nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2017‒04‒02
twenty-six papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. The Need for and Meaning of Social Ecological Economics By Clive L. Spash
  2. Economic shocks and changes in global production structure : methods for measuring economic resilience By Hashiguchi, Yoshihiro; Yamano, Norihiko; Webb, Colin
  3. On the importance of manufacturing sectors for economic development and growth By Alexander Radebach; Hauke Schult; Jan Christoph Steckel
  4. Is the market really a good teacher ? By Pascal Seppecher; Isabelle Salle; Dany Lang
  5. Basic income as primary income By Jean-Marie Monnier; Carlo Vercellone
  6. Do Significant Labour Market Events Change Who Does the Laundry? Work, chore allocation, and power in Australian households By Gigi Foster; Leslie Stratton
  7. Metamorphoses of Value.The Concept of a Commodity in Marx’s Capital. By Andrea Ricci
  8. An empirical analysis of Minsky regimes in the US economy By Leila E. Davis - Joao Paulo A. de Souza y Gonzalo Hernandez; Joao Paulo A. de Souza; Gonzalo Hernandez
  9. Six Dimensions of Concentration in Economics: Scientometric Evidence from a Large-Scale Data Set By Glötzl, Florentin; Aigner, Ernest
  10. Uncertainty treatment in input-output analysis By Umed Temurshoev
  11. La Complejidad Economica de Chiapas; Analisis de Capacidades y Posibilidades de Diversificacion Productiva By Ricardo Hausmann; Timothy Cheston; Miguel Angel Santos
  12. L'économie, rhétorique moderne By François Facchini
  13. Implementando Politicas de Desarrollo Productivo En Chiapas: Marco Institucional By Filipe Campante; Albert Sole
  14. Fame e abbondanza. Il glossario. Scelte lessicologiche, criteri di lemmatizzazione e analisi testuale [Famine and feast. The glossary. Lexicology choices, lemmatization criteria and textual analysis] By Biorci Grazia; Falavigna Greta
  15. Entrepreneurial Ecosystems By F.C. Stam; Ben Spigel
  16. Environmental Values in Conservation: Ethics, Economics and Pragmatism By Clive L. Spash
  17. A New Measure of Inter-Industry Distance and Its Application to the U.S. Regional Growth By Yoon, Yeo Joon; Whang, Unjung
  18. L’agroecologia come nuovo paradigma per l’agricoltura sostenibile. Un breve quadro teorico. [Agroecology as a new paradigm for sustainable agriculture. A short theoretical framework] By Pronti Andrea
  19. Introducing Virtue Ethics into Normative Economics for Models with Endogenous Preferences By Vipul Bhatt; Masao Ogaki; Yuichi Yaguchi
  20. A network-based approach to technology transfers in the context of climate policy By Solmaria Halleck Vega; Antoine Mandel
  21. Long-term projections of global food security with R&D-driven technological progress By Zuzana Smeets Kristkova; Michiel van Dijk; Hans van Meijl
  22. Is innovation destroying jobs? Firm-level evidence from the EU By Piva, Mariacristina; Vivarelli, Marco
  23. Multiplex interbank networks and systemic importance – An application to European data By Iñaki Aldasoro; Iván Alves
  24. Gender Gaps in Time Use and Earnings: What's Norms Got to Do With It? By Nan L. Maxwell; Nathan Wozny
  25. Azerbaijan’s dynamic input-output model with inverse recursion By Nazim Hajiyev; Adalat Muradov; Yadulla Hasanli
  26. Migrants and the Making of America: The Short and Long Run Effects of Immigration during the Age of Mass Migration By Nunn, Nathan; Qian, Nancy; Sequeira, Sandra

  1. By: Clive L. Spash
    Abstract: Ecological economics has arisen over a period of three decades with a strong emphasis on the essential need to recognise the embeddedness of the economy in the biophysical. However, that element of realism is not matched by an equally well informed social theory. Indeed the tendency has been to adopt mainstream economic concepts, theories and models formulated of the basis of a formal mathematical deductivist approach that pays little or no attention to social reality. Similarly mainstream economic methods are employed as pragmatic devices for communication. As a result ecological economics has failed to develop its own consistent and coherent theory and failed to make the link between the social and the economic. In order to reverse this situation the social and political economy must be put to the fore and that is the aim of social ecological economics. This paper provides a brief overview of the arguments for such a development. The prospect is of unifying a range of critical thought on the social and environmental crises with the aim of informing the necessary social ecological transformation of the economy.
    Keywords: ecological economics, social economy, political ecology, political economy, social ecological transformation, biophysical reality, mainstream economics, neoliberal environmentalism
    Date: 2017
  2. By: Hashiguchi, Yoshihiro; Yamano, Norihiko; Webb, Colin
    Abstract: Conventional studies into the impacts of economic shocks using global input-output tables (sensitivity analyses) assume stable production structures and thus, only reveal the marginal impacts of changes in final demand. However, when economic shocks occur, whether at home or abroad, economic agents are expected to react to reduce the negative impact or amplify the positive effects. The ability of a country to contain economic losses can be defined as the resilience to economic shocks. Using the OECD's annual Inter-Country Input-Output (ICIO) tables, 1995 to 2011, this paper investigates the relationship between changes in final demand and production structures for 61 economies. Our findings are summarized as follows. Production and final demand structures tend to change to reduce the negative feedbacks from final demand shocks. During economic downturns, structures tend to change so that the dependency on domestic services increases, while the dependency on domestic demand for goods, and the dependency on foreign demand for domestic goods and services, both decrease. Therefore, the domestic service sector seems to play a key role in temporarily containing the negative feedback. Countries that are able to prop up their economy by domestic service sectors instead of domestic goods and foreign sectors are more resilient to negative economic shocks.
    Keywords: International trade, Input-output tables, Industrial structure, World, Economic resiliency, Structural changes, Input-output, Global value chains
    JEL: C14 D57 E12 F47
    Date: 2017–03
  3. By: Alexander Radebach; Hauke Schult; Jan Christoph Steckel
    Abstract: Various attempts have been made to empirically understand the role of economic sectors in development and growth processes. In this work, we develop an innovative methodology to assess associations in a cross-country multi-sectoral dataset based on complex network-related approaches.This paper generalizes existing concepts—such as the “product space”, which identifies a core-periphery pattern of the global economy using export data—by first considering total economic activities in terms of value-added data deduced from multi-regional input-output tables and, second, by assessing the relationship between inter-sectoral imbalances and overall economic growth.We find clearly distinguishable groups of sectors, mainly agricultural, industrial, services and resource extractive sectors. These are primarily linked via light manufacturing sectors. The existence of these sectoral bottlenecks, or bridges that are stable over time, allows us to conclude that (i) the buildup of specific manufacturing sectors is crucial for establishing the capabilities required for transitional growth and (ii) leapfrogging an economy’s industrialized state is difficult. Along with the directionality information derived from the analysis of sectoral imbalances, our results are consistent with and expand classical sectoral ladder models towards a sectoral “climbing wall” where multiple development routes are conceivable. Those are, however, constrained by specific identifiable bottlenecks. Our conclusions have notable implications for any attempts to alleviate poverty and foster growth in light of global environmental change.
    Keywords: global, Growth, Sectoral issues
    Date: 2015–07–01
  4. By: Pascal Seppecher (CEPN - Centre d'Economie de l'Université Paris Nord - Université Paris 13 - USPC - Université Sorbonne Paris Cité - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Isabelle Salle (CeNDEF - Center for Nonlinear Dynamics in Economics and Finance - Universiteit van Amsterdam, Utrecht School of Economics - Utrecht University [Utrecht]); Dany Lang (CEPN - Centre d'Economie de l'Université Paris Nord - Université Paris 13 - USPC - Université Sorbonne Paris Cité - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This paper proposes to model market mechanisms as a collective learning process for firms in a complex adaptive system, namely Jamel, an agent-based, stock-flow consistent macroeconomic model. Inspired by Alchian's (1950) " blanketing shotgun process " idea, our learning model is an ever-adapting process that puts a significant weight on exploration vis-à-vis exploitation. We show that decentralized market selection allows firms to collectively adapt their overall debt strategies to the changes in the macroeconomic environment so that the system sustains itself, but at the cost of recurrent deep downturns. We conclude that, in complex evolving economies, market processes do not lead to the selection of optimal behaviors, as the characterization of successful behaviors itself constantly evolves as a result of the market conditions that these behaviors contribute to shape. Heterogeneity in behavior remains essential to adaptation in such an ever-changing environment. We come to an evolutionary characterization of a crisis, as the point where the evolution of the macroeconomic system becomes faster than the adaptation capabilities of the agents that populate it, and the so far selected performing behaviors suddenly cease to be, and become instead undesirable.
    Keywords: Firm adaptation,Learning,Evolutionary Economics
    Date: 2016–10–20
  5. By: Jean-Marie Monnier (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Carlo Vercellone (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: The objective of the article is to clarify the foundations of the proposal for basic income as primary income. This proposal is based on a reexamination of the productive labour notion in the cognitive capitalism. We first position basic income as a tool for labour emancipation of the rentier logic of cognitive capitalism. It implies the analysis of the concept of cognitive capitalism and of the labour force status. Basic income appears like a means for reinforcing the process of the re-socialization of the economy, which was formed after WWII with the development of the modern social protection system. In a second time, we analyze the transformations of the new social organization of labour in cognitive capitalism. It allows us to precise our conception of basic income and to differentiate it from purely ethical and redistributive approaches.
    Abstract: L'article vise à expliciter les fondements de la proposition de revenu de base comme revenu primaire à partir d'un réexamen de la notion de travail productif dans le cadre du capitalisme cognitif. Nous positionnons tout d'abord le revenu de base comme outil d'émancipation du travail de la logique rentière du capitalisme cognitif. Cela implique de revenir sur le concept de capitalisme cognitif et sur le statut de la force de travail. Le revenu de base apparaît alors comme un instrument de renforcement du processus de resocialisation de l'économie engagé avec le développement du système moderne de protection sociale. Dans un second temps nous analysons les transformations de la nouvelle organisation sociale du travail dans le capitalisme cognitif. Cela nous permet de préciser notre conception du revenu de base et de la distinguer des approches purement éthiques et redistributives.
    Keywords: Cognitive capitalism, Basic income, Primary income, Labor,Capitalisme cognitif, Revenu de base, Revenu primaire, Travail
    Date: 2017–03–09
  6. By: Gigi Foster (School of Economics, UNSW Business School, UNSW); Leslie Stratton (Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA)
    Abstract: In this paper, we examine how men and women in mixed-gender unions change their allocation of time to housework in response to promotions and terminations in the labour market. Operating much like raises, such events have the potential to alter power dynamics within the household, as well as labour force commitments. Using Australian panel data on married and cohabiting couples, we first show evidence that promotions and terminations are plausibly exogenous to housework time allocations, then estimate gender and couple-specific fixed effects models of housework time as a function of both own and partner’s labour market events. Of the four types of labour market events we examine – male and female promotion, and male and female termination – female promotion is the strongest predictor of housework time allocation adjustments. These adjustments are in part due to concurrent changes in paid work time, but gender power relations also appear to play a role. Further results indicate that although large gender gaps in housework time exist regardless of labour market activity, households holding more liberal gender role attitudes, and those that are less time-constrained, are those most likely to adjust their housework time allocations after female promotion events. Power dynamics cannot, however, explain all the results. Supporting the sociological theory that partners may ‘do gender’ ( i.e., try to compensate behaviourally for phenomena that run contrary to gender stereotypes), we find that in households with more traditional gender role attitudes that experience a male termination event, his housework time falls while hers rises.
    Keywords: Intra-household allocation, Time use, Gender, Housework
    JEL: J16 J22 D79
    Date: 2017–01
  7. By: Andrea Ricci (Department of Economics, Society & Politics, Università di Urbino "Carlo Bo")
    Abstract: IThe development of the concept of a commodity is pursued from the recognition of an initial analytical moment, different from formal logic, within Marx’s dialectical thought. A consistent interpretation of Marxian categories, from substance to magnitude and measure of value, is proposed. Concepts strongly disputed in literature, like abstract labour and money, find their proper positioning, and real measure provides an operational basis to value assessment of concrete economies. The restoration of the conceptual foundations of Marx’s theory opens the way to further research on the whole theoretical edifice of Capital and analysis of today’s capitalism.
    Keywords: Commodity, Labour theory of value, Marxism, Dialectic, Abstract labour, Money.
    JEL: A12 B14 B51 E40
    Date: 2016
  8. By: Leila E. Davis - Joao Paulo A. de Souza y Gonzalo Hernandez; Joao Paulo A. de Souza; Gonzalo Hernandez
    Abstract: In this paper we analyze Minskian dynamics in the US economy via an empirical application of Minsky's nancing regime classi cations to a panel of non nancial corporations. First, we map Minsky's de nitions of hedge, speculative and Ponzi nance onto rm-level data to describe the evolution of Minskian regimes. We highlight striking growth in the share of Ponzi rms in the post-1970 US, concentrated among small corporations. This secular growth in the incidence of Ponzi rms is consistent with the possibility of a long wave of increasingly fragile nance in the US economy. Second, we explore the possibility of short-run Minskian dynamics at a business-cycle frequency. Using linear probability models relating rms' probability of being Ponzi to the aggregate output gap, which captures short-term macroeconomic uctuations exogenous to individual rms, we nd that aggregate downturns are correlated with an almost zero increased probability that rms are Ponzi. This result is corroborated by quantile regressions using a continuous measure of nancial fragility, the interest coverage ratio, which identify almost zero effects of short-term uctuations on nancial fragility across the interest coverage distribution. Together, these results speak to an important question in the theoretical literature on nancial fragility regarding the duration of Minskian cycles, and lend support, in particular, to the contention that Minskian dynamics may take the form of long waves, but do not operate at business cycle frequencies.
    Keywords: Minsky cycles, nancial fragility, rm behavior
    Date: 2017–02–15
  9. By: Glötzl, Florentin; Aigner, Ernest
    Abstract: This paper scientometrically investigates concentration in economics between 1956 and 2016 using a large-scale data set. It is revealed that economics is highly concentrated along six dimensions: articles, journals, regions, institutions, authors, and paradigms. North America accounts for half of all published articles and three quarters of all citations, while the top twenty academic institutions reap a share of 42 percent of all citations. The top 100 authors alone receive a share of 15 percent. Five journals account for 27.7 percent of all citations and only 8 percent of all articles, and 3 percent of all citations may be attributed to heterodox schools of thought. The overall Gini coefficient for the distribution of citations among articles is 0.72. Generally, concentration is found to increase towards the top of the discipline and to be higher and more persistent on the level of citations than on the level of articles. Concentration has increased over the last few decades, with the strongest increases occurring already until the 1970s.
    Keywords: concentration, economics, scientometrics
    Date: 2017–03
  10. By: Umed Temurshoev (Universidad Loyola Andalucía)
    Abstract: TThis work provides an extensive overview of the input-output (IO) literature, both theoretical and empirical, dealing with the inherent IO data uncertainty issues. The survey is carried out on the basis of a specific uncertainty technique used, rather than taking a chronological overview approach, which also allows for easier comparisons and linking of the outcomes of the individual contributions. Thus, we discuss the literature within seven methodological blocks (sections), which include deterministic error analysis, econometric and other (non-Bayesian) statistical approaches, random error analysis and probabilistic approach, full probability density distribution approach, Monte Carlo analysis, Bayesian approach, and other techniques. Within each section, the literature on a certain topic is reviewed in its historical context, which helps to clarify the state of the art. Our main findings from this survey, related discussions, final remarks and observations are given in the concluding section.
    Keywords: input-output uncertainty, deterministic and random error analysis, stochastic inputoutput analysis, Monte Carlo simulations, Bayesian approach
    JEL: C67 D57 R15
    Date: 2015–04
  11. By: Ricardo Hausmann (Center for International Development at Harvard University); Timothy Cheston (Center for International Development at Harvard University); Miguel Angel Santos (Center for International Development at Harvard University)
    Abstract: Chiapas es el estado más pobre de México, y también el menos diversificado en su estructura productiva. Según los hallazgos de este reporte, esa dualidad no es una coincidencia casual. La escasa complejidad económica de Chiapas, medida tanto por la escasa sofisticación de sus exportaciones como por la exigua diversidad en la composición de su empleo, es uno de los factores asociados a sus bajos niveles de ingreso y escaso crecimiento. Para cambiar el patrón de crecimiento de Chiapas es necesario cambiar su estructura de producción, haciéndola más compleja y sofisticada. Afortunadamente, existe un enorme potencial para que diferentes lugares de Chiapas se muevan de manera gradual hacia productos e industrias de mayor sofisticación, con base en el conocimiento con el que ya cuentan hoy en día. No todos los lugares tienen el mismo potencial; la diversidad de capacidades productivas que existe en México se reproduce hacia el interior de Chiapas de manera fractal. Nuestros análisis indican que la variedad de niveles de ingresos hacia adentro de las regiones sigue siendo mayor que las diferencias entre los promedios de esas regiones. Esta característica justifica la utilización de un enfoque municipal, centrado en aquellas zonas urbanas de mayor población, con suficiente diversidad y sofisticación como para justificar un análisis de productos e industrias “adyacentes” de mayor complejidad que requieran capacidades similares a las ya existentes. Este enfoque reconoce que la esperanza en el corto plazo para muchos ciudadanos que no habitan en la vecindad de las regiones más sofisticadas del estado está en la posibilidad de moverse gradualmente hacia niveles de productividad agrícola más alta. En este reporte se identifican cuáles son los productos e industrias que ofrecen las mejores posibilidades de diversificación productiva para incrementar la complejidad económica de cuatro de los municipios más complejos de Chiapas, considerando sus capacidades iniciales. Como resultado, se presenta un resumen diferenciado de las principales posibilidades y los retos que debe superar cada lugar para capitalizarlas. Comitán de Domínguez debe centrarse en resolver restricciones logísticas asociadas a conflictos sociales para capitalizar sus posibilidades como destino turístico de alto nivel, y desarrollar una base de fabricación de artículos para el hogar y textiles. San Cristóbal de las Casas está bien posicionado para aprovechar las habilidades desarrolladas en la producción de artesanías y transferirlas a la de textiles sofisticados, en adición a nuevas oportunidades en recubrimientos metálicos, y fabricación de alimentos y bebidas. Para materializar el potencial de Tuxtla Gutiérrez se requiere reconvertir ese amplio sector de servicios que responde a la demanda creada por el gasto público en la capital del estado, en una base de manufacturas más diversa. Los principales candidatos para movilizar esa transformación productiva son los sectores de textiles y peletería, procesamiento de alimentos, y ciertas categorías particulares de maquinaria por línea de producción. De todas las regiones de Chiapas, Tapachula es la que posee mayor potencial para expandir su base exportadora hacia productos de mayor complejidad. La región concentra la mayoría de las exportaciones del estado, y cuenta con la creación de la Zona Económica Especial (ZEE) y su parque industrial que permiten abordar nuevas capacidades productivas más complejas y adyacentes. Se identifica el potencial de los productos plásticos, de pinturas y películas, y de metalurgia, de relojes y equipos de soldadura, como unas oportunidades únicas en el estado para promover su transformación productiva. Nuestro reporte concluye con una reflexión sobre la necesidad de traducir la identificación de los potenciales de cada una de las regiones en una realidad distinta, en una economía diversa, compleja, y próspera. La transformación productiva de Chiapas comenzará por la mejora de la productividad agrícola y la creación de oportunidades en las zonas urbanas que permiten aglomeraciones de conocimientos diversos en firmas complejas. El crecimiento económico en Chiapas no requiere innovación, sino más bien de que el estado aprenda del resto de México a producir de manera eficiente los bienes que el resto del país ya produce. Esta posibilidad exige a su vez de la existencia de un sector público capaz de convocar a firmas existentes, y otras que ya operan en el resto de México, para inaugurar nuevas facilidades de producción en Chiapas, combinando nuevas tecnologías y conocimientos con los que ya existen en la región. Así, se va desarrollando de forma gradual la densidad de su tejido productivo y diversidad económica. En última instancia, la clave para capitalizar el enorme potencial de Chiapas está en un cambio en la orientación del discurso productivo, que priorice la diversificación de la economía y la conquista gradual de sectores de mayor complejidad como herramienta para promover el crecimiento inclusivo.
    Date: 2015–09
  12. By: François Facchini (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Deirdre McCloskey a formulé une critique puissante de la rhétorique économique. À l'occasion de la traduction française d'un de ses ouvrages, François Facchini revient sur ses travaux pour éclairer les débats actuels autour de la scientificité de l'économie. La traduction française du petit ouvrage The Secret Sins of Economics, publié en 2002 par Deirdre N. McCloskey, est l'occasion de revenir sur le parcours intellectuel et les positions épistémologiques de cette économiste américaine au savoir éclectique et encyclopédique. Cet ouvrage d'épistémologie économique reprend en effet des thèmes déjà abordés dans des ouvrages précédents (1994a, 1994b) et conduit à s'interroger sur l'apport de l'économétrie au savoir des économistes. Écrit comme une intrigue policière, Les péchés secrets de la science économique participe à la critique des tests de significativité statistique et se propose de remettre à sa juste place une bonne partie de la littérature économique. Le présent article entend ainsi profiter de la parution de ce petit ouvrage pour revenir sur quelques-unes des thèses d'épistémologie économique du Professeur McCloskey et pour proposer à leur lumière une lecture, qui se veut originale, de la controverse suscitée par l'ouvrage de Cahuc et Zylberberg (2016) dans le monde des économistes français.
    Keywords: épistémologie, sciences économiques, économétrie, négationnisme en économie
    Date: 2017–03–07
  13. By: Filipe Campante (Center for International Development at Harvard University); Albert Sole
    Abstract: Este documento propone un nuevo marco institucional para la implementación de políticas de desarrollo productivo (PDP) en Chiapas, con el objetivo de impulsar un cambio estructural de la economía chiapaneca en búsqueda de mayor diversidad y complejidad productiva. La primera sección contiene un diagnóstico del contexto actual de PDP en el Estado. Se observa un bajo grado de implementación y ejecución, pese a la abundancia de análisis, prescripciones e iniciativas de apoyo a la empresa privada. Esta situación no se puede atribuir a la escasez de recursos. Aunque a nivel estatal no se dispone de muchos recursos para PDP, sí los hay al nivel de programas federales existentes. Se trata de deficiencias de coordinación y liderazgo en el sector público, que interactúan con problemas de coordinación dentro del propio sector privado, con la percepción de inestabilidad político-institucional, y con una historia de desconfianza, para conformar un escenario de escasa colaboración a distintos niveles, por lo que muchas de las oportunidades existentes quedan desaprovechadas. La segunda sección describe los fundamentos conceptuales para un nuevo marco institucional que haga posible la implementación efectiva de PDP, reflejados en cuatro principios básicos. Primero, el nuevo marco debe construirse con relativamente pocos recursos presupuestarios del Estado. Segundo, se subraya que debe centrarse en la coordinación entre sector público y sector privado, lo que requiere capacidades y conocimientos específicos dentro del sector público, la construcción de una relación de confianza, y la promoción proactiva de la organización y coordinación del sector privado. Tercero, un énfasis en la provisión de bienes y servicios públicos, y no intervenciones de mercado. Cuarto, la promoción de un proceso dinámico iterativo. Una vez establecidos los principios, en la tercera sección se detalla la propuesta concreta de coordinación para la implementación del nuevo marco institucional. Se centra ella en los siguientes cinco puntos. Primero, la designación de un ente implementador sobre el cual recaiga con claridad el liderazgo y la responsabilidad del proceso de implementación de PDP. Segundo, se recomienda dotar a dicho ente de un staff técnicamente competente. Tercero, debe tener autonomía política. Cuarto, debe ser proactivo, en un proceso de dinamización orientado a la acción. Por último, debe fomentar el liderazgo en el sector privado. Al final, se discuten ejemplos ilustrativos de cómo se podría dar la implementación práctica de ese proceso dinámico.
    Date: 2015–09
  14. By: Biorci Grazia (CNR-IRCrES National Research Council of Italy Research Institute on Sustainable Economic Growth, Turin, Italy); Falavigna Greta (CNR-IRCrES National Research Council of Italy Research Institute on Sustainable Economic Growth, Turin, Italy)
    Abstract: This working paper aims at showing the design of a textual and linguistic analysis focusing on the specific field of food in the Piedmont literature. Texts studied are stored in an online repository, i.e., FABB, that collects Piedmont literature as well as some popular tales, short narratives, novels, lyrics, interviews written in Piedmont from the beginning of the Twentieth Century. In addition, it considers a collection of fifty dialect poems by Giovanni Rapetti, a contemporary Piedmont poet. In this study, a sample of all these work has been analysed through the definition of a glossary built on the corpus collected in FABB Repository and gives advices on its utilisation. The main issue of the glossary description concerns the definition, in a clear and univocal way, of the criteria chosen for its redaction, in order to realise a coherent pattern useful for further studies. The goal of this work is twofold: to display the completion of a useful linguistic research tool; and to investigate the food theme within the corpus of Piedmont literature contained in the FABB Repository.
    Keywords: glossary, lemmatization, textual analysis, food, Piedmont literature
    JEL: Z13
    Date: 2016–12
  15. By: F.C. Stam; Ben Spigel
    Abstract: This paper reviews and discusses the emergent entrepreneurial ecosystem approach. Entrepreneurial ecosystems are defined as a set of interdependent actors and factors coordinated in such a way that they enable productive entrepreneurship within a particular territory. The purpose of this paper is to critically investigate the emerging literature on entrepreneurial ecosystems. Current work on ecosystems is underdeveloped, focusing more on superficial generalizations based on successful case studies such as Silicon Valley or Boulder, Colorado rather than on rigorous social science research. The paper provides a review of the multiple definitions of ecosystems found within the literature, and discusses the relationships between ecosystems and allied concepts such as industrial districts, clusters, and innovation systems. The paper concludes by discussing an integrative model that connects the functional attributes of entrepreneurial ecosystems (including framework conditions and systemic conditions) with entrepreneurial outputs and welfare outcomes. The framework conditions consist of the social (informal and formal institutions) and physical conditions enabling or constraining human interaction. Systemic conditions are the heart of the ecosystem and include networks of entrepreneurs, leadership, finance, talent, knowledge, and support services.
    Date: 2016–11
  16. By: Clive L. Spash
    Abstract: Conservation today is facing the challenges of neoliberal world political forces dominated by bankers, financiers and multinational corporations who care little for protecting anything that does not pay them a personal reward. The standard counter to such a utilitarian economic philosophy is to point out alternative ethical approaches, which have for sometime been central to conservation arguments. However, in recent times, environmental non-governmental organisations, including conservation biologists, have increasingly pushed a narrow economic rhetoric, and converted themselves into allies of the ‘economic growth at any cost’ school of thought, in an attempt to win the favour of corporations under a new environmental pragmatism and New Conservation. This discussion paper critically analyses these topics as given in a lecture to the international conservation community. Presented here is the full transcript of the plenary presentation given to 2000 conservation biologist at their international meeting in Montpellier in 2015. The talk received an unprecedented standing ovation from the audience. It was given as a counter position to that of Peter Kareiva who presented immediately preceding this lecture, and was followed by a debate between Kareiva and Spash. The central topic was the New Conservation being championed by Kareiva and his boss, Mark Tercek, at The Nature Conservancy. As this lecture notes, this is part of a broader ideological move towards neoliberalism in conservation biology, and more generally the environmental movement, in the guise of a pragmatic use of economics. The arguments presented here are more fully understood when accompanied by the original presentation overheads (available online from However, the transcript on its own makes clear the bias, flaws and contradictions in the logic being presented as New Conservation. The structure of argument covers: the motivations behind the increasing use of economic valuation and policy instruments, the economics of optimal extinction that lies behind this, the implications that appealing to individual preferences for creating money numbers, why this does not provide protection or lead to conservation, how corporations are using the environmental movement for their own ends, and the implicit ideology of the New Conservation as a conservative technocracy. Some references have been added to the transcribed talk.
    Keywords: Conservation biology, economic valuation, environmental values, ethics, corporate power, biodiversity offsetting, species preservation, public preferences, environmentalism of the poor, technocracy, neoliberalism, new environmental pragmatism, Tony Juniper, New Conservation, Peter Kareiva, Mark Tercek, The Nature Conservancy
    Date: 2017
  17. By: Yoon, Yeo Joon (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy); Whang, Unjung (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy)
    Abstract: We propose a new measure of inter-industry 'distance'. This is constructed a la Antras et al. (2012). While they measure the distance of an industry from its final use - what they call 'downstreamness' of an industry - we measure the distance between a pair of industries. Our proposed index is a measure of input-output linkages between industries that incorporates a 'distance' flavor. Our measure distinguishes the number of vertical production stages that an industry's product goes through until it is finally used by another industry by assigning larger weights to the value of input use with longer production chains. Hence our measure contains more information on the relation between two industries along the vertical production chain. We use this index to construct an aggregate measure of 'industry connectedness' of regions in the U.S. It measures the degree of industrial linkages of a region. We then empirically establish that each region's labor productivity is positively associated with the 'industry connectedness'. The result contributes to the large literature of agglomeration economies that the industrial linkage is one of the main sources of agglomeration economies and productivity growth, as emphasized by Marshall (1920). It also suggests that our index can serve as an alternative measure of the industrial linkages.
    Keywords: Inter-industry Distance; Regional Growth; Input-Output Linkages
    JEL: F43 F63 O11
    Date: 2016–12–30
  18. By: Pronti Andrea (CNR-IRCrES, National Research Council of Italy, Research Institute on Sustainable Economic Growth, Turin, Italy)
    Abstract: This paper aim at analyze the concept of sustainable agriculture developing the base of agroecology as scientific multifunctional approach to obtain sustainable agroecosystem. Agroecology has been recognized as both a scientific method and a set of practical activities to study and project sustainability in agriculture at several scale, but unfortunately it is still unknown or restricted to the international cooperation sector. At the beginning of this paper it is studied the theoretical framework of agroecology as an holistic system of study and the evolution of its concept along time. Then it is examined the concept of agroecosystem showing some agroecological practices and examples of agroecology experiences realized around the world.
    Keywords: Agroecology, Agroecosystems, Sustainable Agriculture
    JEL: Q15 Q57
    Date: 2016–11
  19. By: Vipul Bhatt; Masao Ogaki (Faculty of Economics, Keio University); Yuichi Yaguchi
    Date: 2017–03
  20. By: Solmaria Halleck Vega (PSE - Paris School of Economics, CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Antoine Mandel (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSE - Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: In light of the urgency of climate change, there is a growing literature on the role of technology transfers and how policy can foster diffusion of climate-mitigation technologies. An important challenge is that the diffusion network is generally unknown. To address this key issue, we propose a systemic method building on the network inference literature. We then apply this approach using data on global diffusion patterns of wind energy technologies since the 1980s. Results show that the network's evolution has been remarkable, consistent with the colossal growth and technological progress in wind power over the past decades and the leading role of European firms and other advanced economies in its development. In the context of climate policy and given the multipolar nature and structural inefficiencies in the network, we also appraise strategies to maximize diffusion of new technologies within developing regions and the potential to build bridges through new modes of cooperation.
    Abstract: Compte tenu de l'urgence du changement climatique, il existe une littérature de plus en plus importante sur le rôle des transferts de technologie et sur la façon dont les politiques peuvent favoriser la diffusion des technologies d'atténuation du climat. Un défi important est que le réseau de diffusion est généralement inconnu. Pour résoudre ce problème clé, nous proposons une méthode systémique s'appuyant sur la littérature d'inférence de réseau. Nous appliquons ensuite cette approche en utilisant des données sur les modèles de diffusion globale des technologies de l'énergie éolienne depuis les années 1980. Les résultats montrent que l'évolution du réseau a été remarquable, en cohérence avec la croissance colossale et les progrès technologiques dans l'énergie éolienne au cours des dernières décennies et le rôle de premier plan des entreprises européennes et d'autres économies avancées dans son développement. Dans le contexte de la politique climatique et compte tenu de la nature multipolaire et des inefficiences structurelles du réseau, nous évaluons également les stratégies visant à maximiser la diffusion des nouvelles technologies dans les régions en développement et la possibilité de construire des ponts grâce à de nouveaux modes de coopération.
    Keywords: Technology transfers,climate policy,diffusion networks,wind energy,énergie éolienne,politique climatique,réseaux de diffusion,Transferts de technologie
    Date: 2017–01
  21. By: Zuzana Smeets Kristkova; Michiel van Dijk; Hans van Meijl
    Abstract: Food security is one of the largest challenges facing mankind in the next half century (as acknowledged for instance by UNDP, 2012 and UNEP, 2012). The projections of population growth warn that by 2050 the agricultural sector will have to feed 9 billion people, which requires doubling the current levels of food production. Due to the constrained expansion of agricultural land, technical progress is required that will drive agricultural productivity and therefore make an important contribution to future improvements of global food security. Long-term projections of global food security should take into account that food security is a multidimensional concept, which includes dimensions of availability, accessibility, utilization, and stability (FAO, 2000). The availability dimension is associated with the physical supply of food which increasingly relies on technical change in agriculture, triggered by investments to research and development (Avila and Evenson, 2010). The most contemporary global state-of-the art CGE models however do not accurately reflect this linkage (i.e. models included in the Agmip Global Economic Comparison Project). The accessibility dimension is related to households’ income and the evolution and variability of food prices (Sen, 1981). However, the experiment performed by Robison et al. (2013) showed that food prices projections may be highly diverging under various technical change assumptions that specify the type of factor-bias and the inter-sectoral spillovers. The paper aims at providing projections of food security in a GTAP-based CGE model MAGNET (Modular Applied General Equilibrium Tool), developed at LEI. Main contributions of this paper are threefold: i) it provides long-term projections of food security with R&D driven endogenous technical change and thus it partially opens the “black-box” in modelling technical change, ii) it builds on empirical estimates of endogenous technical change and thus it increases the reliability of food price projections, iii) it encompasses various dimensions of food security in a general equilibrium framework, which enables to capture important inter-sectoral linkages in factor markets and the effects of R&D spillovers across all regions of the world. The modelling approach is based on the incorporation of a specific R&D module into MAGNET, in which two types of R&D activities are distinguished - public and private agricultural R&D. Public agricultural R&D is considered as a land-augmenting research activity, represented mainly by investments into new crop varieties, which is fully demanded by government. Certain lag is considered before R&D is fully transmitted into higher land productivity. Moreover, public R&D spillovers are included in the model based on the regional distance from the global technology frontier. On the other hand, private R&D investments are considered as by-product activities of agricultural input sectors (agriculture, chemical and transport industry) assuming that the R&D investment incentives go hand in hand with the industrial performance. Private R&D investments stimulate land and labor-augmenting technical change via knowledge which acts as a new production factor in the economy. The projections of Food security are obtained for the period 2007 – 2050. There are four baseline scenarios that have been constructed in a joint stakeholder/modelling process and that reflect the future of global economy taking into account dimensions of inequality and sustainability. In this paper, the projections of food security are analysed for these four baseline scenarios assuming that governmental expenditures on R&D follow regional GDP growth. Besides standard indicators such as agricultural production and prices, specific food security indicators including nutritional status of the households are reported.
    Keywords: Food security projections are calculated for 35 aggregated regions of the world. However, specific “food-secure” relevant countries are included individually, namely: Indonesia, India, Ghana, Ethiopia and Uganda. , General equilibrium modeling, Agricultural issues
    Date: 2015–07–01
  22. By: Piva, Mariacristina (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milano); Vivarelli, Marco (UNU-MERIT, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milano, and IZA, Bonn)
    Abstract: Using a unique firm-level database comprising the top European R&D investors over the period 2002-2013 and running LSDVC estimates, this study finds a significant labour-friendly impact of R&D expenditures. However, this positive employment effect appears limited in magnitude and entirely due to the medium-and high-tech sectors, while no effect can be detected in the low-tech industries. From a policy point of view, this outcome is supporting the EU2020 strategy, but - taking into account that most European economies are specialised in low-tech activities - is also worrying in terms of future perspectives of the European labour market.
    Keywords: Innovation, R&D, innovation, employment, firm-level analysis, EU
    JEL: E24 O14 O15 O33 O52
    Date: 2017–03–10
  23. By: Iñaki Aldasoro; Iván Alves
    Abstract: Research on interbank networks and systemic importance is starting to recognise that the web of exposures linking banks balance sheets is more complex than the single-layer-of-exposure approach. We use data on exposures between large European banks broken down by both maturity and instrument type to characterise the main features of the multiplex structure of the network of large European banks. This multiplex network presents positive correlated multiplexity and a high similarity between layers, stemming both from standard similarity analyses as well as a core-periphery analyses of the different layers. We propose measures of systemic importance that fit the case in which banks are connected through an arbitrary number of layers (be it by instrument, maturity or a combination of both). Such measures allow for a decomposition of the global systemic importance index for any bank into the contributions of each of the sub-networks, providing a useful tool for banking regulators and supervisors in identifying tailored policy instruments. We use the dataset of exposures between large European banks to illustrate that both the methodology and the specific level of network aggregation matter in the determination of interconnectedness and thus in the policy making process. JEL Classification: G21, D85, C67
    Keywords: interbank networks, systemic importance, multiplex networks
    Date: 2016–08
  24. By: Nan L. Maxwell; Nathan Wozny
    Abstract: This research assesses the extent to which norms related to behaviors at home and work and to parenting might affect gender differences in time allocation, earnings, and employment.
    Keywords: norms, earnings, employment, time use, gender differentials
    JEL: J
  25. By: Nazim Hajiyev; Adalat Muradov; Yadulla Hasanli
    Abstract: In this article Azerbaijan’s dynamic "input-output" model with the methodological basis of the inverse models of recursion was developed. The interbranch relations in Azerbaijan economy have been studied by means of a developed model, including mutually related oil and non-oil sectors. Dynamic model with inverse recursion refers to the type of dynamic "input-output" models. In this model, endogenous (found) parameters are total output and investments sectors. More precisely, the forecasted output volume for the final year of the sectors’ and the total volume of capital investments for the entire period in each and every sector are found. The yearly distribution of capital investment is realized via an exogenously given parameter. The calculation in this model is implemented in two stages. In the first stage, the total output volume of the sectors for the final year and the total volume of capital investments in each sector for the entire forescasted period are determined. In the second stage, the volume indicator of the gross output for each year of the forecasting period is calculated. The realization of the model has been implemented based on Azerbaijan’s National Accounts and statistical input-output tables, as well as other relevant data.
    Keywords: Azerbaijan, General equilibrium modeling, Growth
    Date: 2015–07–01
  26. By: Nunn, Nathan; Qian, Nancy; Sequeira, Sandra
    Abstract: We study the effects of European immigration to the United States during the Age of Mass Migration (1850-1920) on economic prosperity today. We exploit variation in the extent of immigration across counties arising from the interaction of fluctuations in aggregate immigrant flows and the gradual expansion of the railway network across the United States. We find that locations with more historical immigration today have higher incomes, less poverty, less unemployment, higher rates of urbanization, and greater educational attainment. The long-run effects appear to arise from the persistence of sizeable short-run benefits, including greater industrialization, increased agricultural productivity, and more innovation.
    Keywords: economic development; historical persistence; Immigration
    JEL: B52 F22 N72 O10 O40
    Date: 2017–03

This nep-hme issue is ©2017 by Carlo D’Ippoliti. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.