nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2018‒04‒30
27 papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. Marx, the Predisposition to Reject Markets and Private Property, and Attractive Alternatives to Capitalism By Jon D. Wisman;
  2. Ricardo’s Theory of Value is Still Alive and Well in Contemporary Capitalism By Tsoulfidis, Lefteris
  3. Do Financial Constraints Hamper Environmental Innovation Diffusion? An Agent-Based Approach By Paola D’Orazio; Marco Valente
  4. On the evolution of comparative advantage: path-dependent versus path-defying changes By Nicola Coniglio; Davide Vurchio; Nicola Cantore; Michele Clara
  5. La herencia en Émile Durkheim By Quintín Quílez Pedro
  6. The Persistent Statistical Structure of the US Input-Output Coefficient Matrices: 1963-2007 By Luis Daniel Torres Gonzalez; Jangho Yang
  7. Crisis at Home: Mancession-induced Change in Intrahousehold Distribution By Olivier Bargain; Laurine Martinoty
  8. Anti-Muslim Discrimination in France: Evidence from a Field Experiment By Valfort, Marie-Anne
  9. A cautionary tale on polygyny, conflict and gender inequality By Krieger, Tim; Renner, Laura
  10. Women, Rails and Telegraphs: An Empirical Study of Information Diffusion and Collective Action By Camilo García-Jimeno; Angel Iglesias; Pinar Yildirim
  11. Methodology of Islamic economics: Is the subject worth discussing? By Hasan, Zubair
  12. Evaluation of the sophistication of Chinese industries using the information-geometric decomposition approach By Takanori Minamikawa
  13. Home office – Show me your Workplace! By Christine Hax-Noske; Alexander Redlein
  14. Economic drivers of greenhouse gas-emissions in small open economies: A hierarchical structural decomposition analysis By Croner, Daniel; Koller, Wolfgang; Mahlberg, Bernhard
  15. Leverage and evolving heterogeneous beliefs in a simple agent-based financial market By EDOARDO GAFFEO
  16. Does Quality Qualify the Kerala Model? Decentralised Governance, Human Development and Quality By Pillai N., Vijayamohanan
  17. A Hierarchy Model of Income Distribution By Fix, Blair
  18. El balance social, cambios y actualidad By Gorosito, Silvina Marcela; López Domaica, Jorge
  19. Der Beitrag von Sachgüterexporten zur Wirtschaftsleistung: Eine Input-Output-Analyse By Fritz, Oliver; Streicher, Gerhard
  20. Mark-ups in the digital era By Sara Calligaris; Chiara Criscuolo; Luca Marcolin
  22. Conflictos por encuadramiento sindical y/o convencional. El caso Camioneros-Tintoreros By Pontoni, Gabriela A.; Schimpf, María Belén
  23. Voice performativity. Lessons from the Lucernaire case By Jean-Luc Moriceau; Marie-Astrid Le Theule; Yannick Fronda
  24. Global food governance: Zwischen mächtigen Konzernen und verletzlicher Demokratie By McKeon, Nora
  25. The Impact of a Permanent Income Shock on the Situation of Women in the Household: the case of a pension reform in Argentina By Inés Berniell; Dolores de la Mata; Matilde Pinto Machado
  26. The real estate disciplines' introductory principles textbooks resist Schumpeter and change By Stephen Roulac
  27. Regional inequality in Europe: evidence, theory and policy implications By Iammarino, Simona; Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés; Storper, Michael

  1. By: Jon D. Wisman;
    Abstract: Ever since capitalism came to be recognized as a new economic system, its principal institutions of private property and markets have had vociferous critics, of whom none was more wide-ranging and influential than Karl Marx. Marx claimed that not only were private property and markets critical to creating an ideological patina of freedom behind which, as in slavery and feudalism, a small class extracted from the mass of producers practically all output above that necessary for bare subsistence, they were also corrupting. Yet Marx recognized that capitalism, unlike earlier exploitative systems, was radically dynamic, producing unprecedented wealth, while transforming not only all it inherited from the past, but also its own nature so as to eventually empower even the producers, who he believed would abandon these capitalist institutions. This article claims Marx was correct in identifying the core problem of capitalism to be its extreme inequality in the ownership and control of the means of production, but that finding fault with private property and markets has been a mistake that has impeded the generation of an attractive and viable alternative to capitalism. It concludes with an outline of an alternative which would eliminate the core problem of exploitation due to unequal ownership and control of the means of production, while retaining roles for private property and markets. It would entail two components: Guaranteed employment at living wages and democratic worker control of firms.
    Keywords: Inequality, Exploitation, Markets, Private property, Marx
    JEL: B51 P11 P16
    Date: 2018
  2. By: Tsoulfidis, Lefteris
    Abstract: The purpose of this article is, on the one hand, to shed light on some significant aspects of Ricardo's theory of value and on the other hand to show that Ricardo's insights about the explanatory power of the relative labour times on the movement of relative prices were in the right direction. For this purpose, Ricardo's theory of value is cast rigorously and in modern terms such that by using detailed intertemporal data from input-output tables of two major economies to show that Ricardo's insights are absolutely consistent with the facts.
    Keywords: David Ricardo; Value and distribution, Price-value deviations
    JEL: B12 B14 B16 B3 B4 B51 B52 C0 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C67 D3 D4 D46 D57
    Date: 2018
  3. By: Paola D’Orazio (Lehrstuhl für Makroökonomik, Faculty of Economics and Management, Fakultät für Wirtschaftswissenschaft, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstraße 150, 44801 Bochum (Germany).); Marco Valente (Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell’Informazione e di Economia, University of L’Aquila (Italy); LEM Sant’Anna, Pisa (Italy); SPRU, University of Sussex (UK) and Ruhr-Universität Bochum (Germany).)
    Abstract: We develop a model that combines evolutionary economics concepts and methods with environmental economics concerns. The model is populated by consumers, heterogeneous firms, and a financial sector and is used to investigate the dynamic interactions between the demand and supply side, and the role played by binding financial constraints, in the diffusion of environmental innovations. The aim of the model is to understand how environmental goals can be effectively promoted and achieved in presence of a financial sector whose lending attitude is guided by long-termism rather than shorttermism. We show that financial constraints act as a deterring barrier and affect firms’ innovation strategies as well as the evolution of technological paradigms. When financial constraints are less binding, firms do not perceive hindrances to the adoption of eco-innovation and, as a result, the presence of the average green technology in the market increases.
    Keywords: Environmental Innovation, Agent-based Computational Economics, Financial Barriers, Green Finance, Short-termism, Deterring barriers, Credit constraints.
    Date: 2018–04
  4. By: Nicola Coniglio; Davide Vurchio; Nicola Cantore; Michele Clara
    Abstract: The diversification of production and trade is considered almost unanimously a fundamental policy goal, particularly for developing economies whose export baskets are heavily concentrated on a few products. In what direction trade diversification ought to take place is, however, subject to fierce debate. The Product Space (PS) framework (Hausmann and Klinger, 2007; Hidalgo et al. 2007) is a recent contribution in the economic literature that has proved very influential in policy circles. It argues that the endowment of production capabilities (technologies, production factors, institutions etc.) determines what countries produce today but it also constrains what they can produce in the future as it is uncommon that countries develop a comparative advantage in goods that do not draw from the same pool of capabilities (unrelated products). Contributions along such line argue that defying the initial comparative advantage can be a risky policy decision with high probability of failure. The main objective of this contribution is to use a novel methodology to investigate whether the patterns of diversification of a sample of 177 countries over the period 1995-2015 conform or not to the prediction of the PS framework. We find evidence of a high degree of path-dependence but our analysis suggests also that a significant number of new products that entered countries' export baskets were unrelated to the initial productive specialization (path-defying changes). We shed light on the determinants of these 'radical' patterns of diversification and show they are associated with higher economic growth. The results of this study have important policy implications in particular for the design of industrial policies aimed at actively shaping countries' structural transformation.
    Keywords: path-dependence, product space, trade diversification, industrial policy
    JEL: F1 O1 O3
    Date: 2018–04
  5. By: Quintín Quílez Pedro
    Abstract: El tema de la herencia constituye un asunto menor dentro de la sociología desarrollada por Émile Durkheim (1858-1917). Sin embargo, su apuesta por la eliminación legal de la herencia familiar fue, para este autor, no solo la oportunidad de ofrecer una interpretación sociológica de su origen, función y evolución, sino sobre todo de situarse políticamente en los debates políticos del momento. Como resultado, Durkheim formuló una predicción sobre su futura desaparición. La herencia sería substituida por otras formas de transmisión de bienes más pertinentes para las sociedades modernas caracterizadas por una cada vez mayor división y especialización del trabajo. Si El capital en el siglo XXI (2013), el exitoso libro del economista Thomas Piketty, ha vuelto a poner sobre la mesa el papel jugado por el capital económico heredado en el actual incremento de la desigualdad social, vale la pena recordar lo que al respecto dijo uno de los padres fundadores de la sociología y de quien estamos conmemorando los cien años de su muerte.
    Keywords: Sociología clásica, Sociología económica, Herencia
    Date: 2018–03–30
  6. By: Luis Daniel Torres Gonzalez (Department of Economics, New School for Social Research); Jangho Yang (Oxford Martin School, University of Oxford)
    Abstract: The paper finds evidence for the existence of a statistical structure in the US input-output (I-O) coefficient matrices A = f{aij} for 1963-2007. For various aspects of matrices A we find smooth and unimodal empirical frequency distributions (EFD) with a remarkable stability in their functional form for most of the samples. The EFD of all entries, diagonal entries, row sums, and the (left and right) Perron-Frobenius eigenvectors are well described by fat-tailed distributions while the EFD of column sums and eigenvalue moduli are well explained by the normal distribution and the Beta distribution, respectively. The paper provides several economic interpretations of these statistical results based on the recent developments in the I-O analysis and the price of production literature. Our findings question some probabilistic assumptions conventionally adopted in the stochastic I-O analysis literature and call for a statistical approach to the discussion of the structure of I-O matrices.
    Keywords: Input-Output matrices, Stochastic Input-Output Analysis, Statistical Structure, Economic Structure, Bayesian estimation, US economy
    JEL: C11 C46 C51 C52 C67 D57 O51
    Date: 2018–04
  7. By: Olivier Bargain (GREQAM - Groupement de Recherche en Économie Quantitative d'Aix-Marseille - ECM - Ecole Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales); Laurine Martinoty (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne)
    Abstract: The Great Recessions was essentially a 'mancession' in countries like Spain, the UK or the US, i.e. it hit men harder than women for they were disproportionately represented in heavily affected sectors. We investigate how the mancession, and more generally women's relative opportunities on the labor market, translate into within-household redistribution. Precisely, we estimate the spouses' resource shares in a collective model of consumption, using Spanish data over 2006-2011. We exploit the gender-oriented evolution of the economic environment to test two original distribution factors: first the regional-time variation in spouses' relative unemployment risks, then the gender-differentiated shock in the construction sector (having a construction sector husband after the outburst of the crisis). Both approaches conclude that the resource share accruing to Spanish wives increased by around 7-9 percent on average, following the improvement of their relative labor market positions. Among childless couples, we document a 5-11 percent decline in individual consumption inequality following the crisis, which is essentially due to intrahousehold redistribution.
    Keywords: mancession,intrahousehold allocation,unemployment risk
    Date: 2018
  8. By: Valfort, Marie-Anne (Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: Relying on a correspondence study conducted in France before the 2015 attacks, this paper compares the callback rates of immigrants of Muslim and Christian culture who originate from the same country and whose religiosity varies from non-religious to religious. Based on responses to over 6,200 job ads, the results reveal an insignificant disadvantage for Muslims when they are not religious. However, Muslims lose further ground when they are religious, while the reverse occurs for Christians. Consequently, religious Muslims must submit twice as many applications as religious Christians before being called back by the recruiters. A follow-up survey confirms that the signal used to convey fictitious applicants' religiosity is not only viewed as relevant but that it is also correctly interpreted by employers.
    Keywords: religion, religiosity, Islam, discrimination, France, correspondence study
    JEL: C93 J15 J71 Z12
    Date: 2018–03
  9. By: Krieger, Tim; Renner, Laura
    Abstract: Kanazawa (J of Politics, 2009) claims that polygyny may be the "first law of intergroup conflict (civil wars)". Gleditsch et al. (J of Politics, 2011) reject this claim by showing that the effect of polygyny on civil war onset disappears once misogyny is controlled for. Our paper recapitulates this theoretical and empirical debate. We explore further theoretical arguments and replicate and extend the empirical analysis of Gleditsch et al. Our analysis is based on data from 123 countries from the period 1981-2011. Our results show that there is some truth to the empirical claims of both articles: Both polygyny and gender inequality matter in explaining the onset of internal conflicts. However, the results are sensitive to regional sample splits as well as the choice of the dimensions of gender inequality. The most pronounced effects can be found in a subsample of 40 African countries.
    Keywords: Polygyny,Misogyny,Gender Inequality,Intrastate Conflict,Civil War
    JEL: D74 J12 J16
    Date: 2018
  10. By: Camilo García-Jimeno; Angel Iglesias; Pinar Yildirim
    Abstract: How do social interactions shape collective action, and how are they mediated by the availability of networked information technologies? To answer these questions, we study the Temperance Crusade, one of the earliest instances of organized political mobilization by women in the U.S. This wave of protest activity against liquor dealers spread between the winter of 1873 and the summer of 1874, covering more than 800 towns in 29 states. We first provide causal evidence of social interactions driving the diffusion of the protest wave, and estimate the roles played by information traveling along railroad and telegraph networks. We do this by relying on exogenous variation in the rail network links generated by railroad worker strikes and railroad accidents. We also develop an event-study methodology to estimate the complementarity between rail and telegraph networks in driving the spread of the Crusade. We find that railroad and telegraph-mediated information about neighboring protest activity were main drivers of the diffusion of the protest movement. We also find strong complementarities between both networks. Using variation in the types of protest activities of neighboring towns and in the aggregate patterns of the diffusion process, we also find suggestive evidence of social learning as a key mechanism behind the effect of information on protest adoption.
    JEL: D71 D83 N11 N31 N71 O18 Z12
    Date: 2018–04
  11. By: Hasan, Zubair
    Abstract: The word methodology has several usages. Here, we shall use it to denote its two uses. First, it is the subject that fixed targets for economics to achieve and supervises the discipline from outside to see how far those targets have been achieved with the passage of time. In this sense, methodology is a branch of the theory of knowledge with philosophical import. In this sense, the discussions on methodology in Islamic economics are fruitless and misleading. Second, methodology as a part of economics helps design research and its supervision. In this sense, the methods used in Islamic economics are unduly loaded with Western approach and techniques and call for reform. The controversy and confusion on the issues involved has been lingering for long but has of late assumed disquieting proportions. The paper discusses the subject in the light of the prevalent puritan versus pragmatic approach to the study of Islamic economics. Indeed, their confrontation threatens the very survival of the subject as a distinct academic discipline. The paper suggests a way out of the predicament evaluating the efficacy of the rising concerns and focus on the subject.
    Keywords: World view; Positive versus normative; Empiricism; Predatory publishing on line
    JEL: A23 B4 Y8
    Date: 2018–04–04
  12. By: Takanori Minamikawa (Economic Research Institute for Northeast Asia (ERINA))
    Abstract: Since the Open Door Policy was implemented in 1978, China economy has maintained a high economic growth. During this period, although the reform of state-owned enterprises and the introduction of foreign direct investments might cause the change of the industrial structure, the common recognition, about how those factor has changed Chinese industrial structure, has not been obtained. This paper applied information geometric decomposition to Input-Output tables of China in the period 1981 to 2010, and extracted the factors of the technological changes in the whole industry in China. This paper examines the different of evaluation of industrial structure between input coefficient index and information geometry approach. Furthermore based on the factors, two industrial sophistication indicators, which are about degree of Mechanization and degree of ICT introducing, respectively are constructed. The empirical results suggests that the degree of mechanization and included ICT has different characteristics for each other. Regarding mechanization, the mechanized manufacturing sectors showed increases in sophistication in the 1980s and 2000s; however, mechanized tertiary sectors showed increases in sophistication in the 1990s. Regarding ICT input, while manufacturing sectors showed a high level of sophistication in ICT input in the 2000s, tertiary sectors showed a high level of sophistication in ICT input in the 1990s.
    Keywords: Input-Output tables, Industrial structure, RAS method, Foreign Direct Investment, Innovation
  13. By: Christine Hax-Noske; Alexander Redlein
    Abstract: New ways of working means flexible working. One of the main conflicts with flexible working is the difficulty, not to get totally absorbed by worklife. The capacity to regenerate is essential. One main place for regeneration is the home. In the home office the conflict of privacy and worklife becomes physical: The worksphere invades the homesphere- and vice versa. The Canadian Psychologist Ng (Ng 2010) states in a review on homeoffice workplaces, that there is no actual research focused on the relationship between spatial and environmental aspects of home offices and work behaviour. Little is known, on how home workplaces look like. Sherry Ahrendzen (Ahrendzen 1989) asked 30 years ago, what types of spatial arrangements are best suited for homeworkers. It makes sense to ask this question again under the light of todays political, cultural and social background and considering todays technical possibilities.There are two essential Questions: How looks the workplace in the home office today? What are the best spatial and environmental arrangements when working at home?Method: This home office study is embedded in a larger research project on the influence of environmental parameters on office workers. The overarching research project gives a superstructure for the home office study. A broad research of laws, standards and literature defines environmental variables and resulted in a database with key criteria and priorities for health, wellbeing and comfort (Hax, Redlein 2016).‘What makes an effective workplace in conventional office setting may apply to home offices as well’ (Ng 2010). The database gives a structure to environmental variables in the home office.To get a close look inside the home office, homeworkers in Vienna and in the suburban areas of lower Austria are interviewed in their homes. The workplaces are documented by foto.Results: This is an ongoing research, starting in January 2017. The planned result is, to construct typologies of home office workplaces, in order to get a better understanding of the relationship between environmental settings and homeworkers work outcomes. First results will be ready on the conference in June 2017.Ahrentzen S. (1989): A place of peace, prospect, and…a PC: The home as office. In: Journal of architectural and planning research 6(4):271-288, December 1989Hax-Noske C., Redlein A. (2016 ): Parameters for Comfort: Comparative study of laws and standards. In: Research Papers for EuroFM´s 15th Research Sy
    Keywords: homeoffice; indoor environment; Occupational Health; telework; Workplace Research
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2017–07–01
  14. By: Croner, Daniel; Koller, Wolfgang; Mahlberg, Bernhard
    Abstract: The Paris agreement has prescribed strict Greenhouse Gas (GHG) reduction targets for participating countries. Implementation of climate protection policies is challenging, especially if the economy is export driven. We introduce a hierarchical structural decomposition model in order to investigate the effects of exports, imports, economic structure, consumption patterns, consumption level, outsourcing and insourcing on national GHG emissions. This model is applied to the data of national environmental accounts and to a harmonized and price-deflated series of national input-output tables of Austria for the years 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010. Over the whole time period, the results indicate that the final demand effect was the main driver of GHG emissions, with exports as most important factor. Surprisingly, emission intensity contributed to an increase of GHG emissions during the period 2000-2005 as well, mostly due to increasing emission intensity in the transport sector.
    Keywords: Leontief Model; Emissions Embodied in Exports; Trade Integration; Economic Structure; CO2-Intensity; Competitiveness
    JEL: C67 L16 Q53 Q56
    Date: 2018–02–15
    Abstract: Recent research has acknowledged the crucial role of financial intermediaries’ balance sheet variables – namely, wealth and leverage – in the dynamics of asset prices. In this paper we use a prototypical “small-type†artificial financial market model with heterogeneous interacting traders to pin down how asset prices are affected by the complex interaction between balance sheet constraints and the endogenous evolution of trading rules.
    Keywords: Agent-based model, Financial markets, Leverage cycle
    JEL: C63 D53 G12 G18
    Date: 2018
  16. By: Pillai N., Vijayamohanan
    Abstract: The present paper argues that the expansion of the the vector of human capabilities in Kerala has tended to belie the Pythagorean dictum as well as the Marxian dialectics on a one-to-one correspondence between quantity and quality: the quantity increase has by no means led quality improvement, leaving her just with some apparent achievements in capability. We introduce in the paper an integrated theory of governance, public action and development in the framework of Sennian capability approach and human rights perspective and discusses the experience of Kerala in decentralization ventures, and evaluates the programme in the context of the implications for human development. We also attempt to develop a theory of quality and freedom on the premise that development as freedom from deprivation consists in realising both availability (including accessibility) and utilisability (or simply, utility) of those, the public provision of which constitutes freedom from deprivation. In other words, realisation of development implies that in its truest sense of this duality. Then the right to development, being a human right, is a right to both; even with availability, development is denied and unfreedoms exist if utility is denied. In this light we argue that such apparent capability enhancement in quantitative terms sans utilisability which we call ‘a-capability enhancement’, however, is of neither intrinsic nor instrumental value.
    Keywords: Human Development, Decentralization, Quality,Freedom, Kerala Model, education, health care, transportation
    JEL: H1 I3 O1 O15
    Date: 2018
  17. By: Fix, Blair
    Abstract: Based on worldly experience, most people would agree that firms are hierarchically organized, and that pay tends to increase as one moves up the hierarchy. But how this hierarchical structure affects income distribution has not been widely studied. To remedy this situation, this paper presents a new model of income distribution that explores the effects of social hierarchy. This ‘hierarchy model’ takes the limited available evidence on the structure of firm hierarchies and generalizes it to create a large-scale simulation of the hierarchical structure of the United States economy. Using this model, I conduct the first quantitative investigation of hierarchy’s effect on income distribution. I find that hierarchy plays a dominant role in shaping the tail of US income distribution. The model suggests that hierarchy is responsible for generating the power-law scaling of top incomes. Moreover, I find that hierarchy can be used to unify the study of personal and functional income distribution, as well as to understand historical trends in income inequality.
    Keywords: income distribution,hierarchy,power
    JEL: P16
    Date: 2018
  18. By: Gorosito, Silvina Marcela; López Domaica, Jorge
    Abstract: El objetivo del trabajo ha sido profundizar en la información que puede brindar la entidad sobre la contribución que efectúa con su funcionamiento a la sociedad de la que forma parte. Hemos analizado la Resolución Técnica (RT) 36 donde se desarrolla la presentación del Balance Social a través de la Memoria de Sustentabilidad y del Estado de Valor Económico: generado y cómo distribuye a los distintos factores que contribuyeron en su determinación. Desarrollamos la presentación del EVEGyD de una empresa con fines de lucro y efectuamos ciertas consideraciones a contemplar según el tipo de entidad o actividad que realice, como así también el efecto inflacionario en la exposición del estado. En cuanto a la Memoria de Sustentabilidad, la RT 36 establece que las entidades sigan la guía de aceptación mundial proporcionada por el GRI. Actualmente está vigente la G4, la que ha incorporado mejoras. Numerosas empresas argentinas ya presentan su Balance Social.
    Keywords: Balance Social; Valor Económico; Normas Contables;
    Date: 2018
  19. By: Fritz, Oliver; Streicher, Gerhard
    Abstract: Für Österreich als kleine, offene Volkswirtschaft sind Exporte eine entscheidende Komponente der gesamtwirtschaftlichen Nachfrage. Die zunehmende internationale Arbeitsteilung führt jedoch nicht nur zu einem steigenden Exportvolumen, sondern auch zu einer Fragmentierung der Produktion, die mit zunehmendem Einsatz von importierten Vorleistungen in der Produktion verbunden ist und somit potentiell den Wertschöpfungsbeitrag (wie auch die Beschäftigungsintensität) der Exportwirtschaft verringert. Die vorliegende Kurzstudie untersucht zum einen die Entwicklung der Wertschöpfungsintensität sowie die Beschäftigungswirkungen österreichischer Exporte im Zeitablauf. Für die Auslandsexporte auf Ebene der österreichischen Bundesländer wird zum anderen der Dienstleistungsgehalt des österreichischen Warenhandels gemessen und die These der "Huckepackexporte" näher untersucht.
    Date: 2018–04
  20. By: Sara Calligaris (OECD); Chiara Criscuolo (OECD); Luca Marcolin (OECD)
    Abstract: This paper examines the evolution of firm mark-ups across 26 countries for the period 2001-14. It also discusses and investigates empirically how this can be related to the degree of digital transformation in sectors. Four main facts emerge: i) mark-ups are increasing over the period, on average across country; ii) this result is driven by firms at the top of the mark-up distribution, while the bottom half of the distribution exhibits a flat trend over time; (iii) mark-ups are higher in digital-intensive sectors than in less-digitally intensive sectors; (iv) mark-up differentials between digitally-intensive and less-digitally-intensive sectors have increased significantly over time.
    Keywords: Digitalization, Mark-Ups, Market Power, Technological Change
    JEL: D2 L1 L2 O33
    Date: 2018–04–25
  21. By: Caroline Ardelet (CEROS - Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches sur les Organisations et la Stratégie - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre); Barbara Slavich (LEM - Lille - Economie et Management - UCL - Université catholique de Lille - Université de Lille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Gwarlann De Kerviler (LEM - Lille - Economie et Management - UCL - Université catholique de Lille - Université de Lille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: The objective of this study is to examine what determines women’s ethical judgments of advertisements portraying feminine erotic images. The findings demonstrate that women ethical judgment is negatively correlated to perception of male dominance in the advertisement. The role of perceived male dominance on ad ethic judgments depend on self-identified archetypal representations of femininity about women social identities (e.g. Lover, Hero or Explorer social identities) and on women’s social image (e.g. intense vs neutral make-up). Our hypotheses find support in a survey of 84 women evaluating a fashion advertisement portraying a feminine erotic image.
    Abstract: The objective of this study is to examine what determines women's ethical judgments of advertisements portraying feminine erotic images. The findings demonstrate that women ethical judgment is negatively correlated to perception of male dominance in the advertisement. The role of perceived male dominance on ad ethic judgments depend on self-identified archetypal representations of femininity about women social identities (e.g. Lover, Hero or Explorer social identities) and on women's social image (e.g. intense vs neutral make-up). Our hypotheses find support in a survey of 84 women evaluating a fashion advertisement portraying a feminine erotic image. Abstract: L'objectif de cette étude est d'examiner les facteurs déterminants la perception de l'éthique des publicités mettant en scène des images érotiques féminines. Les résultats montrent que plus les femmes perçoivent une domination masculine dans la publicité, moins elles jugent la publicité éthique. L'impact de la perception de domination masculine sur l'éthique de la publicité dépend de la représentation archétypale de la féminité à laquelle les femmes s'identifient : l'identité sociale féminine (Amoureuse, Dirigeante ou Exploratrice) et l'image sociale féminine (maquillage intense ou naturel). Notre étude s'appuie sur une étude quantitative en ligne auprès d'un panel de 84 femmes françaises évaluant une publicité de mode mettant en scène une image érotique féminine.
    Keywords: Advertising,Ethics,Femininity,Archetypes
    Date: 2018–05–16
  22. By: Pontoni, Gabriela A.; Schimpf, María Belén
    Abstract: El artículo estudia el conflicto por encuadramiento sindical y convencional entre el gremio de Camioneros y el de Tintoreros. La disputa se generó en torno a la representación de los trabajadores de la categoría choferes y ayudantes de carga, en la actividad de Lavaderos Industriales, de Ropa, Limpierías y Afines. La investigación analizó los procesos que llevaron a los trabajadores de la categoría disputada a exigir la continuidad de la tutela gremial y convencional bajo la órbita de Tintoreros. El método utilizado fue el estudio de caso. Los resultados muestran que los conflictos por encuadramiento sindical y/o convencional tensionan la representatividad gremial y la identidad colectiva.
    Keywords: Representación Sindical; Afiliación Sindical; Representación de los Trabajadores; Identidad;
    Date: 2017
  23. By: Jean-Luc Moriceau (DEFIS - Droit, Economie, Finances et Sociologie - TEM - Télécom Ecole de Management - Institut Mines-Télécom [Paris], LITEM - Laboratoire en Innovation, Technologie, Economie et Management - UEVE - Université d'Évry-Val-d'Essonne - Grenoble École de Management (GEM) - TEM - Télécom Ecole de Management); Marie-Astrid Le Theule (LIRSA - Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de Recherche en Sciences de l'Action - CNAM - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM]); Yannick Fronda (DEFIS - Droit, Economie, Finances et Sociologie - TEM - Télécom Ecole de Management - Institut Mines-Télécom [Paris], LITEM - Laboratoire en Innovation, Technologie, Economie et Management - UEVE - Université d'Évry-Val-d'Essonne - Grenoble École de Management (GEM) - TEM - Télécom Ecole de Management)
    Abstract: For Hirschman (1983, 1986, 1995), in case of dissatisfaction, exit and loyalty are not the only kinds of agency, voice is a third option. But what makes voice performative? We propose to study voicing not as argumentative speech or a sign-making but as performance (Schechner, 1995, 2002). An exploratory qualitative study, in which a voice consisted simultaneously of a hunger strike and the dramatization of this protest in a play, shows a set of performative dynamics. Five lessons regarding voice performativity are proposed, concerning the existence of exit door(s), theatricality and performance, voice parasiting, role of contexts and the openness to conciliation.
    Abstract: Pour Hirschman (1983, 1986, 1995), en cas d'insatisfaction, nous n'avons pas que la sortie (exit) ou la loyauté (loyalty) comme capacité d'action, nous pouvons aussi prendre la parole (voice). Mais qu'est-ce qui rend une prise de parole performative ? Nous proposons d'étudier la prise de parole non comme une argumentation ou un signe mais comme une performance (Schechner, 1995, 2002). Une étude exploratoire qualitative, où une prise de parole a consisté simultanément en une grève de la faim et en la dramatisation de cette protestation dans une pièce de théâtre, montre un ensemble de dynamiques performatives. Cinq enseignements quant à la performativité de la prise de parole sont proposés, concernant l'existence de porte(s) de sortie, la théâtralité et la performance, le parasitage de la parole, le rôle des différents contextes et l'ouverture à la conciliation.
    Keywords: Voice,Performativity,Performance,Protest,Prise de parole,Performativité,Protestation
    Date: 2018
  24. By: McKeon, Nora
    Abstract: Mit den Unruhen, die 2007/2008 infolge der Nahrungsmittelpreiskrise viele Hauptstädte rund um den Globus erschütterten, wurde auch die Existenz eines bedenklichen Governance-Vakuums offenbar. Die Vorschläge, die die internationale Gemeinschaft auf den Tisch brachte, um dieses Vakuum zu füllen, waren überwiegend administrativer Natur (wie die vom damaligen UNGeneralsekretär Ban Ki-moon einberufene Hochrangige Arbeitsgruppe zur Globalen Ernährungssicherung) oder investitionsgesteuert (wie die von den G8 initiierte Globale Partnerschaft für Landwirtschaft und Ernährungssicherung). Die einzige Bemühung, mit politischen Maßnahmen bei den Ursachen der Nahrungsmittelpreiskrise anzusetzen, bestand in der Anregung, den Ausschuss für Welternährungssicherheit der Vereinten Nationen (UN Committee on World Food Security, CFS) zu reformieren. Mehrere G77-Länder sowie die Ernährungs- und Landwirtschaftsorganisation der Vereinten Nationen (FAO) traten für diesen Vorschlag ein. Schließlich setzte sich die Lösung mit der Unterstützung einer Bewegung aus kleinen Erzeugern und Organisationen der Zivilgesellschaft durch. Diese hatten bereits während der Welternährungskonferenzen 1996 und 2003 mit ihrem Eintreten für 'Ernährungssouveränität' eine starke globale Interessenvertretung aufgebaut. Der Reformprozess, der im Jahr 2009 eingeläutet wurde, machte aus dem CFS ein äußerst innovatives globales politisches Forum. So ist er in einem menschenrechtlichen Rahmen verankert und steht der uneingeschränkten Beteiligung von Organisationen offen, die die am stärksten von Ernährungsunsicherheit betroffenen Bevölkerungsgruppen repräsentieren. Dank dieser Eigenschaften könnte der CFS richtungsweisend für andere Globale-Governance-Institutionen sein. Seine Relevanz wird umso deutlicher vor dem Hintergrund, dass Ernährungssicherheit und damit verwandte Themen, wie der Zugang zu Land, Wasser und genetischen Ressourcen, das Herzstück globaler wirtschaftlicher und geopolitischer Machtsysteme bilden.
    Date: 2018
  25. By: Inés Berniell (CEDLAS-UNLP); Dolores de la Mata (CAF); Matilde Pinto Machado (Universidad Carlos III de Madrid)
    Abstract: Income transfers from social programs are often not gender neutral and should, according to the vast literature on intra-household decision making and allocation, affect the distribution of bargaining power within the household. This result, however, was by and large established under the assumption of marriage stability. If this assumption does not hold, then the positive response of bargaining power to income found in the empirical research may be the artefact of sample selection. One may postulate, however, that when restricted to certain groups in the population, such as seniors, the assumption may hold since their probability of divorce is close to zero. In this paper we prove that the assumption is wrong, even when applied to seniors. We use a non-contributory pension reform in Argentina, that resulted in an unexpected and substantial increase in permanent income for around 1.8 million women, to study its effects on outcomes related to both marital stability and women’s bargaining power within the household. We find that the reform increased the probability of divorce/separation among senior highly educated women but had no impact on the low-educated. Instead, the latter gained considerable bargaining power within the household by decreasing the probability of being the only one in charge of household chores in tandem with an increase in their husbands’ participation in these chores.
    JEL: J12 J16 J26 H55
    Date: 2017–11
  26. By: Stephen Roulac
    Abstract: It is broadly recognized that real estate has been subjected to a veritable tsunami of change forces dramatically impacting:Property use: Air BnBRetail shopping – AmazonWorkspaces – WeWork and other co-working modelsCapital access – FinTech innovations and crowd fundingUrbanization – prospectively accelerated by autonomous vehicles and proliferating high-rise constructionThese changes are not necessarily reflected in the focus of research topics investigated by the property research community. Mainstream real estate textbooks are even more innocent of these forces. Consequently, the academy is not well serving students studying property.This paper explores implications of change influence the concerns of property scholars and the contents of property curriculums. The study emphasis is on textbooks for introductory real estate principles. This research updates and extends prior research published in Journal of Real Estate Literature two decades ago ("Foundation of the Knowledge Structure: Review of Real Estate Principles Texts,") and a decade ago ("Shifting Foundations of the Real Estate Knowledge Structure").While the majority of real estate textbooks evaluated in the 1994 review were no longer in the market a decade later, significantly, the books that survived were more traditional. The survivors had become more non-traditional, placing greater emphasis on topics other than law and brokerage. Books not in the market in 1994, were even more traditional. Strikingly, economics was less emphasized in 2004 than a decade earlier. While the economy represented real-time empirical validation of Schumpeter’s classic principle of creative destruction, the same conclusion does not apply to the real estate principles textbooks.This paper provides a contemporary 2017 perspective on what is covered in introductory real estate principles textbooks, compares and contrasts that coverage to contemporary discovery research, and considers how topic emphasis has changed.At a time when the economy is more complex and factors that influence future performance of property goods and services are greater rather than fewer, many studying real estate principles are likely to find that their textbooks are less than adequate. Those pursuing real estate careers, whose initial knowledge foundation is built upon deficient, rather than superior professional services, shall be more likely to miscalculate in their decision-making and in making capital commitment.
    Keywords: Education; Innovation; Textbooks
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2017–07–01
  27. By: Iammarino, Simona; Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés; Storper, Michael
    Abstract: Regional economic divergence has become a threat to economic progress, social cohesion and political stability in Europe. Market processes and policies that are supposed to spread prosperity and opportunity are no longer sufficiently effective. The evidence points to the existence of several different modes of regional economic performance in Europe, responding to different development challenges and opportunities. Both mainstream and heterodox theories have gaps in their ability to explain the existence of these different regional trajectories and the weakness of the convergence processes among them. Therefore, a different approach is required, one that strengthens Europe's strongest regions but develops new approaches to promote opportunity in industrial declining and less-developed regions. There is ample new theory and evidence to support such an approach, which we have labelled 'place-sensitive distributed development policy'.
    Keywords: economic divergence; European Union.; inequality; place-sensitive development; regions
    JEL: R11 R12 R58
    Date: 2018–04

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