nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2017‒04‒23
24 papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. Economic impact assessment of food waste on European countries throughout Social Accounting Matrices By Pilar Campoy-Muñoz; CARDENETE, MANUEL ALEJANDRO; DELGADO, MARIA CARMEN
  2. In-Work Poverty in the United States By Kenworthy, Lane; Marx, Ive
  3. The sexual division of labour within couples in France according to their marital status: A study based on time - use surveys from 1985-1986, 1998-1999, and 2009-2010 By Lamia Kandil; Hélène Périvier
  4. Studying the structures of income distribution and production with Social Accounting and Input-Output Matrices. By Susana Santos
  5. La division sexuée du travail dans les couples selon le statut marital en France: Une étude à partir des enquêtes emploi du temps de 1985-1986, 1998-1999, et 2009-2010 By Lamia Kandil; Hélène Périvier
  6. Inequality, redistributive policies and multiplierdynamics in an agent-based model with credit rationing By Elisa Palagi; Mauro Napoletano; Andrea Roventini; Jean-Luc Gaffard
  7. Using legal empowerment for labour rights in India By Rina Agarwala
  8. Between Trust and Performance: Exploring Socio-Economic Mechanisms on Directed Weighted Regular Ring with Agent-Based Modeling By Gao, Lin
  9. Structural Transformation and Income Distribution: Kuznets and Beyond By Kanbur, Ravi
  10. Institutions as Emergent Phenomena: Redefining Downward Causation By Nicolas Brisset
  12. From one form of sympathy to another: Sophie de Grouchy’s translation of and commentary on Adam Smith’s Theory of Moral Sentiments By Laurie Bréban; Jean Dellemotte
  13. Structural Propagation of Productivity Shocks: The Case of Korea By Nakano, Satoshi; Nishimura, Kazuhiko; Kim, Jiyoung
  14. Concepts of Equilibrium and their Role in Economic Simulation Models By Sherman Robinson
  15. Business is Tough, but Family is Worse: Household Bargaining and Investment in Microenterprises in Uganda By Nathan Fiala
  16. Inscrire les indicateurs de bien-être et de soutenabilité au coeur du débat budgétaire By Eloi Laurent
  17. Theory and Practice of Crisis in Political Economy: the Case of the Great Recession in Spain By Juan Pablo Mateo
  18. An Entropy-Constrained Model of Induced Technical Change with a Single Innovation Possibility Frontier By Jangho Yang
  19. A human rights-consistent approach to multidimensional welfare measurement applied to sub-Saharan Africa By Channing Arndt; Kristi Mahrt; M. Azhar Hussain; Finn Tarp
  20. Trade Patterns and the Ecological Footprint - a theory-based Empirical Approach By Thi Anh Dam; Markus Pasche; Niclas Werlich
  21. Women's Homelessness: International Evidence on Causes, Consequences, Coping and Policies By Johnson, Guy; Ribar, David C.; Zhu, Anna
  22. Differences between self-employed and employed mothers in balancing family and work responsibilities: Evidence from Latin American countries By Juan Carlos, Campaña; J. Ignacio, Giménez-Nadal; Jose Alberto, Molina
  23. La transversalización del enfoque de género en las políticas públicas frente al cambio climático en América Latina By Casas Varez, Marina
  24. Strengthening business groups and state intervention: the new developmentalism in Brazil By Fernanda Cimini

    Abstract: Food waste is becoming a major global issue, which threats a sustainable food system and generates negative externalities in environmental terms. From an economic perspective, studies focus on estimating the amount and monetary value of the wasted food by households and along the supply chain, in order to highlight the associated cost to the society. In this paper we adopt a different point of view, assessing the effects of food waste reduction on national economies in terms of total output, GDP and employment. To assess th effects of food waste reduction, we use linear multiplier models based on Social Accounting Matrices with a highly disaggregated agricultural account for the year 2007. The results show the greatest impacts are due to a reduction on the avoidable portion of the wasted food by household across the countries.
    Keywords: The proposed methodology is applied to a sample of European countries with different economic structure, i.e. Spain, Germany and Poland., Impact and scenario analysis, Regional modeling
    Date: 2016–07–04
  2. By: Kenworthy, Lane (University of California, San Diego); Marx, Ive (University of Antwerp)
    Abstract: In-work poverty became a prominent policy issue in the United States long before the term itself acquired any meaning and relevance in other industrialized countries. With America's embrace of an employment-centered antipoverty strategy, the working poor have become even more of an issue. This paper reviews some key trends, drivers and policy issues. How much in-work poverty is there in the United States? How does the US compare to other rich democracies? Has America's in-work poverty rate changed over time? Who are the in-work poor? What are the main drivers of levels and changes in in-work poverty? Finally, what are the prospects for America's working poor going forward?
    Keywords: poverty, employment, wages, United States
    JEL: I3
    Date: 2017–03
  3. By: Lamia Kandil (Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques); Hélène Périvier (Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques)
    Abstract: The purpose of this article is to analyse the division of domestic tasks within the couple according to their marital status as well as how this has changed since the 1980s based on three INSEE time-use surveys (1985-86, 1998-99 and 2009-10). The ordinary least squares (OLS) method is complemented by the matching method, which is used to account for the self-selection of the couples in terms of their observable characteristics in different forms of union (marriage, cohabitation and civil partnerships for 2009-10). In 1985-86 and in 1998-99, the degree of the sexual division of labour was higher for married couples than for cohabiting couples. For 1985-1986, this difference is explained by differences in the characteristics of the couples who were cohabiting. However, by the late 1990s cohabiting couples had opted for an organization that was less unequal than that of married couples, all else being equal. For 2009-10, the average amount of domestic work performed by women was about the same whether they were cohabiting or married (72% and 73.5%), but the level was significantly lower for women in civil partnerships (65.1%). These differences are not due to differences in the observable characteristics of the couples based on the type of union. The article shows that this difference is due to a process of the couples’ self-selection based on their values: in 2009-10, civil partnerships attracted more “egalitarian” couples who, prior to the introduction of civil partnerships, had opted to cohabit.
    Keywords: Sexual division of labour; Marital status; Family economics; Time-use survey; Matching method
    JEL: J12 J22
    Date: 2017–02
  4. By: Susana Santos
    Abstract: The Social Accounting Matrix will be presented as tools for the study of the socio-economic activity of a country, paying especial attention to the structure of income distribution. Activities (or industries), products, factors of production and institutions will be worked together in a matrix, from which networks of linkages will be identified and the structure of income distribution will also be studied. Our main objective is to research the influences of this structure on the socioeconomic activity of a country. The National Accounts will be adopted as the base source of information for the construction of numerical versions of this matrix, being described the corresponding methodologies and nomenclatures, considering the latest version of the System of National Accounts (2008 SNA). A basic version of the matrix will be presented first, with focus on the need to ensure consistency with the whole system. Such a need will then be reinforced through the analysis of possible disaggregations and extensions to this basic version. Macroeconomic aggregates, indicators, and balancing items that can be calculated from this matrix will also be presented. The National Accounts will be adopted as the base source of information for the construction of numerical versions of these matrices, being described the corresponding methodologies and nomenclatures, considering the latest version of the System of National Accounts (2008 SNA). A basic version of the two matrices will be presented first, with focus on the need to ensure consistency with the whole system. Such a need will then be reinforced through the analysis of possible disaggregations and extensions to these basic versions. Identification of relationships between the structures of income distribution and production and the results of the activity of a country, measured by macroeconomic aggregates, indicators, and balancing items that can be calculated from the Social Accounting and Input-Output Matrices.
    Keywords: Portugal, Miscellaneous, Miscellaneous
    Date: 2016–07–04
  5. By: Lamia Kandil (Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques); Hélène Périvier (Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques)
    Abstract: L’objet de cet article est d’analyser le partage des tâches domestiques dans les couples selon leur statut marital, et son évolution depuis les années 1980 à partir de trois enquêtes emploi du temps de l’Insee (1985-86, 1998-99 et 2009-10). La méthode des MCO est complétée par la méthode d’appariement qui permet de tenir compte de l’auto-sélection des couples au regard de leurs caractéristiques observables dans les différentes formes d’union (mariage, union libre et pacs pour l’année 2009-10). En 1985-86 ainsi qu’en 1998-99, le degré de division sexuée du travail était plus important dans les couples mariés que dans les couples vivant en union libre. Pour l’année 1985-86, cet écart s’explique par les différences de caractéristiques des couples vivant en union libre. En revanche, à la fin des années 1990, les couples en union libre optaient pour une organisation moins inégalitaire que celle des couples mariés toutes choses égales par ailleurs. Pour l’année 2009-10, en moyenne la part de travail domestique réalisée par les femmes est sensiblement la même qu’elles vivent en union libre ou qu’elles soient mariées (respectivement 72% et 73,5%), mais elle est significativement plus faible pour les femmes pacsées (65,1%). Ces écarts ne sont pas dus aux différences de caractéristiques observables des couples selon le type d’union. L’article montre qu’une auto-sélection des couples qui s’opèrerait sur les valeurs expliquerait cet écart : en 2009-10, le pacs attirerait les couples les plus « égalitaires », qui, avant l’introduction de l’union civile, optaient pour l’union libre.
    Keywords: Division sexuée du travail; Statut marital; Economie de la famille; Enquête emploi du temps; Méthode d'appriement
    JEL: J12 J22
    Date: 2017–03
  6. By: Elisa Palagi; Mauro Napoletano (Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques); Andrea Roventini (Laboratory of Economics and Management); Jean-Luc Gaffard (Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques)
    Abstract: We build an agent-based model populated by households with heterogenous and time-varying financial conditions in order to study how different inequality shocks affect income dynamics and the effects of different types of fiscal policy responses. We show that inequality shocks generate persistent falls in aggregate income by increasing the fraction of credit-constrained households and by lowering aggregate consumption. Furthermore, we experiment with different types of fiscal policies to counter the effects of inequality-generated recessions, namely deficit-spending direct government consumption and redistributive subsidies financed by different types of taxes. We find that subsidies are in general associated with higher fiscal multipliers than direct government expenditure, as they appear to be better suited to sustain consumption of lower income households after the shock. In addition, we show that the effectiveness of redistributive subsidies increases if they are financed by taxing financial incomes or savings.
    Keywords: Income inequality; Fiscal multipliers; Redistributive policies; Credit-rationing ; agent-based models
    JEL: E63 E21 C63
    Date: 2017–01
  7. By: Rina Agarwala
    Abstract: This paper brings labour back into the literature on legal empowerment against poverty. Employing a historical lens, I outline three waves of legal movements. Each wave is distinguished by its timing, the state-level target, and the actors involved. In all three waves, legal empowerment was won, not bestowed. Labour played a significant role, fighting in each subsequent wave for an expanded identity to address exclusions. These findings reveal the false dichotomy used to distinguish workers from citizens and class from identity-based interests. They underline the significance of symbolic power of legal recognition, even in the absence of perfect implementation. Finally, they highlight contemporary workers as an overlooked, identity-based group that addresses the intersectionalities between class and ascriptive characteristics.
    Date: 2017
  8. By: Gao, Lin
    Abstract: This paper explores the evolution of interaction and cooperation supported by individuals’ changing trust and trustworthiness on directed weighted regular ring though agent-based modeling. This agent-based model integrates fragility of trust, interaction decision, strategy decision, payoff matrix decision, interaction density and information diffusion. Marginal rate of exploitation of original payoff matrix and relative exploitation degree between the original and mutated payoff matrices are stressed in trust updating; influence of observing is introduced via imagined strategy; relation is maintained through relation maintenance strength. The impact of degree of embeddedness in social network, mutation probability of payoff matrix, mutated payoff matrix, proportion of high trust agents and probabilities of information diffusion within neighborhood and among non-neighbors on the sum of number of actual interaction and cooperation of all agents are probed on the base of a baseline simulation, respectively. Under the experimental design and parameter values selection in this paper, it is found that basically as degree of embeddedness in social network, proportion of high trust agents and probability of information diffusion in neighbors increase, as mutation probability of payoff matrix, conflict in mutated payoff matrix and probability of information diffusion in non-neighbors decrease, interaction and cooperation perform better.
    Keywords: Trust, directed weighted regular ring, agent-based modeling, evolution of cooperation
    JEL: B52 C63 D82 D85
    Date: 2017–04–16
  9. By: Kanbur, Ravi (Cornell University)
    Abstract: This paper explores the question of structural transformation and income distribution through the eyes of the pioneer in such analysis, Simon Kuznets. It argues that his 1955 paper stands the test of time in providing insights which are relevant to understanding current phenomena like the evolution of Chinese inequality. The paper shows how the Kuznetsian framework can be used, for example, in predicting the differential relationship between urbanization and inequality in India versus China, in assessing the detail of the contribution of sectoral mean and inequality evolution to overall inequality change, and in linking the recent inequality of opportunity literature to rural-urban migration. Thus the original Kuznets framework has the seeds of getting us beyond Kuznets as sometimes (mis)understood in the literature on structural transformation and income distribution.
    Keywords: Kuznets curve, inequality and development, rural-urban migration, Chinese inequality, place of birth and equality of opportunity
    JEL: O41 O14 D31
    Date: 2017–03
  10. By: Nicolas Brisset (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: The concept of emergence is frequently used in the social sciences in order to characterize social institutions. Nevertheless, philosophy of mind argues that the idea of emergence is problematic because it encompasses the dubious notion of downward causation, i.e. the fact that an entity at a given ontological level might have a causal influence on lower level entities. This work shows that although it is problematic in some fields, emergence is an ontological feature of the social world. In order to justify this point of view and to show how institutions relate to individuals’ actions, we define an institution as an exogenous device, which enables us to show that the relationship between institution and individual actions is not only a causal one but also an intersubjective and a constitutive one.
    Keywords: Emergent Phenomena, Institution, Downward Causation, Convention.
    Date: 2016–04–11
  11. By: Reyno Seymore; Martin Combrinck
    Abstract: The objective of the study is to determine the necessary growth magnitudes in exogenous final demand for the alternative growth industries identified by the Gabonese government, which would directly offset the GDP decline resulting from the decrease in the production of oil. Input-output analysis has been identified as the appropriate methodology, especially due to data restrictions, since it can be used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects on the economy of various simulations. In the process of answering the study objective, a symmetric input-output table is developed which, at the time of writing, did not exist for Gabon. All the alternative growth industries were simulated separately to directly offset the decline in the oil production, and the required growth magnitudes in these industries were calculated. In addition, a fifth scenario identified that an 8.16% increase in the exogenous final demand of all the alternative growth industries, is sufficient to directly offset the effect that the 2.80% decline in production of the “Production of “raw” petrol and natural gas and petroleum services” industry (B03), has on GDP. In addition, the indirect impact on total production will be positive.
    Keywords: Gabon, Developing countries, Energy and environmental policy
    Date: 2016–07–04
  12. By: Laurie Bréban (PHARE - Philosophie, Histoire et Analyse des Représentations Economiques - UNIVERSITE PARIS 1 PANTHEON-SORBONNE - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Jean Dellemotte (PHARE - Philosophie, Histoire et Analyse des Représentations Economiques - UNIVERSITE PARIS 1 PANTHEON-SORBONNE - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This paper focuses on Sophie de Grouchy’s French translation of the Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759-1790), published in 1798 and praised, from the very moment of its publication. It aims at emphasizing Grouchy’s reading of Smith’s moral philosophy on some particular points as it might have influence her translation of the TMS. Indeed, one important aspect of Grouchy’s Lettres, which concerns their reevaluation of Smithian sympathy, has been usually ignored by commentators. Curiously, whereas most contributions deals with the Marchioness’ translation, there is scarce any comment on her reading of Smith’s analysis (on the notable exception of Forget 2001). Yet, this could help to explain the distances that she sometimes took with Smith original vocabulary in her translation. In order to fulfill our aim, we first discuss the main features of this translation in the light of what has been pointed out by scholars. Most commentators agree that, despite its particular respect for the original text, Grouchy’s translation is not completely literal (Biziou, Gautier and Pradeau 1999). However, we only partially share some existing interpretations of these modifications such as the one of Bernier (2010) or Britton (2009). Our interpretation relies on the critics that Grouchy addresses to Smith’s moral philosophy in her Lettres. This leads us, in a second time, to emphasizes major philosophical differences between both authors; differences that Grouchy unfortunately underestimate. The reason that we put to the fore is the following: Grouchy analyzes Smith’s thinking in the light of a philosophical framework inconsistent with his moral philosophy as it precisely corresponds to the kind of system that he criticizes. To conclude, we open the path to alternative interpretations of some Grouchy’s choices of translation.
    Keywords: Adam Smith, Sophie de Grouchy, Sympathy, Enlightenment
    Date: 2016–04–04
  13. By: Nakano, Satoshi; Nishimura, Kazuhiko; Kim, Jiyoung
    Abstract: We model the transition of technological structure that is associated with the changes in cost induced by the innovation that occurred, using a system of multi-sector, multi-factor production functions. Structural propagation is quantified by using a system of unit-cost functions compatible with multi-level CES, plain CES, Cobb--Douglas, and Leontief production functions whose parameters we estimate via two timely distant input--output accounts. The economy-wide welfare gain obtainable for an exogenously given innovation will hence be quantified via the technological structure after structural propagation. Welfare gain due to productivity doubling for the medical and health services (public) industry is studied as an example, using the 2000--2005 Korean linked input--output table as the source of data.
    Keywords: Input-output tables, Productivity, South Korea, General equilibrium, Structural propagation
    JEL: C67 D57
    Date: 2016–02
  14. By: Sherman Robinson
    Abstract: This paper considers the role of equilibrium concepts in economic simulation models. The paper defines different types of equilibria and describes their importance in simulation models in terms of their power to describe empirically the results of disequilibrium adjustment processes that then need not be explicitly modelled. The paper addresses the issue of the validity of different equilibrium concepts as “descriptive” or “realistic” and considers the “domain of applicability” of different types of equilibria in different economic models. Examples are drawn from various classes of models: CGE (static and dynamic), DSGE, macroeconomic, multi-market, microsimulation, agent-based, and game theoretic. The focus is on constructing "realistic" or "valid" empirical simulation models that rely on economic equilibrium concepts. Equilibrium concepts are very powerful in simplifying the construction of simulation models in that they obviate the need to incorporate disequilibrium adjustment processes in the models. They improve model clarity and simplicity, avoiding the "black box" syndrome common in simulation model. Suggest standards for judging the degree of realism of different economic simulation models, and for approaches to empirical validation.
    Keywords: Examples from various country/global CGE models, Impact and scenario analysis, General equilibrium modeling
    Date: 2016–07–04
  15. By: Nathan Fiala (University of Connecticut)
    Abstract: I present evidence that intra-household decision making affects business investment decisions and household welfare. I interact the results from a behavioral experiment that allows spouses to hide money from each other with an experiment that delivered capital to business owners in Uganda. Businesses were randomly selected to receive capital through a loan or grant, or capital paired with training. I find evidence that the grant with training treatment had medium-term economic impacts when given to men, but there are no effects from the other treatments for men or women. I also find that the loan with training treatment had impacts on the income of spouses of women, though women do not know about these effects. The results from the incentivized behavioral game correlate significantly with household economic outcomes: men who do not hide money from their wives show higher economic outcomes from the treatments, while those who hide money show a negative change relative to a control group. The opposite is the case for women: women who hide money from their husbands show increased economic outcomes, while those who do not hide money see a decrease in outcomes. The results are consistent with strong female household constraints where women have little control over resources in the family and so hiding money is the only way to keep control of it. Men have less fear of losing control of money in the household, and so those that hide money likely have serious household issues that lead to significant negative investment behavior. The results help to explain why women with existing enterprises have performed so poorly in previous capital experiments and why researchers have failed to find impacts from microfinance.
    Keywords: Economic development; microenterprises; microfinance; cash grants; entrepreneurship training; credit constraints
    JEL: O12 O16 C93 J16 L26 M53
    Date: 2017–04
  16. By: Eloi Laurent (Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques)
    Abstract: La mesure du bien-être doit aller au-delà de celle de la croissance, mesurée par le PIB. Les 19 et 20 novembre 2007, voilà presque dix ans, se tenait à Bruxelles une conférence internationale organisée par la Commission européenne dans le but affiché de « dépasser le PIB ». Il importe notamment d'inscrire les indicateurs de bien-être et de soutenabilité au cœur des politiques publiques, comme commencent à le faire certains de nos voisins, tels que le Royaume-Uni et la Belgique. La France, longtemps en retard sur cet enjeu central, s'est dotée récemment d'un outil législatif innovant qui pourrait changer la donne, la loi SAS. Deux nécessités pourraient converger : l'amélioration de l'information statistique de la représentation nationale et l'usage des indicateurs de bien-être et de soutenabilité en vue de transformer les politiques publiques. Une première mesure simple à prendre dans cette perspective consiste à caler le rapport prévu par la loi SAS sur le débat budgétaire et surtout à en confier la rédaction à une instance collégiale tripartite (parlementaires, experts et citoyens) afin d'organiser un véritable débat parlementaire et public autour des données contenues dans ce rapport. Trois enjeux paraissent pouvoir éclairer effectivement les orientations du projet de loi de finances : l'évolution des inégalités, l'entretien du patrimoine national entendu dans son sens le plus large et la place de la France dans le monde (ces trois dimensions reprenant les normes internationales adoptées par la Conférence des statisticiens en 2013 qui distinguent le « bien- être ici et maintenant, le bien-être plus tard et le bien-être ailleurs »). Enfin, des indicateurs sur la place de la France dans le monde, et notamment son impact écologique global, compléteraient utilement ce tableau nécessairement. Adopter ces trois critères – égalité entre personnes et territoires, soutenabilité patrimoniale et responsabilité globale – pour voter le budget de la France reviendrait à sortir du règne des objectifs intermédiaires que sont la réduction des déficits publics et la croissance du PIB, dont tout indique qu'ils nous éloignent du bien-être et de la soutenabilité au lieu de nous en rapprocher.
    Keywords: Bien être; Indicateurs; Budget
    Date: 2017–03
  17. By: Juan Pablo Mateo (Department of Economics, New School for Social Research and University of Valladolid)
    Abstract: This paper addresses the Marx´s theory of crisis in order to analyze the Great Recession in Spain, a peripheral economy within the Eurozone. It is shown the underlying problem in the capacity to generate surplus value behind the housing bubble, which in turn explain some particularities related to the capital composition and productivity, as well as wages and finance. The document also carries out a critic of both orthodox and heterodox approaches that focus i) on a profit squeeze caused by labor market rigidities, ii) underconsumption because of stagnant wages, as well as iii), finances: interest rates and indebtedness.
    Keywords: Theory of crisis, profit rate, Spain, housing bubble, interest rates, wages
    JEL: B14 E11 E20 E43 J30
    Date: 2017–04
  18. By: Jangho Yang (Department of Economics, New School for Social Research)
    Abstract: This paper proposes an entropy-constrained model of induced technical change (ITC) and estimates the innovation possibilities frontier (IPF) of the OECD countries. The ITC model captures endogenous dynamics of technical progress driven by competition among capitalists to lower production costs. However, its assumption that the typical capitalist is able to maximize cost reductions with complete certainty leads to the implausible result that all capitalists end up being on the technological frontier. The entropy constrained ITC model generalizes the canonical model by allowing the economic agent to have a positive degree of uncertainty. This leads to a qualitatively different result in that the solution of the same maximization problem is not a single point on the frontier but a probability distribution of the possible states of the technological change. The Bayesian inference is then employed and successfully recovers the single IPF of the entropy constrained ITC model for the OECD countries.
    Keywords: Induced technical change, innovation possibilities frontier, entropy constrained model, Bayesian inference
    JEL: C11 C15 D01 D24 D80 O33 O4
    Date: 2017–04
  19. By: Channing Arndt; Kristi Mahrt; M. Azhar Hussain; Finn Tarp
    Abstract: The rights-based approach to development targets progress towards the realization of 30 articles set forth in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Progress is frequently measured using the multidimensional poverty index. While elegant and useful, the multidimensional poverty index is in reality inconsistent with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights principles of indivisibility, inalienability, and equality. We show that a first-order dominance methodology maintains consistency with basic principles, discuss the properties of the multidimensional poverty index and first-order dominance, and apply the measures to 26 African countries. We conclude that the multidimensional poverty index and first-order dominance are useful complements that should be employed in tandem.
    Date: 2017
  20. By: Thi Anh Dam (School of Economics and Business Administration, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena); Markus Pasche (School of Economics and Business Administration, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena); Niclas Werlich (School of Economics and Business Administration, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena)
    Abstract: With global specialization and trade, countries make directly but also indirectly use of the environment via traded goods. Based on the theory of comparative advantages, the Heckscher-Ohlin-Vanek approach, we are using the Ecological Footprint as a broad measure of environmental use because its methodology explicitly accounts for the environmental use embodied in the traded goods. The comparative advantages depend on the endowment of environment as well as on the stringency of environmental policy which regulate the access to these factors. We empirically analyse the determinants of the ecological side of the trade pattern, i.e. whether the net export of the Ecological Footprint, embodied in the traded goods, depends on the comparative advantages as predicted by the theory, but also on a couple of control variables. A special focus is put on the role of environmental policy stringency which links our analysis to the "Pollution Haven" hypothesis. We also briefly analyse the role of FDI flows for the emergence of the ecological specialization pattern of production and trade.
    Keywords: Trade, comparative advantage, Ecological Footprint, environmental policy, Pollution Haven, FDI
    JEL: F18 F14 F11 Q57 Q56
    Date: 2017–04–18
  21. By: Johnson, Guy (RMIT University); Ribar, David C. (University of Melbourne); Zhu, Anna (University of Melbourne)
    Abstract: This paper reviews international evidence regarding women's homelessness. It discusses different definitions of homelessness and how women are frequently part of the "hidden homeless" population and less a part of the unsheltered homeless population. It also considers the data that are used to enumerate and study homeless people. The structural, personal, and random causes of homelessness are discussed, with evidence pointing to highly gendered patterns. The paper also describes the consequences of women's homelessness, including the consequences for children, and the material and psychological coping strategies that homeless people employ. It considers policies to reduce homelessness and ameliorate its problems.
    Keywords: homelessness, women, children, hidden homeless, policies, coping strategies
    JEL: I30 R31
    Date: 2017–03
  22. By: Juan Carlos, Campaña; J. Ignacio, Giménez-Nadal; Jose Alberto, Molina
    Abstract: In this paper, we analyze how self-employed and employed mothers in several Latin American countries allocate their time throughout the day in order to balance their family and work responsibilities. Using data from time-use surveys for Mexico (2009), Peru (2010), Panama (2011), Ecuador (2012) and Colombia (2012), we find that self-employed mothers devote less time to paid work and more time to unpaid work and child care, compared to employed mothers, in the five countries. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that working mothers may want to decrease the number of hours they devote to paid work, and devote more time to their household responsibilities, and that self-employment may be used as a tool for this purpose. Thus, self-employment in Latin American countries may be seen as an instrument to improve the work-life balance of mothers.
    Keywords: self-employment; paid work, unpaid work, child care, Latin America
    JEL: D13 J13 J22
    Date: 2017–03–28
  23. By: Casas Varez, Marina
    Abstract: El principal objetivo de este estudio es identificar la relevancia del tema de género en las causas y consecuencias del cambio climático. Los principales resultados muestran que estos son heterogéneos y que en muchos casos agravan las desigualdades de género que existen históricamente en la sociedad. Los impactos diferenciados de los efectos del calentamiento global sobre hombres y mujeres exigen políticas públicas de adaptación y mitigación que reconozcan las diferentes necesidades que tienen ambos géneros y que promuevan la transversalización del enfoque de género en las políticas públicas frente al cambio climático. A este respecto, existen algunos avances en la región pero aún persiste un importante espacio de mejora. Por ejemplo, los Planes de Acción de Género y Cambio Climático (PAGcc), adoptados en algunos países de América Latina y el Caribe, constituyen una importante iniciativa de coordinación intersectorial y ofrecen importantes co-beneficios para insertar la igualdad de género en las políticas públicas frente al cambio climático.
    Date: 2017–03
  24. By: Fernanda Cimini (Cedeplar-UFMG)
    Abstract: The paper addresses the interaction between business groups and state intervention in Brazil under the New Developmentalism, inquiring to what extent the new role played by the state in the hallmark of the “new developmentalism agenda” is complementary to the strategy and practices adopted by Brazilian business groups. The paper suggests that the concentration of governance control in the hands of a tiny elite pushes for champion-promoting strategies, generating a complementarity between the institutional domain of corporate governance and the industrial policies promoted by the state. The unforeseen consequence of these “on-the-ground” strategies is that, in Brazil, hierarchical capitalism and state developmentalism are mutually reinforcing each other.
    Keywords: New Developmentalism, Business Groups, Hierarchical Capitalism
    JEL: O1 P1 P48
    Date: 2017–03

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