nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2017‒09‒24
eighteen papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. Agent-Based Modeling’s Open Methodology Approach: Simulation, Reflexivity, and Abduction By Davis, John B.
  2. Economic Complexity: "Buttarla in caciara" vs a constructive approach By Luciano Pietronero; Matthieu Cristelli; Andrea Gabrielli; Dario Mazzilli; Emanuele Pugliese; Andrea Tacchella; Andrea Zaccaria
  3. Théorie de l'entreprise sociale et pluralisme : l'entreprise sociale de type solidaire By Jean-Louis Laville; Isabelle Hillenkamp; Philippe Eynaud; José Luis Coraggio; Adriane Ferrarini; Genauto Carvalho França Filho; Luiz Inacio Gaiger; Kenichi Kitajima; Andreia Lemaître; Youssef Sadik; Veronese Marilia; Wanderley Fernanda
  4. Working and Women’s Empowerment in the Egyptian Household: The Type of Work and Location Matter By Clémentine Sadania
  5. L'obsession de la productivité et la fabrique du chercheur publiant By Franck Aggeri
  6. Addressing the malaise in neoclassical economics: A call for partial models By Wallace, Ronald L.
  7. The measurement of labour content: a general approach By Naoki Yoshihara; Roberto Veneziani
  8. Where Modern Macroeconomics Went Wrong By Joseph E. Stiglitz
  9. Rise of Household Debt and the Great Recession in the US: Comparative Perspectives By Yun K. Kim
  10. Sanctioned to Death? The Impact of Economic Sanctions on Life Expectancy and its Gender Gap By Jerg Gutmann; Matthias Neuenkirch; Florian Neumeier
  11. The Gendered Effects of Career Concerns on Fertility By Nayoung Rim; Kyung Park
  12. Mind the gap: Platform ethics and competition issues By Nicholls, Rob
  13. The Contestable Marketplace of Ideas: Paul Samuelson’s Defense of Mainstream Economics through Textbook Making, 1967-1976 By Yann Giraud
  14. Approaches to the implementation of the sustainable development goals: Some considerations on the theoretical underpinnings of the 2030 Agenda By Josephsen, Lars
  15. Agent Intermediation and Racial Price Differentials By Adam Nowak; Patrick Smith
  16. Elaboration et analyse macroéconomiquemacroéconomique d'un scénario bas carbone « acceptable » By Ruben Bibas; Sandrine Mathy; Meike Fink
  17. Tracking sectoral progress in the deep decarbonisation of energy systems in Europe By Thomas Spencer; Roberta Pierfederici; Oliver Sartor; Nicolas Berghmans; Sascha Samadi; Manfred Fischedick; Katharina Knoop; Steve Pye; Patrick Criqui; Sandrine Mathy; Pantelis Capros; Panagiotis Fragkos; Maciej Bukowski; Aleksander Śniegocki; Maria Virdis; Maria Gaeta; Karine Pollier; Cyril Cassisa
  18. Kinetic theory and Brazilian income distribution By Igor D. S. Siciliani; Marcelo H. R. Tragtenberg

  1. By: Davis, John B. (Department of Economics Marquette University)
    Abstract: This paper argues that agent-based modeling’s innovations in method developed in terms of simulation techniques also involve an innovation in economic methodology. It shows how Epstein’s generative science conception departs from conventional methodological reasoning, and employs what I term an open rather than closed approach to economic methodology associated with the roles that reflexivity, counterfactual reasoning, and abduction play in ABM. Central to this idea is that improvements in how we know something, a matter of method, determine whether we know something, a matter of methodology. The paper links this alternative view of economics and economic methodology to a social science model of economics and contrasts this with standard economics’ natural science model of economics. The paper discusses what this methodological understanding implies about the concept of emergence.
    Keywords: agent-based modeling, simulation, generative science, reflexivity, abduction, social science model of economics, emergence
    JEL: A12 B41 C63
    Date: 2017–09
  2. By: Luciano Pietronero; Matthieu Cristelli; Andrea Gabrielli; Dario Mazzilli; Emanuele Pugliese; Andrea Tacchella; Andrea Zaccaria
    Abstract: This note is a contribution to the debate about the optimal algorithm for Economic Complexity that recently appeared on ArXiv [1, 2] . The authors of [2] eventually agree that the ECI+ algorithm [1] consists just in a renaming of the Fitness algorithm we introduced in 2012, as we explicitly showed in [3]. However, they omit any comment on the fact that their extensive numerical tests claimed to demonstrate that the same algorithm works well if they name it ECI+, but not if its name is Fitness. They should realize that this eliminates any credibility to their numerical methods and therefore also to their new analysis, in which they consider many algorithms [2]. Since by their own admission the best algorithm is the Fitness one, their new claim became that the search for the best algorithm is pointless and all algorithms are alike. This is exactly the opposite of what they claimed a few days ago and it does not deserve much comments. After these clarifications we also present a constructive analysis of the status of Economic Complexity, its algorithms, its successes and its perspectives. For us the discussion closes here, we will not reply to further comments.
    Date: 2017–09
  3. By: Jean-Louis Laville (CNAM Paris - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers - Paris - CNAM - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM]); Isabelle Hillenkamp (CESSMA - Centre d'Etudes en Sciences Sociales sur les Mondes Africains, Américains et Asiatiques - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - IRD [France-Nord] - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement); Philippe Eynaud (IAE Paris - Institut d'Administration des Entreprises - Paris - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne); José Luis Coraggio (Universidad Nacional General Sarmiento); Adriane Ferrarini (Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS)); Genauto Carvalho França Filho (UFBA - Universidade Federal da Bahia); Luiz Inacio Gaiger (Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS)); Kenichi Kitajima (Rikkyo University [Tokyo]); Andreia Lemaître (UCL - Université Catholique de Louvain); Youssef Sadik (University of Mohammed V); Veronese Marilia (Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS)); Wanderley Fernanda (Universidad Mayor de San Andrés)
    Abstract: À partir de recherches menées dans les années 1990, le réseau de recherche européenne EMES a défini un idéal-type d’entreprise sociale qui se positionne par rapport aux courants de pensée nord-américains sur l’entreprise sociale. Il identifie neuf dimensions caractéristiques des entreprises sociales, dans les domaines de l’économie, du social et de la gouvernance. Il apparait que cet idéal-type d’EMES, construit à partir de données européennes datant de la fin du XXe siècle peut être questionné à partir de l’élargissement des formes d’entreprise sociale en Europe en ce début de XXIe siècle marqué par la crise ; et aussi à partir de modèles d’entreprises sociales présents dans d’autres parties du monde et intégrant la solidarité comme logique et valeur fondamentale dans des actions collectives à dimension non seulement socioéconomique, mais aussi sociopolitique. C’est pourquoi il s’avère important d’élaborer un idéal-type d’entreprise sociale dans une perspective d’économie solidaire (ou entreprise solidaire). Ce texte propose à la discussion une élaboration préliminaire de cet idéal-type à partir d’un ensemble, non exhaustif, de recherches identifiées dans le champ de l’économie solidaire. Après avoir précisé l’apport et les limites des approches existantes de l’entreprise sociale, il situe un certain nombre d’expériences d’entreprise solidaire puis propose neuf indicateurs de cet idéal-type, en référence à l’idéal-type d’EMES. Il aboutit à préciser certains indicateurs (dimensions économiques et sociales) et à en proposer de nouveaux (dimension politique).
    Keywords: espace public, économie solidaire, économie populaire,entreprise sociale
    Date: 2016
  4. By: Clémentine Sadania (Aix-Marseille Univ. (Aix-Marseille School of Economics), CNRS, EHESS and Centrale Marseille)
    Abstract: This paper explores the impact of women’s work on empowerment in Egypt. Existing evidence suffers from several limitations, which I attempt to address. First, I develop an instrumental variable strategy to account for the endogeneity of work. Second, I allow for a heterogeneous impact of work, distinguishing between working in the public sector, outside work in the private sector and home-based work. Third, women’s empowerment is directly measured as their participation in household decisions. Outside work has the greatest impact. Interestingly, home-based work enhances joint decision-making. Distinguishing between urban and rural residence reveals distinct patterns of impact on decision-making.
    Keywords: women’s empowerment, employment, household decision-making
    JEL: D13 J16 J21
    Date: 2016–12
  5. By: Franck Aggeri (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: À quoi rêvent les jeunes doctorants en gestion lorsqu'ils débutent leur thèse ? Leurs aspirations ne diffèrent pas fondamentalement de celles des doctorants d'autres disciplines : ils valorisent l'autonomie supposée du métier, la réflexion et les discussions intellectuelles, la lecture, la création, l'écriture, la pédagogie. Cette vision romantique du métier est souvent renforcée par la rencontre avec des enseignants-chercheurs qui leur ont donné le goût de la réflexion, leur ont fait découvrir l'esthétique de l'écriture et de l'argumentation, des textes marquants ou des recherches de terrain originales. Bref, ils rêvent souvent de devenir des enseignants-chercheurs singuliers. Modèle des singularités vs modèle productif Le modèle des singularités dans la recherche, rappelle Lucien Karpik, est celui auquel se réfèrent traditionnellement les chercheurs. Il repose sur une orientation symbolique « autour d'un ensemble de normes et de valeurs classiques : la découverte comme finalité, l'importance de l'originalité, de l'ambition et du plaisir intellectuel, un imaginaire enraciné dans l'histoire de la science, la position centrale du jugement des pairs, le pouvoir collégial ou semi-collégial, une conception du métier organisée autour de l'indépendance individuelle, une compétition animée par la volonté d'être le premier à découvrir et le premier à publier, le premier reconnu et le premier primé » (Karpik, 2012, p. 119). À rebours du modèle des singularités, se développe depuis quelques années, notamment en économie et en sciences de gestion, un modèle productif qui repose sur une performance « objective » mesurée à partir d'une métrique simple : le nombre de publications de rang A.
    Keywords: pertinence,publication, productivité, recherche académique
    Date: 2016–07
  6. By: Wallace, Ronald L.
    Abstract: Economics is currently experiencing a climate of uncertainty regarding the soundness of its theoretical framework and even its status as a science. Much of the criticism is within the discipline, and emphasizes the alleged failure of the neoclassical viewpoint. This article proposes the deployment of partial modeling, utilizing Boolean networks (BNs), as an inductive discovery procedure for the development of economic theory. The method is presented in detail and then linked to the Semantic View of Theories (SVT), closely identified with Bas van Fraassen and Patrick Suppes, in which models are construed as mediators creatively negotiating between theory and reality. It is suggested that this approach may be appropriate for economics and, by implication, for any science in which there is no consensus theory, and a wide range of viewpoints compete for acceptance.
    Keywords: Economic models,history of economic theory,complexity economics,computational modeling,Boolean networks,semantic view of theories
    JEL: B41
    Date: 2017
  7. By: Naoki Yoshihara (Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts Amherst); Roberto Veneziani (School of Economics and Finance, Queen Mary University of London)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the theoretical issues related to the measurement of labour content for general technologies with heterogeneous labour. A novel axiomatic framework is used in order to formulate the key properties of the notion of labour content and analyse its theoretical foundations. The main measures of labour content used in various strands of the literature are then characterised. Quite surprisingly, a unique axiomatic structure can be identified which underlies measures of labour aggregates used in such diverse fields as neoclassical growth theory, input-output approaches, productivity analysis, and classical political economy.
    Keywords: Labour content, Labour productivity, Technical change, Axiomatic analysis
    JEL: D57 J24 O33 D46
    Date: 2017–09
  8. By: Joseph E. Stiglitz
    Abstract: This paper provides a critique of the DSGE models that have come to dominate macroeconomics during the past quarter-century. It argues that at the heart of the failure were the wrong microfoundations, which failed to incorporate key aspects of economic behaviour, e.g. incorporating insights from information economics and behavioural economics. Inadequate modelling of the financial sector meant they were ill-suited for predicting or responding to a financial crisis; and a reliance on representative agent models meant they were ill-suited for analysing either the role of distribution in fluctuations and crises or the consequences of fluctuations on inequality. The paper proposes alternative benchmark models that may be more useful both in understanding deep downturns and responding to them.
    JEL: A1 A2 E0 E1
    Date: 2017–09
  9. By: Yun K. Kim
    Abstract: The Great Recession has provided an important intellectual challenge to both post-Keynesian and mainstream economists. In this article, we survey the influential post- Keynesian views on the rise of household debt in the US, as well as the Atif Mian and Amir Sufi’s studies, perhaps the most influential and empirically oriented studies of mainstream economics. We highlight some of the commonalities and differences between them. By examining both post-Keynesian and Mian and Sufi’s views together, this paper emphasizes that, although there are clear differences between them, a careful examination reveals valuable complementarity which yields a better understanding of the rise of household debt in the US and the Great Recession.
    Keywords: household debt, the Great Recession, relative income hypothesis, inequality, securitization, subprime mortgage
    Date: 2017–09
  10. By: Jerg Gutmann; Matthias Neuenkirch; Florian Neumeier
    Abstract: In this paper, we empirically analyze the effect of UN and US economic sanctions on life expectancy and its gender gap in target countries. Our sample covers 98 less developed and newly industrialized countries over the period 1977–2012. We employ a matching approach to account for the endogeneity of sanctions. Our results indicate that an average episode of UN sanctions reduces life expectancy by about 1.2–1.4 years. The corresponding decrease of 0.4–0.5 years under an average episode of US sanctions is significantly smaller. These average effects conceal that the damage to life expectancy is accumulating over time; with every additional year under UN (US) sanctions the size of the adverse effect on life expectancy increases by 0.3 (0.2) years. Finally, we find evidence that women are affected more severely by the imposition of sanctions. The fact that sanctions are not “gender-blind” can be interpreted as evidence that sanctions disproportionately affect (the life expectancy of) the more vulnerable members of society.
    Keywords: Gender Gap, Human Development, Life Expectancy, Sanctions, United Nations, United States
    JEL: F51 F52 F53 I15
    Date: 2017
  11. By: Nayoung Rim (United States Naval Academy); Kyung Park (Wellesley College)
    Abstract: A growing literature reveals that the adverse effect of children on career advancement falls disproportionately on women. This raises the possibility that women respond to career concerns by delaying family formation more than men. Using a panel dataset on lawyers, we find females are less likely to have their first child before the promotion decision. This fertility gap is not explained away by gender-based sorting or gender differences in marriage-timing and spousal occupation. Two channels drive our results: women bear child-rearing costs and gender-specific promotion thresholds. This implies the focus on the gender wage gap understates gender inequality in the labor market.
    Date: 2017–09
  12. By: Nicholls, Rob
    Abstract: The algorithm driven conduct of platform operators ; as the expert handlers of big data ; is starting to challenge the way in which competition law needs to be enforced. Businesses ; especially platform operators ; acquire data and particularly pricing information from other businesses in real-time. This leads to specific potential problems with autonomous actors engaged in algorithmic tacit collusion. These problems are compounded when usual legal tests for collusive price fixing require both a meeting of the minds of the colluding firms and a commitment to the price fixing conduct. It is not clear that bots meet either of these tests. The paper finds that price fixing is unethical using multiple analytical lenses but that the illegality of algorithmic tacit collusion is less clear. By considering the issues associated with concerted practices from a legal and ethical perspective ; the paper charts some approaches that might be applied. It uses changes in competition law in Australia to highlight potential ways of dealing with algorithmic tacit collusion ; but also highlights the potential unintended consequences associated with such changes.
    Keywords: Algorithmic tacit collusion,bots,business ethics,cartel conduct,concerted practices,price fixing
    Date: 2017
  13. By: Yann Giraud (Université de Cergy-Pontoise, THEMA)
    Abstract: Historians of economics rarely consider textbooks as more than passive receptacles of previously validated knowledge. Therefore, their active role in shaping the discipline and its image is seldom addressed. In this paper, I study the making of Paul Samuelson’s successive editions of Economics from 1967 to 1976 as an instance of how textbooks stand at the crossroads between disciplinary knowledge, pedagogy and larger political and societal concerns. In the mid-1960s, Economics, now at its sixth edition, was at the height of its success. Considered one cornerstone of modern economics, it was also the center of a number of criticisms dealing with the current state of the economic discipline and its teaching in the universities. While the profession expressed its concern over the lack of relevance of economics to address the pressing issues of the day and pleaded for a new “problem-solving” approach to economic education, the late 1960s witnessed the emergence of a new generation of “radical” economists criticizing the economics orthodoxy. Their contention that mainstream theory had neglected the issues of class struggle and capitalist exploitation, found a favorable echo among an increasingly politicized population. Using archival materials, I show how Samuelson, helped by his editorial team at McGraw-Hill, attempted to take into account these changes in order to ensure the continuing success of subsequent editions of his text in an increasingly competitive market. While this study emphasizes Samuelson’s ambiguous attitude toward his contenders, revealing on the one hand his belief in a free marketplace of ideas and, on the other hand, his attachment to mildly liberal politics and aversion to Marxism, unchanged through revisions, it also shows that the textbook is a collective endeavor, embodying different stakeholders’ views and market forces. Therefore, those who are interested in studying textbooks as a way to retrace the development of economic knowledge should not necessarily postulate authorial intent.
    Keywords: Paul Samuelson, economics textbooks, economic education, radical economics
    JEL: A14 B20 B3
    Date: 2017
  14. By: Josephsen, Lars
    Abstract: The paper discusses the theoretical underpinning of the concept of sustainable development, especially in relation to follow-up and review, including ex post evaluation of progress. The purpose is to explore methodological aspects of applied approaches to the implementation process, e.g. ways to unravel possible interactions among the numerous SDGs and targets, and to assess trade-offs between interventions. The aim is to go beyond various sustainable development interpretations, by exploring how they perceive and approach implementation of the goals, taking the complexity of this substantial task into account. The paper surveys the theoretical economic underpinning of the 2030 Agenda and the role of neoclassical economic theory in this context. Implementation routes for sustainable development interpretations based on other theoretical frameworks are briefly sketched for comparison. The analysis leads to the claim that it is questionable whether interpretations of sustainable development founded on neoclassical economic theory - as the 2030 Agenda - are applicable in relation to every aspect of sustainability.
    Keywords: Sustainable development,2030 Agenda,Implementation of the SDGs,underpinning of the SDGs,SDGs and complexity
    JEL: Q01 O44
    Date: 2017
  15. By: Adam Nowak (West Virginia University, Department of Economics); Patrick Smith (San Diego State University)
    Abstract: In most housing transactions the home buyer and seller do not meet, in which case the buyer's race is not revealed and the seller cannot discriminate against them. Despite this fact, previous studies estimate racial price differentials based on the race of the home buyer. In this study we identify the dimensions along which differential treatment occurs in housing markets. We show that home buyers disproportionately hire real estate agents of the same race and that the race of the agent, not the home buyer, is the primary mechanism of discrimination. The results of this study have important implications for fair housing policy.
    Keywords: Housing, agent intermediation, racial discrimination, price differentials
    Date: 2017–09
  16. By: Ruben Bibas (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Sandrine Mathy (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Meike Fink (Réseau Action Climat - Aucune)
    Abstract: La définition des technologies à mobiliser et des politiques à mettre en œuvre pour atteindre l'objectif de division par quatre des émissions de gaz à effet de serre suscite de vifs débats. En ce sens, la réalisation d’un exercice de scénarisation peut permettre d'objectiver l’ensemble des conséquences économiques et sociales d’une trajectoire et ainsi ouvrir le débat sur les visions compatibles avec les objectifs climatiques et énergétiques. Cet article décrit le processus d'élaboration participative par une trentaine de parties prenantes ( issues du secteur privé, du secteur public et de l’Etat, des ONG, des associations de consommateurs, des syndicats, des banques ou des collectivités territoriales) d'un scénario bas carbone pour la France. Les mesures considérées comme acceptables par les parties prenantes sont intégrées dans le modèle technico-économique Imaclim-R France, afin d’évaluer leurs impacts sur les émissions de CO2 et sur l'économie. Le scénario issu de cette concertation atteint une réduction des émissions de CO2 de 68% en 2050, par rapport à 1990, ce qui se rapproche de l’objectif de Facteur 4. Les mesures de réduction des émissions, dont la plus emblématique est la taxe carbone, sont bénéfiques pour l'emploi et la croissance économique, sauf à court terme où le défaut d’anticipation des acteurs ne leur permet pas de se préparer à l’instauration d’une taxe carbone. Les mesures permettent en outre de réduire rapidement et durablement le budget des ménages dédié aux services énergétiques, ainsi que la facture énergétique et la compétitivité industrielle est renforcée.
    Keywords: scenario bas carbone , Imaclim-France , politique climatique , taxe carbone
    Date: 2016
  17. By: Thomas Spencer (IDDRI - Institut du Développement Durable et des Relations Internationales - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Paris); Roberta Pierfederici (IDDRI - Institut du Développement Durable et des Relations Internationales - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Paris); Oliver Sartor (IDDRI - Institut du Développement Durable et des Relations Internationales - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Paris); Nicolas Berghmans (IDDRI - Institut du Développement Durable et des Relations Internationales - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Paris); Sascha Samadi (Wuppertal Institute for Climate Environment and Energy - Wuppertal Institute for Climate Environment and Energy); Manfred Fischedick (Wuppertal Institute for Climate Environment and Energy - Wuppertal Institute for Climate Environment and Energy); Katharina Knoop (Wuppertal Institute for Climate Environment and Energy - Wuppertal Institute for Climate Environment and Energy); Steve Pye (University college London Energy Institute - UCL - University College of London [London]); Patrick Criqui (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Sandrine Mathy (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Pantelis Capros (E3MLab - Institute of Communication and Computer Systems - National Technical University of Athens); Panagiotis Fragkos (E3MLab - Institute of Communication and Computer Systems - National Technical University of Athens); Maciej Bukowski (WiseEuropa Institute); Aleksander Śniegocki (WiseEuropa Institute); Maria Virdis (ENEA - Italian National agency for new technologies, Energy and sustainable economic development [Frascati]); Maria Gaeta (ENEA - Italian National agency for new technologies, Energy and sustainable economic development [Frascati]); Karine Pollier (Enerdata); Cyril Cassisa (Enerdata)
    Abstract: Decarbonisation of energy systems requires deep structural change. The purpose of this research was to analyse the rates of change taking place in the energy systems of each Member State of the European Union (EU), and the EU in aggregate, in the light of the EU's climate change mitigation objectives. Trends on indicators such as sectoral activity levels and composition, energy intensity, and carbon intensity of energy were compared with decadal benchmarks derived from deep decarbonisation scenarios. The methodology applied provides a useful and informative approach to tracking decarbonisation of energy systems. The results show that while the EU has made significant progress in decarbonising its energy system. On a number of indicators assessed the results show that a significant acceleration from historical levels is required in order to reach the rates of change seen on the future benchmarks for deep decarbonisation. The methodology applied provides an example of how the research community and international organisations could complement the transparency mechanism developed by the Paris Agreement on climate change, to improve understanding of progress toward low-carbon energy systems.
    Keywords: energy system decarbonisation, EU climate policy, policy monitoring
    Date: 2017
  18. By: Igor D. S. Siciliani; Marcelo H. R. Tragtenberg
    Abstract: We investigate the Brazilian personal income distribution using data from National Household Sample Survey (PNAD), an annual research available by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). It provides general characteristics of the country's population. Using PNAD data background we also confirm the effectiveness of a semi-empirical model that reconciles Pareto power-law for high-income people and Boltzmann- Gibbs distribution for the rest of population. We use three measures of income inequality: the Pareto index, the average income and the crossover income. In order to cope with many dimensions of the income inequality, we calculate these three indices and also the Gini coefficient for the general population as well as for two kinds of population dichotomies: black / indigenous / mixed race versus white / yellow; and men versus women. We also followed the time series of these indices for the period 2001-2014. The results suggest a decreasing of Brazilian income inequality over the selected period. Another important result is that historically-disadvantaged subgroups (Women and black / indigenous / mixed race),that are the majority of the population, have a more equalitarian income distribution. These groups have also a smaller monthly income than the others and this social structure remained virtually unchanged in the period of time.
    Date: 2017–09

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