une perspective de genre, en montrant qu’elles sont au mieux aveugles aux inégalités, et en soulignant qu’elles s’inscrivent souvent dans un déni de la centralité du travail. L’article conclut à l’introuvable universalité du dispositif.
    Keywords: Revenu universel; Experimentation; Genre; Etat social
    Date: 2017–12
  23. By: Bodenheimer, Miriam
    Abstract: In this paper, which is the first of two case studies, we will examine whether and to what degree a behavioral transition towards greater social sustainability is taking place in the smartphone sector. We define behavioral transitions as normatively driven changes in a conglomerate of structures, culture, norms and practices that are a key element of long-term transitions towards greater sustainability.
    Date: 2018
  24. By: Gissela Landa (Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques); Paul Malliet (Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques); Aurélien Saussay (Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques); Frédéric Reynès (Nederlandse Organisatie voor Toegepast Natuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek)
    Abstract: Pour une large part, la macroéconomie environnementale se développe à l'écart des débats théoriques qui agitent les autres champs d'étude de la macroéconomie appliquée. En témoigne la faible représentation des questions environnementales dans les revues d'économie généralistes ou dans les manuels de macroéconomie avancée. Si l'environnement n'est jusqu'ici pas considéré comme un thème à même de faire progresser la connaissance en macroéconomie, il est depuis les années 1990 au moins un sujet important d'application des modèles macroéconomiques. En particulier, ces derniers sont utilisés pour analyser et quantifier les effets économiques de la transition vers un système de production et de consommation soutenable. Nous proposons d'apporter un éclairage sur l'état de l'art en macroéconomie environnementale appliquée. Plus particulièrement, nous nous attacherons à identifier les spécificités de cette thématique de recherche, qui expliquent les choix théoriques et empiriques qui y sont pratiqués.
    Keywords: Macroéconomie environnementale; Modélisation macroéconomique; IAM; CGE
    Date: 2017–12
  25. By: Jean-Luc Gaffard (Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques)
    Abstract: L'article vise à opposer l'analyse macroéconomique moderne à une macroéconomie non walrasienne ou évolutionnaire. Ce débat, qui revient sur le devant de la scène à chaque grande crise économique, concerne la nature des problèmes de coordination et les moyens de les résoudre. Alors que les modèles de la macroéconomie moderne décrivent les comportements d'optimisation inter-temporelle de consommateurs parfaitement adaptés à leur environnement et des marchés soldés, la macroéconomie évolutionnaire met l'accent sur les déséquilibres du marché qui nécessitent des comportements adaptatifs. Ce contraste affecte la politique monétaire et budgétaire ainsi que la nature des réformes structurelles à mener. Il concerne également le type de modélisation à développer.
    Keywords: Connaissance imparfaite; Flexibilité; Réformes structurelles
    Date: 2017–12

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