nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2017‒10‒01
sixteen papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. Capital Intensity, Unproductive Activities and the Great Recession of the US Economy By Tsoulfidis, Lefteris; Paitaridis, Dimitris
  2. The Complexity of Economies and Pluralism in Economics By Claudius Graebner
  3. Consumer Neoteny: An Evolutionary Perspective on Childlike Behavior in Consumer Society By Mathieu Alemany Oliver
  4. How French managers picture their careers: a gendered perspective By Christine Naschberger; Krista Finstad-Milion
  5. Communism - A survival analysis By Subramaniam, Viswanatha
  6. Financial Inclusion and Women Entrepreneurship: Evidence from Mexico By Fozan Fareed; Mabel Gabriel; Patrick Lenain; Julien Reynaud
  7. Gender Bias in Teaching Evaluations By Mengel, Friederike; Sauermann, Jan; Zölitz, Ulf
  8. Women, Climate Change and Economic Problems in the Family By Mientje Ratoe Oedjoe
  9. Decision-Making in the Household and Material Deprivation By Sergii Maksymovych
  10. What does it mean to be responsible? Addressing the missing responsibility dimension in ethical leadership research By Christian Voegtlin
  11. " But... I don't dress him with ruffles " : a qualitative research on mothers' cross-gender consumption for their son(s) By Isabelle Vidali; Abdelmajid Amine
  12. Social Enterprises and their Eco-systems : A European mapping report By Nadine Richez-Battesti; Francesca Petrella
  13. Aportes al estudio de la diversificación productiva en el contexto de economías en desarrollo. Un análisis de los factores asociados al vínculo entre productos By Mauro, Lucía Mercedes; Marín, Anabel
  14. The Contribution of Social Currencies to Microfinance: The Case of the Brazilian Community Development Banks By Tristan Dissaux; Camille Meyer
  15. Ethics and Market Design By Li, Shengwu
  16. Models as Speech Acts: The Telling Case of Financial Models By Nicolas Brisset

  1. By: Tsoulfidis, Lefteris; Paitaridis, Dimitris
    Abstract: The purpose of this article is to show that the ‘great recession’ of 2007 in the USA is of the classical type with basic features the rising value composition of capital which more than fully offset the rising rate of surplus value giving rise to a falling rate of profit. The tendential fall of the latter, from a point onwards, led to a stagnant mass of real net profits, thereby decreased net investment and eventually impacted on employment. The evolution of capital intensity and the consequences of unproductive activities remain key issues in the discussions of capital accumulation and its periodic ruptures
    Keywords: Composition of capital, unproductive labour, capital accumulation, rate of profit, growth accounting
    JEL: B5 D33 E1 N12 O51
    Date: 2017–09–23
  2. By: Claudius Graebner (Institute for Institutional and Innovation Economics (iino), University of Bremen, Germany)
    Abstract: rom the two premises that (1) economies are complex systems and (2) the accumulation of knowledge about reality is desirable, I derive the conclusion that pluralism with regard to economic research programs is a more viable position to hold than monism. To substantiate this claim I discuss an epistemological framework of how scholars study their objects of inquiry and relate their models to reality. Furthermore, I argue that given the current institutions of our scientific system, economics self-organizes towards a state of scientific unity. Since such a state is epistemologically inferior to a state of plurality, critical intervention is desirable.
    Keywords: Complexity, Pluralism, Epistemology, Cumulative Causation
    JEL: A1 A2 B4
    Date: 2017–09
  3. By: Mathieu Alemany Oliver (CERGAM - Centre d'Études et de Recherche en Gestion d'Aix-Marseille - Université Paul Cézanne - Aix-Marseille 3 - AMU - Aix Marseille Université)
    Abstract: This research explores childlike consumer behavior from an evolutionary perspective. More specifically, it uses the concept of neoteny to show that the retention of ancestors' juvenile characteristics is related to specific behaviors. The results of factor analyses conducted on a UK sample (n = 499) and a French sample (n = 292) 7 years later indicate four dimensions of childlike consumer behavior, namely, stimulus seeking, reality conflict, escapism, and control of aggression.
    Keywords: consumer behavior,paedomorphosis,evolutionary psychology,neoteny,childlike behavior
    Date: 2016
  4. By: Christine Naschberger (Audencia Recherche - Audencia Business School); Krista Finstad-Milion (ICN Business School)
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how French managers picture their careers, specifically female careers. The sample was composed of 93 women and 5 men attending a professional women’s networking event in France. Participants answered a questionnaire, including images to choose from to best describe how they perceived their own career development. The results indicate that a female career is closely associated with work-life balance by both women and men. Also, women acknowledge three times more than men, the existence of a glass ceiling in their organisation. Women and men choose both traditional and contemporary images of career. As the sample was taken from a women’s network event, the male sample size is small. Despite the small sample of men, giving voice to male participants leads to rich insights which challenge gendered and non-gendered career models. On an individual level, reflection on one’s career path fosters awareness and ownership of career choices. Further, working with career images enhances discussion and experience sharing about personal career choices, and offers opportunities to organisations concerned with developing female talent. The study contributes to the career literature by providing insights into how female and male managers perceive female careers. The study’s originality lies in the methodology, based on using images of careers to better understand how managers picture their own careers.
    Keywords: Images, France,Gender, Managers, Career development, Careers
    Date: 2017–06–19
  5. By: Subramaniam, Viswanatha
    Abstract: Human generation try to fit into a 4 dimensional survival concepts comprising the Environment, Geography, Economic and Social dimensions, over centuries and their pedigree too progressed under these guidelines. Because of the divergent level of survival targets in the economic and social strata by each human being, wealth accumulation flows unequally among the people. Industrial revolution mechanised the human work, with cost reduction and quality/volume optimization and planted Capitalism in the world, creating a wedge in the wealth accumulation process. This inducted a class war between the owners of wealth versus the workers, who are hired and fired by them. Competition made the capitalist to realise the importance of labour and diluted their concept as “Socialism”. The disproportionate wealth accumulation among people seeded the concept of communism in the world. Communism originated by Marx in Germany, spread to Russia and was promoted by Lenin. Both assumed that the large volume of people in the world belong to the low wealth possessing worker class, will revolt towards equal wealth share, and Communism shall dominate the whole world soon. But both Marx and Lenin were “Social revolutionists” and lacked “futuristic management thoughts” on how the shared wealth will be recycled to grow more, and result in prosperity among the equally shared population ? With this limited thought, the USSR (1922) and the East Germany (GDR-1961) and were created, with the entire wealth of the nation pooled on the apex “State”, representing the entire population. The state became a monopoly and all the people were simple labourers, without any self possessions. The state utilised the labour like a commodity, without any motivation to use their original ideas and any incentive to improve the productive contribution spirit. As a result, the GDR collapsed in 1989 and the USSR dwindled in 1991, bringing an end to the 69 year old Communist concept. Also both started promoting the diametrically opposite Capitalist approach and established cooperation with the (imperialist) USA. Communism could have survived and continued as a guide for wealth and prosperity for all the nations and their people in the world, if the domestic population was considered as “superior” to the “state”. The national wealth owned by the “State” should have been invested in sectorial projects and entrusted to optimum group of people to work, manage and encouraged to meet a targeted quality volume. State should have met all needs of these groups of people. A reasonable share of the net gains should have been distributed in equal proportion to all the people involved, as an incentive. Below targets and loss should have been questioned and corrective action should have been taken. In addition, the productivity and management decision should have been oriented towards ‘socio-economic Development units”. The domestic investment should be made from domestic savings and domestic technology should be manned by the domestic labour.
    Keywords: basic needs, capitalism, central bank, communism, darwin, domestic, economic, engels, financial, fittest, groups, individual, investment, lenin, management, manpower, marx, pareto, people, productivity, rate of return, revolution, savings, sectors, social, socialism, state, surplus, survival, technology, wealth
    JEL: A13 A14 B41 D63 D78 E2 E22 E24 H11 O11 P12
    Date: 2017–09–21
  6. By: Fozan Fareed (OECD); Mabel Gabriel (OECD); Patrick Lenain (OECD); Julien Reynaud (OECD)
    Abstract: Financial inclusion and women entrepreneurship concern policymakers because of their impact on job creation, economic growth and women empowerment. Women in Mexico do engage in paid work but many of them work in the informal sector because they lack opportunities to work in the formal sector. Moreover, financial exclusion rate in Mexico remains the highest amongst OECD countries, affecting women in particular. This paper uses an individual-based panel dataset over the period 2009-2015 to examine the determinants of women entrepreneurship in Mexico and to determine the relationship between women entrepreneurship and financial inclusion across informal and formal work and across economic sectors. The results suggest that financial inclusion is positively linked with entrepreneurship and it can open up economic opportunities for women entrepreneurs. Various financial access points like banking branches, POS terminals, banking agents, ATMs and microfinance banks can be a gateway to the use of additional financial services which can allow businesses development through access to credit facilities. However, the positive relationship between women entrepreneurship and financial inclusion does not hold for women entrepreneurs working in the informal sector or women working in the commerce sector, highlighting lower entry barriers, including financial, in the informal sector and problems pertaining to financial illiteracy. Results also highlight that the probability of a women being an entrepreneur in the informal sector is higher than in the formal sector. Education, age, income, marital status (married or divorced), and income level at the municipality level are amongst other significant determinants which are positively linked with women entrepreneurship. The results also highlight the existence of gender disparity in the status of entrepreneurship across formal and informal work in Mexico. On average, women are about 56% less likely to be entrepreneurs in the formal sector and 63% more likely to be entrepreneurs in the informal sector, as compared to men, after taking into account other relevant individual and municipality level characteristics that are important in explaining entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: financial access, financial exclusion, Financial inclusion, informality, SMEs, women entrepreneurship
    JEL: F14 F23 L16 O24
    Date: 2017–09–27
  7. By: Mengel, Friederike (University of Essex); Sauermann, Jan (Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University); Zölitz, Ulf (Briq institute, Bonn)
    Abstract: This paper provides new evidence on gender bias in teaching evaluations. We ex-ploit a quasi-experimental dataset of 19,952 student evaluations of university faculty in a context where students are randomly allocated to female or male instructors. Despite the fact that neither students’ grades nor self-study hours are affected by the instructor’s gender, we find that women receive systematically lower teaching evaluations than their male colleagues. This bias is driven by male students’ evaluations, is larger for mathematical courses and particularly pronounced for junior women. The gender bias in teaching evaluations we document may have direct as well as indirect effects on the career progression of women by affecting junior women’s confidence and through the reallocation of instructor resources away from research and towards teaching.
    Keywords: gender bias; teaching evaluations; female faculty
    JEL: I23 J16 J45 J71
    Date: 2017–09–25
  8. By: Mientje Ratoe Oedjoe (Faculty of Teacher & Scien Education, Nusa Cendana University, Indonesia Author-2-Name: Rolland Epafras Fanggidae Author-2-Workplace-Name: Faculty of Teacher & Scien Education, Nusa Cendana University, Indonesia.)
    Abstract: "Objective – The role of women in Indonesia, particularly in East Nusa Tenggara in domestic activity very dominant. This study focuses on the efforts made by women cope with the impacts of climate change. Methodology/Technique – Methods used are mixture of quantitative and qualitative research. While the location of the research conducted in Kupang regency, East Nusa Tenggara. Findings – The study of the results showed that, women are still playing a dominant role in getting a sufficient supply of staple foods and meal replacements basic needs and outside work done in the event of extreme climatic impacts on the ocean. Novelty – This research looks at the optimal empowerment of women's role in addressing climate change and learn to know how the role of women in the economic field in the face of climate change impacts."
    JEL: J16 Q10 Q50
    Date: 2017–07–17
  9. By: Sergii Maksymovych
    Abstract: This study examines how household living conditions are related to alternative allocations of control over decision-making in the household. The degree of control exerted by a particular individual over different decisions and household living conditions are taken from responses to an extensive multi-national household questionnaire. This study has three main findings. First, more equally shared decision-making in a household is closely connected to better household living conditions. Second, while predominant decisioncontrol accrued to any of partners is correlated with worse living conditions, this is more pronounced for women rather than men. Finally, the distribution of the mode of decision-making in households does not strongly predict the regime of family finances. These findings support the notion that effects of social assistance targeted at women might actually not be driven primarily by female empowerment.
    Keywords: material deprivation; intra-household; gender; empowerment
    JEL: D13 D12 J16
    Date: 2017–08
  10. By: Christian Voegtlin (Audencia Business School)
    Abstract: This paper extends research on ethical leadership by proposing a responsibility orientation for leaders. Responsible leadership is based on the concept of leaders who are not isolated from the environment, who critically evaluate prevailing norms, are forward-looking, share responsibility, and aim to solve problems collectively. Adding such a responsibility orientation helps to address critical issues that persist in research on ethical leadership. The paper discusses important aspects of responsible leadership, which include being able to make informed ethical judgments about prevailing norms and rules, communicating effectively with stakeholders, engaging in long-term thinking and in perspective-taking, displaying moral courage, and aspiring to positive change. Furthermore, responsible leadership means actively engaging stakeholders, encouraging participative decision-making, and aiming for shared problem-solving. A case study that draws on in-depth interviews with the representatives of businesses and non-governmental organizations illustrates the practical relevance of thinking about responsibility and reveals the challenges of responsible leadership.
    Keywords: Ethical leadership, responsible leadership, social responsibility, stakeholder engagement, shared leadership
    Date: 2016
  11. By: Isabelle Vidali (IRG - Institut de Recherche en Gestion - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12); Abdelmajid Amine (IRG - Institut de Recherche en Gestion - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12)
    Abstract: In a context of strong oppositions regarding gender issues in France and, for the last few years, a greater public attention to the issue of gendered marketing to children, this research aims at adding more understanding on the effects on mothers' consumption of gender norms conveyed in children's retail. Drawing from interviews conducted with mothers who self identify as " resistant to gender stereotypes " , this research tries to capture how these mothers go (or do not go) against gendered marketing for their sons.
    Keywords: gendered marketing,Mothers’ cross gender consumption, children, gender norms, gender stereotypes, resistance
    Date: 2015–11–26
  12. By: Nadine Richez-Battesti (LEST - Laboratoire d'économie et de sociologie du travail - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Francesca Petrella (LEST - Laboratoire d'économie et de sociologie du travail - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This summary presents the main elements of the report on ‘Mapping social enterprises’ produced in 2016, on the basis of a previous report produced in 2014 for the European Commission. Nadine Richez-Battesti and Francesca Petrella have been in charge of the revision process of this report, together with the contribution of national stakeholders through an online and direct consultation undertaken over the months of April, May and June 2016. This report is part of a broader mapping of social enterprises and their eco-systems in Europe, based on the concept of social enterprise as presented in the Commission's Social Business Initiative in 2011. Focusing on France, this report also explains the national use of other broader concepts, such as the social and solidarity economy and its relation to the social enterprise concept of the SBI.
    Keywords: Social enterprises
    Date: 2016
  13. By: Mauro, Lucía Mercedes; Marín, Anabel
    Abstract: Los países crecen ampliando la canasta de productos que fabrican y exportan, al menos en los primeros estadios del desarrollo. Dicha diversificación tiende a ocurrir en actividades vinculadas a las existentes, tanto a nivel agregado como a nivel firma. Sin embargo, para las economías menos desarrolladas, es importante promover "saltos largos" hacia actividades poco relacionadas, que les permitan modificar su estructura productiva y desarrollarse. Nuestro objetivo es aportar al estudio de la diversificación en países en desarrollo, analizando los factores asociados al vínculo entre productos, y focalizando en los más lejanos. Para ello, trabajamos con una base de datos única y novedosa sobre diversificación a nivel firma. Nuestros resultados indican que la diversificación en productos lejanos se asocia mayormente a las ganancias de eficiencia provenientes de las últimas fases de la cadena de valor, por contraposición a la diversificación en productos muy cercanos que se asocia a las características productivas de los bienes. En ambos casos, también son relevantes para la diversificación el reconocimiento y la identidad de marca y las habilidades de la empresa para desenvolverse en el entorno institucional.
    Keywords: Diversificación de la Producción; Países en Desarrollo;
    Date: 2016–10
  14. By: Tristan Dissaux (TRIANGLE - Triangle : action, discours, pensée politique et économique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UJM - Université Jean Monnet [Saint-Etienne] - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Lyon - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Camille Meyer (Centre Emile Bernheim - ULB - Université Libre de Bruxelles [Bruxelles] - SBS-EM)
    Abstract: La microfinance a acquis, depuis sa large diffusion au milieu des années 1990, une place importante dans les stratégies de réduction de la pauvreté. La dernière décennie a néanmoins vu la portée de sa principale technique financière, le microcrédit, relativisée voire remise en cause. Celui-ci souffrirait en effet d’un certain nombre de limites et, dans certains cas, pourrait même être dommageable à ceux qui sont censés en bénéficier. Après un état des lieux de la microfinance au Brésil et avoir rappelé les limites de l’outil microcrédit, nous nous intéresserons à une adaptation particulière du modèle microfinancier, celle mise en œuvre par les banques communautaires de développement brésiliennes, dont on en compte aujourd’hui plus d’une centaine sur l’ensemble du territoire. Une des principales innovations de ces organisations de la société civile est de coupler le microcrédit à l’émission d’une monnaie sociale, dont l’usage – en complément du réal brésilien – est circonscrit au territoire local. Nous verrons ce qu’apportent ces monnaies et dans quelle mesure elles viennent répondre à certaines des limites du microcrédit, à travers l’exemple de la Banque Palmas, fondatrice de ce modèle de finance solidaire. Non seulement outils économiques mais surtout constructions sociales, ces monnaies participent à un développement endogène et peuvent être le vecteur d’une coconstruction des politiques de réduction de la pauvreté.
    Keywords: Brésil, monnaies sociales, banques communautaires de développement,microfinance
    Date: 2016
  15. By: Li, Shengwu
    Abstract: This paper examines the relationship between ethics and market design. It argues that market design should not rely wholly on preference utilitarianism in order to make ethical judgements. It exposits an alternative normative framework—informed neutrality between reasonable ethical positions.
    Keywords: Market Design, Ethics, Welfare Economics
    JEL: D60 D63
    Date: 2017–07–25
  16. By: Nicolas Brisset (Université Côte d'Azur, France; GREDEG CNRS)
    Abstract: This paper intends to bring Austinian themes into methodological discussion about models. Using Austinian vocabulary, I argue that models perform actions in and outside of the academic field. This multiplicity of fields induces a variety of felicity conditions and types of performed actions. If for example, an inference from a model is judged according to some epistemological criteria in the scientific field, the representation of the world which the model carries, will not be judged by the same criteria outside the scientific field. A model can be considered as a standard in a strict scientific framework, while not being used as part of public policies, or vice versa. However, we focus on the dynamics between different fields.
    Keywords: Economic models, financial models, pragmatics of economic modeling, speech act, performativity
    JEL: B41 B26
    Date: 2017–09

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