nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2018‒04‒16
twenty-one papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. Development governance. The philosophy of innovation and the ethical economy of Amartya Sen By Flavia Palazzi; Francesco Iury Forte
  2. Self-employment on the way in a digital economy: A variety of shades of grey By Bögenhold, Dieter; Klinglmair, Robert; Kandutsch, Florian
  3. Seguridad social para los trabajadores independientes en Argentina diseño, cobertura y financiamiento By Casalí, Pablo.; Jiménez, Maribel.; Lépore, Eduardo.; Ortega, Lucía.; Alvarez, Mariana.
  4. Bringing the Household Back in. Comparative Capitalism and the Politics of Housing Markets By Greg Fuller; Alison Johnston; Aidan Regan
  5. Hiring Discrimination on the Algerian Labour Market: an Assessment with Testing By Lamia Benhabib; Philippe Adair
  6. Atlas of Economic Complexity of Russian Regions: Methodology Issues By Gvozdeva, Margarita; lubimov, Ivan; Lysuk, Marina
  7. A Complementary View on Complex and Systemic Approaches By Marion Real; Jean Michel Larrasquet; Iban Lizarralde
  8. The impact of stereotyped and non-stereotyped brand genders on cross-gender extension evaluations By Nathalie Veg-Sala
  9. Qualitative Research Methodology in Social Sciences and Related Subjects By Mohajan, Haradhan
  10. Does the Steindl-Dutt Investment Function Rule Out Profit-Led Expansion? By Deepankar Basu
  11. A path integral based model for stocks and order dynamics By Giovanni Paolinelli; Gianni Arioli
  12. Impact of governing modes on agrarian sustainability in Bulgaria By Bachev, Hrabrin
  13. NAFTA and the Wages of Married Women By Shushanik Hakobyan; John McLaren
  15. Socioeconomic Status and Housework: Cultural Differences in Participation in Routine Housework in Japan, Canada, and the US By Kolpashnikova, Kamila; Chiba, Ryota; Shirakawa, Kiyomi
  16. Leverage—A Broader View By Manmohan Singh; Zohair Alam
  17. Climate change, agricultural and food challenges By Foued Cheriet
  18. Matrice de comptabilité sociale désagrégée de l'économie sénégalaise en 2014 By Pierre Boulanger; Hasan Dudu; Emanuele Ferrari; Alfredo J. Mainar Causape
  19. Relación entre la segregación de género en las disciplinas de estudio universitarias y el empleo de las personas recién graduadas en Costa Rica By Laura C. Blanco
  20. Les modèles multi-agents et leurs conséquences pour l’analyse macroéconomique By Mauro Napoletano
  21. Ethics, algorithms and self-driving cars – a CSI of the ‘trolley problem’ By Renda, Andrea

  1. By: Flavia Palazzi (UGA UFR ARSH - Université Grenoble Alpes - UFR Arts & Sciences Humaines - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Francesco Iury Forte
    Abstract: The essay aims to analyze the phenomenon of corporate social responsibility, which originated in the United States in the fifties but became a reality widespread in recent decades, from a philosophical-economic point of view and as the Socratic question "how to live ? ", Reproposed by the Nobel Prize winner for economics Amartya Sen, as well as his reflections on the ethical origins of the economy, lead us to reflect on new ways through which the company influences social values. From crowdfunding to the experiences of free-form enterprises, where time and space are decentralized. The phenomenon is interesting from an economic point of view: in fact, new forms of competitiveness are sought in the knowledge that the ultimate goal of the company remains profit, but also and above all ethical and social where new ways of doing business are changing society , while society itself requires innovative models in the way of doing business in its liquid and globalized variability. The need to find new measures of quality of life is also linked to these reflections. In 2008, a commission set up by the then President Nicolas Sarkozy and composed of some Nobel prizes including Amartya Sen, Jean Paul Fitoussi and Joseph Stigltiz, despite not having had a large following, began studying alternative measures to GDP that took into account happiness and of the welfare of the population. The order of economic indices so far known is therefore to be confronted with the disorder of a society that is reorganizing according to renewed models and desperately seeking new certainty, in the economic and political fields; starting from the crisis of homo oeconomicus, of overcoming the mere rationality about human choices in the economic field, if the request of society is that of a greater attention to ethics, to the responsibility in the consumption of resources and in respect of human rights, the governments that in the future will have the objective of guiding the economy and, in turn, not being guided, will have to take it into account and identify new answers to these questions, in order to put the economy back to the full service of man.
    Abstract: Il saggio mira ad analizzare il fenomeno della responsabilità sociale d’impresa, che ha avuto origine negli Stati Uniti negli anni Cinquanta ma divenuta una realtà diffusa negli ultimi decenni, da un punto di vista filosofico-economico e come la domanda socratica «come bisogna vivere?», riproposta dal premio Nobel per l’economia Amartya Sen, nonché le sue riflessioni sulle origini etiche dell’economia, ci inducano a riflettere su nuove modalità attraverso cui l’impresa influenza i valori sociali. Dal crowdfunding alle esperienze della free-form enterprises, in cui il tempo e lo spazio sono decentrati. Il fenomeno è interessante da un punto di vista economico: si cercano infatti nuove forme di competitività pur nella consapevolezza che il fine ultimo dell’impresa resta il profitto, ma anche e soprattutto etico-sociale laddove i nuovi modi di fare impresa stanno cambiando la società, mentre la società stessa richiede, nella sua variabilità liquida e globalizzata, modelli innovativi nel modo di fare impresa. A queste riflessioni si collega anche la necessità di trovare nuove misure della qualità della vita. Nel 2008, una Commissione istituita dall’allora Presidente Nicolas Sarkozy e composta da alcuni premi Nobel tra cui Amartya Sen, Jean Paul Fitoussi e Joseph Stigltiz, malgrado non abbia avuto grande seguito, iniziò a studiare misure alternative al PIL che tenessero conto della felicità e del benessere della popolazione. L’ordine degli indici economici fino ad ora conosciuti si trova quindi a doversi confrontare con il disordine di una società che si sta riorganizzando secondo modelli rinnovati e che cerca disperatamente nuove certezze, in campo economico e politico; a partire dalla crisi dell’homo oeconomicus, del superamento della mera razionalità circa le scelte umane in ambito economico, se la richiesta della società è quella di una maggiore attenzione all’etica, alla responsabilità nel consumo delle risorse e nel rispetto dei diritti umani, i governi che in futuro avranno come obiettivo quello di guidare l’economia e, non esserne a loro volta guidati, dovranno tenerne conto e individuare nuove risposte a queste domande, al fine di porre di nuovo l’economia al pieno servizio dell’uomo.
    Date: 2018–03–19
  2. By: Bögenhold, Dieter; Klinglmair, Robert; Kandutsch, Florian
    Abstract: The aim of this paperis to discuss self-employment in a historical perspective. A historiography of self-employment has to embed the observation into a broader frame-work of international relations and of economic and social developments. Related changes affect diverse institutions like labour markets, systems of education and further education, political organizations, the system of labour relations and, of course, the whole “social system of production” (Hollingsworth, 1998). Vice versa, these changes are also affected by different developments in the sphere of the social, technological and political organization of economy and society. Contemporary discourse about the nature of self-employment falls far too short, if it is not linked to an historical frame-work of thought, which gives contours to ideas and changing interpretations. Especially, the current type of “naive” admiration of self-employment, often in combination with normative upgrading in terms of entrepreneurship, must be advised to analyse and to think historically. At the same time, many present day self-employed “jobs” would have been standard employment contracts some ten years ago. In this respects current de-bates on precarization are also linked with debates on self-employment.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship, self-employment
    JEL: J01 J4 J49 Z1 Z13
    Date: 2018–02–28
  3. By: Casalí, Pablo.; Jiménez, Maribel.; Lépore, Eduardo.; Ortega, Lucía.; Alvarez, Mariana.
    Abstract: En la última década, Argentina ha implementado una serie de políticas tendientes a mejorar lascondiciones laborales de las trabajadoras domésticas e incluirlas en el marco de la protección social. A lareparación histórica que implica la sanción de la nueva ley del sector (Ley 26.844 “Régimen Especial deContrato de Trabajo para el Personal de Casas Particulares”), se le han sumado campañas de informacióne incentivos fiscales que buscaron promover el registro. Si bien se han observado avances significativosen la materia, todavía persiste una mayoría de trabajadoras no registradas. El estudio indaga sobre lasrazones que subyacen a este fenómeno basándose en un abordaje cualitativo que incluyó entrevistas conempleadas, empleadoras e informantes clave. Los resultados evidencian las dificultades que experimentanlas trabajadoras –particularmente las no registradas– para hacer valer sus derechos. No obstante, y demanera promisoria, también se destaca que las políticas implementadas en los últimos años han logradoinstalar el tema del registro en el discurso de empleadas y empleadoras. El análisis de los argumentos y delas prácticas que se desarrollan en torno al tema de la formalización laboral –así como de los obstáculos,los temores y las expectativas que esta genera– busca proveer de elementos para nutrir la continuidad delas intervenciones públicas en la materia.
    Date: 2018
  4. By: Greg Fuller (University of Groningen); Alison Johnston (Oregon State University); Aidan Regan (University College Dublin)
    Abstract: Households consume an increasing share of credit in developed economies; however, past and current comparative capitalism research has had very little to say on housing markets. This is an important blind spot. House prices have crucial implications for national economies. Unsustainable housing prices can cause significant macroeconomic instability, drive wealth inequality, and accelerate households’ accumulation of debt. Moreover, housing markets across the developed world fail to conform to traditional comparative political economy “typologies.” While the liberal economies of the UK and Ireland experienced rapid housing price growth between 1995 and 2008, the “egalitarian” Nordic countries were close behind. We argue that the study of comparative capitalism needs to bring the household back in, through an analysis of the largest financial liability they own - mortgages. To understand heterogeneity in housing inflation, it is vital to understand dynamics in two markets that determine homeownership. First, the labor market, which shapes households’ incomes (on which comparative capitalism and comparative political economy more broadly have a lot to say), and; second, the market for mortgages, which shapes households’ access to financial resources (on which comparative capitalism and comparative political economy have very little to say). We argue that the impact of labor market institutions on housing inflation is conditional on national regulatory frameworks that govern mortgage credit access. Using a panel analysis of 17 OECD economies from 1990 to 2007, we find that in permissive mortgage credit regimes, countries with coordinated labour market institutions that restrain income growth have lower housing inflation than countries with uncoordinated wage-setting. This is what the comparative capitalism literature would predict. However, in restrictive mortgage credit regimes (those which undermine households’ capacity to assume mortgage debt), the structure of labour market institutions have no effect on housing inflation.
    Date: 2018–03–28
  5. By: Lamia Benhabib (ERUDITE - Equipe de Recherche sur l’Utilisation des Données Individuelles en lien avec la Théorie Economique - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12); Philippe Adair (ERUDITE - Equipe de Recherche sur l’Utilisation des Données Individuelles en lien avec la Théorie Economique - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12)
    Abstract: We present the results of a correspondence testing, designed to measure the effect of gender on the probability of obtaining a job interview in the region of Oran (Algeria). The experimental protocol consists in responding to job offers in the accounting profession with 300 fictitious applications from identical profiles of distinct gender. Against conventional wisdom, the analysis of gross and conditional discrimination reveals a marked favouritism towards female candidates applying for various job positions in the accounting profession, which is experiencing some shortage. Beyond this paradox of positive discrimination favouring women, the explanation may be found in the presumed acceptance of lower wages by female applicants, driving to entrenchment in low-skilled jobs.
    Keywords: testing,Algeria,discrimination,gender,labour market,inequalities
    Date: 2017–06–29
  6. By: Gvozdeva, Margarita (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); lubimov, Ivan (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Lysuk, Marina (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: Diversification of the economy, the transition from the export of simple goods to more complex ones, is a fundamental approach to economic development. If there is a consensus on economic development through diversification among representatives of the academy and representatives of the authorities, then there is no such agreement as to which sectors should be chosen in the first place. The identification of new export industries is often not based on a fundamental scientific approach, and often reflects the desire to create as many new industries as possible, filling all cells in the input-output table in the shortest possible time. World practice does not know such precedents, while world experience points to other, gradualist and more successful export diversification strategies. This work will consider the approach to regional diversification, based on world historical experience and modern scientific methods.
    Keywords: diversification of the economy, export, economic development
    Date: 2018–02
  7. By: Marion Real (ESTIA Recherche - Ecole Supérieure des Technologies Industrielles Avancées (ESTIA)); Jean Michel Larrasquet (ESTIA Recherche - Ecole Supérieure des Technologies Industrielles Avancées (ESTIA)); Iban Lizarralde (ESTIA Recherche - Ecole Supérieure des Technologies Industrielles Avancées (ESTIA))
    Abstract: In this chapter, we discuss what the theory of complexity can bring to the construction of territorial transitions toward circular economy. We will first revisit the dynamism of territories within their cultural angle, highlighting the complexity of their metabolisms and the importance of a design with intent. Then, we will introduce in the key notions of the complexity theory, mainly based on Edgar Morini’s philosophy, underlying new attitudes and modes of governance for research and projects’ design: the notion of system, dialogy and emergence will be described. As a conclusion, we will propose notes to pay attention to the Retrace project and the use of the systemic design methodology.
    Keywords: complexity, systemic, territory, circular economy
    Date: 2017–09
  8. By: Nathalie Veg-Sala (Institut d'Administration des Entreprises (IAE) - Paris, CEROS - Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches sur les Organisations et la Stratégie - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre)
    Abstract: This research proposes to introduce the concept of stereotype to definebrand gender and to make a new contribution on the analysis of cross-gender extension evaluation. The results of an experiment, made on two product categories and considering the two possible directions of these extensions – from men to women and from women to men – reveal that the perceived fit between the cross-gender extension and the brand is more positive when the brand gender is non-stereotyped and, surprisingly, when the brand extends from the female to the male market. The interaction effect suggests also that the impact of the cross-gender extension direction is more important in the case of a brand with a non-stereotyped gender. Those results challenge previous research. A concluding discussion lays out recommendations for business.
    Keywords: stereotypes,gender,Cross-gender extension,perceived fit,direction of cross-gender extension
    Date: 2017–12
  9. By: Mohajan, Haradhan
    Abstract: This literature review paper discusses the proper use of qualitative research methodology to discuss several aspects of the research for the improvement of the skill of the readers. During the last few decades, the use of qualitative research has been increased in many institutions. It can be used to explore several areas of human behavior for the development of organizations. The purpose of this study is to provide inspirations to the new researchers for the development of their qualitative articles. The paper analyzes the design of qualitative research giving some methodological suggestions to make it explicable to the reader. In this paper an attempt has been taken to study the background of the qualitative research methodology in social sciences and some other related subjects, along with the importance, and main features of the study.
    Keywords: Research methodology, qualitative research, phenomenology, ethnography, narrative approach, grounded theory, content analysis, action research, historical research, case study.
    JEL: B4 C1
    Date: 2018–12–10
  10. By: Deepankar Basu (Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts - Amherst)
    Abstract: Bhaduri and Marglin (1990) had argued that an investment function which has the profit rate and the capacity utilization rates as the two determinants of investment imposes unwarranted restrictions on the macroeconomic model and rules out profit-led expansion. In this paper, I show that this critique only holds in a closed economy model. In an open economy model, such an investment function does not rule out profit-led expansion. I argue that the problem was less in the investment function itself than in the larger model within which it was embedded, in particular the saving behavior of the macroeconomy entailed by the model.
    Keywords: structuralist model, investment function, profit-led expansion
    JEL: E12 B51
    Date: 2018
  11. By: Giovanni Paolinelli; Gianni Arioli
    Abstract: We introduce a model for the short-term dynamics of financial assets based on an application to finance of quantum gauge theory, developing ideas of Ilinski. We present a numerical algorithm for the computation of the probability distribution of prices and compare the results with APPLE stocks prices and the S&P500 index.
    Date: 2018–03
  12. By: Bachev, Hrabrin
    Abstract: The specific system of governance in different countries, regions, subsectors, etc., eventually determines the speed and type of socio-economic development. Despite its big academic and practical importance, in Bulgaria and other countries in East Europe, there are very few empirical studies on dominating governing structures in agriculture, and their impact(s) on agrarian sustainability. In this paper the interdisciplinary New Institutional Economics framework is incorporated, and the impact of diverse market, private, collective, public and hybrid modes of governance on agrarian sustainability at the current stage of development in Bulgaria assessed. First, the methodological framework of the study is outlined. After that dominating governing modes in Bulgarian farms of different juridical type, size, specialization, ecological and geographical location are identified, and their impacts on agrarian sustainability and its economic, social, and environmental pillars evaluated. In conclusion implications for further research, public policy improvement, and private managerial strategy formation are presented. Agricultural producers of different use quite unlike mixture of effective market, private, collective and hybrid modes for governance of their activities and relations. Individual factors and modes most contributing to improvement of agrarian sustainability at the current stage of development are: manager’s personal convictions and initiatives, farms resources and innovation potential, near future profit and benefits strategies, market prices levels and dynamics, area-based EU subsidies, and informal agreements. Research on relations between the governing structure and agrarian sustainability is to continue though increasing representation, and the spectrum of specific governing modes used by farms of different type as well as assessments of the impact of institutions on agrarian sustainability and the impact of the governance at different hierarchical levels. The latter however, requires a new kind of micro and macro data, and a close cooperation between all interested parties.
    Keywords: Agrarian Governance, Sustainability, Market, Private, Collective, Hybrid modes, Bulgaria
    JEL: D22 D23 D4 K0 Q12 Q13 Q14 Q15 Q18 Q5
    Date: 2018–03
  13. By: Shushanik Hakobyan; John McLaren
    Abstract: Using US Census data for 1990-2000, we estimate effects of NAFTA on US wages, focusing on differences by gender. We find that NAFTA tariff reductions are associated with substantially reduced wage growth for married blue-collar women, much larger than the effect for other demographic groups. We investigate several possible explanations for this finding. It is not explained by differential sensitivity of female-dominated occupations to trade shocks, or by household bargaining that makes married women workers less able to change their industry of employment than other workers. We find some support for an explanation based on an equilibrium theory of selective non-participation in the labor market, whereby some of the higher-wage married women workers in their industry drop out of the labor market in response to their industry's loss of tariff. However, this does not fully explain the findings so we are left with a puzzle.
    JEL: F13 F16 J31
    Date: 2018–03
    Date: 2018
  15. By: Kolpashnikova, Kamila; Chiba, Ryota; Shirakawa, Kiyomi
    Abstract: We analyze time-use diaries from the American Time Use Survey 2003-2016, 1986-2010 Canadian General Social Survey, and the 2011 Survey on Time Use and Leisure Activities (Shakai Seikatsu Kihon Chosa) to investigate whether the effects of the socioeconomic status on housework participation work in the same manner across cultural contexts. Using the negative binomial regression, we test whether socioeconomic status is associated with less time spent on housework as the outsourcing hypothesis predicts. We find that this hypothesis stands only for Canadian and American women in wealthier households and unmarried Japanese women. On the other hand, married Japanese women are unlikely to reduce the participation in housework with the increase of their socioeconomic status. In fact, married Japanese women are likelier to increase their housework participation proportionately to the increase of their household income. The results suggest that in Japan, the institute of marriage places more expectation on women’s housework participation, especially among women of higher socioeconomic status.
    Keywords: gender and housework, Japanese households, routine housework
    Date: 2018–03
  16. By: Manmohan Singh; Zohair Alam
    Abstract: Traditional measures of leverage in the financial system tend to reflect bank balance sheet data. The paper argues that these traditional, bank-centric measures should be augmented by considering pledged collateral in the financial system since pledged collateral provides a measure of an important part of nonbank funding to banks. From a policy perspective, the paper suggests that a broader view on leverage will enhance our understanding of global systemic risk, and complement the theoretical work in this field by providing a link from micro-level leverage data to macro aggregates such as credit to the economy.
    Date: 2018–03–19
  17. By: Foued Cheriet (UMR MOISA - Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - INRA Montpellier - Institut national de la recherche agronomique [Montpellier] - CIHEAM - Centre International des Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier)
    Date: 2017–11–29
  18. By: Pierre Boulanger (European Commission – JRC); Hasan Dudu (European Commission – JRC); Emanuele Ferrari (European Commission – JRC); Alfredo J. Mainar Causape (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: Ce rapport documente une Matrice de comptabilité sociale (MCS) désagrégée de l'économie sénégalaise en 2014. Elle comprend 218 comptes répartis en 55 activités économiques (dont 14 comptes de ménages en tant que producteurs), 57 comptes de produits commercialisés et 9 comptes de produits autoconsommés, 3 catégories de travail distingué selon la qualification (qualifié, semi-qualifié et non-qualifié) dans 14 régions sénégalaises et 1 région représentant le reste du monde; 5 comptes de capital (agricoles, non agricoles, terre non irriguée, terre irriguée et élevage), 5 comptes d'impôts et taxes (directs, indirects, ventes, facteur travail et importations), 33 catégories de ménages représentatifs (régionalisés) et un compte de marges, un compte d'épargne-investissement, 4 comptes allouant les investissements (routes, irrigation, autres infrastructures, reste des investissements), un compte d'entreprises, du gouvernement et du reste du monde.
    Keywords: Matrice de comptabilité sociale, Sénégal
    Date: 2017–12
  19. By: Laura C. Blanco (Universidad de Costa Rica)
    Abstract: El artículo utiliza las bases de datos de las personas recién graduadas de la universidad para examinar si la segregación por género de las carreras universitarias se asocian con la probabilidad de estar empleada. Los resultados muestran que las personas graduadas que estudian carreras dominadas por hombres tienen una mayor probabilidad de estar empleadas. No obstante, mientras las mujeres que ingresan a programas predominantemente masculinos poseen una ventaja en el empleo, los hombres que incursionan a carreras femeninas son penalizados por ello. La educación, experiencia laboral y diferencias de clase son también significativas para comprender el empleo femenino, aunque en menor grado para los hombres. Finalmente, una descomposición Oaxaca-Blinder para los modelos no lineales muestra que únicamente cerca de un cuarto de la brecha en el empleo se explica por las diferencias en las características individuales, sugiriendo la existencia de discriminación a favor de los hombres.
    Keywords: Empleo, personas graduadas, segregación sexual, área de estudio, brecha de género.
    Date: 2016–11
  20. By: Mauro Napoletano (OFCE - OFCE - Sciences Po)
    Abstract: Cet article analyse les progrès récents de la modélisation multi-agents appliquée à l'analyse macroéconomique. Je présente d'abord les principaux ingrédients des modèles multi-agents. Ensuite, en s'appuyant sur des exemples tirés de travaux récents, je montre que les modèles multi-agents apportent des éclairages complémentaires ou nouveaux sur des questions macroéconomiques clés telles que les cycles économiques endogènes, les interactions entre cycles et croissance à long terme, le rôle des ajustements de prix versus quantités dans le retour au plein emploi. Enfin, je discute certaines limites des modèles multi-agents et comment ils sont actuellement abordés dans la littérature.
    Keywords: Modèles multi-agents,Analyse macroéconomique,Cycles économiques endogènes,Politique monétaire et budgétaire
    Date: 2017–12
  21. By: Renda, Andrea
    Abstract: Many experts argue that focusing on how automated cars will solve the dilemma known as the ‘trolley problem’ isn’t going to get us very far in the debate about the ethics of artificial intelligence (AI). But it’s hard to resist if you are a philosopher, an ethicist, a futurist, or simply a geek – and it’s fun. Still, this dilemma can reveal a number of outstanding policy issues that are often neglected in the public debate. This paper performs a ‘crime scene investigation’ to find some of the missing parts in the ethics/AI quandary. These include the need to preserve human control over machines; the need to take data governance and ownership seriously; algorithmic accountability and transparency; various forms of user empowerment and their tension in relation to overall system control; the need for modernised tort rules; and more generally, a discussion about whether algorithms should reflect, exacerbate or mitigate the biases existing in our society. The investigation concludes that current legal systems are insufficiently equipped to cope with most of these issues, and that a mapping of outstanding ethical and policy dilemmas is a useful starting point for a thorough overhaul of public policies in this complex and ever-expanding domain.
    Date: 2018–01

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