nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2016‒11‒13
25 papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. The Methodology of Polanyi’s Great Transformation By Asad Zaman
  2. In order to stand up you must keep cycling: change and coordination in complex evolving economies By Giovanni Dosi; Maria Enrica Virgillito
  3. Las tres Is de la pobreza multidimensional en Nicaragua y el diferencial de género en los primeros quince años del siglo XXI, a partir de un enfoque centrado en la persona By Espinoza-Delgado, José; López-Laborda, Julio
  4. Ordnungsplatonismus By Schlicht, Ekkehart
  5. Analyse économique du travail et de l'emploi : sortir de l'inversion By Bruno Tinel
  6. De jure and de facto institutions – disentangling the interrelationships By Jacek Lewkowicz; Katarzyna Metelska-Szaniawska
  7. Complexity and the Economics of Climate Change: a Survey and a Look Forward By Tomas Balint; Francesco Lamperti; Antoine Mandel; Mauro Napoletano; Andrea Roventini; Alessandro Sapio
  8. Impacto del Programa de Profesionalización del Servicio en casas particulares sobre trabajadoras y trabajadores domésticos de origen nacional y migrante en Argentina By Rodríguez Nardelli, Ana Lis
  9. Analyse économique du travail et de l'emploi : sortir de l'inversion By Bruno Tinel
  10. Lost in space? NASA and the changing publicprivate eco-system in space By Mariana Mazzucato; Douglas K Robinson
  11. A Global Voice for Survival: An Ecosystemic Approach for the Environment and the Quality of Life By Pilon, André Francisco
  12. Agents, interaction, and economic laws: An analytical framework for understanding different economic theories By Múñoz, Féliz-Fernando; Encinar, María-Isabel; Cañibano, Carolina
  13. Agricultural development policy debates: who has the better story? By Mockshell, Jonathan; Birner, Regina
  14. Vulnerability and the Middle Class in South Africa By Rocco Zizzamia; Simone Schotte; Murray Leibbrandt; Vimal Ranchhod
  15. Latin America at a Crossroads: Controversies on Growth, Income Distribution and Structural Change By Aguiar de Medeiros, Carlos; Trebat, Nicholas
  16. Finance and Sustainability Synthesis Report of WP7 By Alessandro Vercelli; Eric Clark; Andrew Gouldson
  17. The EU 2020 innovation indicator: A step forward in measuring innovation outputs and outcomes? By Janger, Jürgen; Schubert, Torben; Andries, Petra; Rammer, Christian; Hoskens, Machteld
  18. Celebrating 30 years of innovation system research: What you need to know about innovation systems By Klein, Malte; Sauer, Andreas
  19. The Future of Work: Challenges for Men and Women By Kauhanen, Antti
  20. Ökonomische Effekte grüner Infrastruktur als Teil eines Grünflächenfaktors. Ein Leitfaden. By Ulrich Morawetz; Dieter Mayr; Doris Damyanovic
  21. Participatory evaluation and application of climate smart agriculture practices in mixed smallholder farming systems: a case-study in the semi-arid regions of Kenya By Berre, David; Ndegwa, Michael; Karuiki, Sarah; De Groote, Hugo
  22. Hispanic Workers in the United States By Cherrie Bucknor
  23. Poverty is a Public Bad: Panel Evidence from Subjective Well-being Data By Heinz Welsch; Philipp Biermann
  24. Work-life conflict in Britain: job demands and resources By Ursula Henz; Colin Mills
  25. "Das 21. Jahrhundert ist weiblich": Unternehmerinnen in der Presse By Ettl, Kerstin; Welter, Friederike; Achtenhagen, Leona

  1. By: Asad Zaman (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad)
    Abstract: Polanyi's book on The Great Transformation provides an analysis of the emergence and significance of capitalist economic structures which differs radically from those currently universally taught in economic textbooks. This analysis is based on a methodological approach which is also radically different from existing methodologies for doing economics, and more generally social science. This methodology is used by Polanyi without explicit articulation. Our goal in this article is to articulate the methodology used in this book to bring out the several dimensions on which it differs from current approaches to social science. Among the key differences, Polanyi provides substantial scope for human agency and capabilities to change the course of history. He also shows that the social, political and economic spheres of human existence are deeply interlinked and cannot be analysed in isolation, as current approaches assume.
    Keywords: Methodology, Social Science, Capitalism, Liberalism
    JEL: B31 B41
    Date: 2016
  2. By: Giovanni Dosi; Maria Enrica Virgillito
    Abstract: In this work we discuss the main building blocks, achievements and challenges of an evolutionary interpretation of the relation between mechanisms of coordination and drivers of change in modern economies, seen as complex evolving systems. It is an evident stylised fact of modern economic systems that there are forces at work which keep them together and make them grow despite rapid and profound modifications of their industrial structures, social relations, techniques of production, patterns of consumption. We suggest that a fruitful interpretation of the two processes rests in what we call the "bicycle conjecture": in order to stand up you must keep cycling. However, changes and transformation are by nature "disequilibrating" forces. Thus there must be other factors which maintain relatively ordered configurations of the system and allow a broad consistency between the conditions of material reproduction (including income distributions, accumulation, available techniques) and the thread of social relations.
    Keywords: Change, Coordination, Evolutionary Economics, Socio-Economic Systems
    Date: 2016–02–11
  3. By: Espinoza-Delgado, José; López-Laborda, Julio
    Abstract: In this paper we estimate the incidence, the intensity, and the inequality of the multidimensional poverty in Nicaragua over the first fifteen years of the XXI century, using the individual as the unit of identification of the poor, and applying the methodology proposed by Alkire and Foster (2007, 2011). This normative decision allows us to take into account the intra-household inequalities, and to estimate the gender gap in multidimensional poverty and inequality, which cannot be calculated whether the household is used as the unit of analysis. Although we find statistically significant evidence that multidimensional poverty decreased over the analysis period, Nicaragua would demand of several decades to eradicate the issue, ceteris paribus. On the other hand, our estimates show that the gender gaps in multidimensional poverty are not substantial; women and men are equally poor in Nicaragua. But, the reverse is the case for the inequality, notably among the adults. To our best knowledge, this paper represents the first attempt to propose an individual-based multidimensional poverty for the whole population in Nicaragua, the first effort to estimate gender gaps in multidimensional poverty and inequality in Latin America, and one of the first contributions in the literature.
    Keywords: Multidimensional Poverty, Inequality, Gender Gap in Poverty, Nicaragua, Latin America
    JEL: D1 D13 D6 D63 I3 I32 O5 O54
    Date: 2016–11–05
  4. By: Schlicht, Ekkehart
    Abstract: Hans Albert hat in einigen Arbeiten den apriorischen Charakter des „neoklassischen Denkstils” kritisiert und treffend als „Modellplatonismus” bezeichnet. Die apriorische Denkhaltung findet sich aber nicht nur in der von Albert kritisierten Neoklassik, sondern vielleicht noch ausgeprägterer bei vielen modellfeindlichen Theoretikern, wie etwa den Österreichern, den Ordnungstheoretikern, den Vertretern der „constitutional economics” oder manchen neueren Vertretern der sozialen Marktwirtschaft. Es erscheint mir deshalb sinnvoll, dem Begriff „Modellplatonismus” den Begriff „Ordnungsplatonismus” an die Seite zu stellen. Die folgenden Bemerkungen sollen diese Kritik etwas erläutern.
    Abstract: Abstract The German philosopher Hans Albert has critizised the aprioristic nature of the neoclassical style of thought and has characterized it as 'model Platonism'. Apriorism is not confined to some lines of neoclassical though, however, but is, perhaps even more pronouncedly, present in Austrian economics, Ordo economics, constitutional economics and also to be found with some German proponents of the social market economy. For this reason it appears appropriate to speak not only of 'model Platonism' but of 'Ordo-Platonism' as well. The following remarks elaborate this criticism.
    Keywords: Modellplatonismus; Apriorismus; Soziale Marktwirtschaft; Ordnungstheorie; Ordo
    JEL: B2 B4 B5
    Date: 2016–09–09
  5. By: Bruno Tinel (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne)
    Abstract: This paper is about inversion of roles and causalities in mainstream labour and employment economics through two examples: one is about the sphere of production and the other is about the labour market. The article puts forth as well the contribution and critical research issues developped by non standard approaches and gives an example through subcontracting relations analysis
    Keywords: mainstream economics; heterodox economics; subcontracting relations; inversion; labour economics
    JEL: A11 B50 J01
    Date: 2016–10
  6. By: Jacek Lewkowicz (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw); Katarzyna Metelska-Szaniawska (Faculty of Economi Sciences, University of Warsaw)
    Abstract: In this paper we contribute to the debate on the nature of institutions and their economic effects by extending the focus to the de jure – de facto institutional distinction. Firstly, we define and conceptualize de facto institutions, as well as elaborate on their place in the broad institutional system and identification. Then we investigate the possible interrelationships between de facto and de jure institutions. Finally, we make a link between these interrelationships and economic outcomes. In this way the paper fills an underexploited niche in institutional research, which is a major background for law and economics.
    Keywords: new institutional economics, de jure institutions, de facto institutions, formal institutions, informal institutions, institutional interrelationships
    JEL: B40 B52 K19 P21
    Date: 2016
  7. By: Tomas Balint (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne); Francesco Lamperti (Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna di Pisa - Institute of Economics and LEM); Antoine Mandel (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne - Paris School of Economics); Mauro Napoletano (OFCE-Sciences Po and SKEMA Business School (Sophia-Antipolis)); Andrea Roventini (Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna di Pisa - LEM and OFCE); Alessandro Sapio (University Parthenope of Naples)
    Abstract: We provide a survey of the micro and macro economics of climate change from a complexity science perspective and we discuss the challenges ahead for this line of research. We identify four areas of the literature where complex system models have already produced valuable insights: (i) coalition formation and climate negotiations, (ii) macroeconomic impacts of climate-related events, (iii) energy markets and (iv) diffusion of climate-friendly technologies. On each of these issues, accounting for heterogeneity, interactions and disequilibrium dynamics provides a complementary and novel perspective to the one of standard equilibrium models. Furthermore, it highlights the potential economic benefits of mitigation and adaptation policies and the risk of under-estimating systemic climate change-related risks
    Keywords: climate change; climate policy; climate economics; complex systems; agent-based models; socio-economic networks
    JEL: C63 Q40 Q50 Q54
    Date: 2016–07
  8. By: Rodríguez Nardelli, Ana Lis
    Abstract: La histórica feminización y desvalorización que caracteriza a los Servicios en casas particulares y de cuidados de personas dependientes alentaron a que, a partir de 2003, se implementara, desde el Ministerio de Trabajo, Empleo y Seguridad Social, un conjunto de políticas de formación profesional orientadas a promover la equidad de género, con el objetivo de mejorar las condiciones laborales de las trabajadoras y de avanzar en los niveles de formalización de la actividad. Este documento analiza el impacto de las acciones de capacitación sobre las trayectorias laborales de las participantes, tomando en consideración la significativa participación de mujeres migrantes en este sector ocupacional. Por otra parte, se muestra la necesidad de alcanzar una sinergia entre las políticas de capacitación y la sanción de normativas de orden nacional (como la Ley Nº 26.844/13 “Régimen Especial de Contrato de Trabajo para el Personal de Casas Particulares†y la Ley Nº 25.871/04 de Migraciones, destinada a mejorar la situación de las trabajadoras migrantes frente al trabajo decente y el empleo.
    Keywords: working conditions, service sector, domestic worker, migrant worker, training policy, Argentina
    Date: 2016
  9. By: Bruno Tinel (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This paper is about inversion of roles and causalities in mainstream labour and employment economics through two examples: one is about the sphere of production and the other is about the labour market. The article puts forth as well the contribution and critical research issues developped by non standard approaches and gives an example through subcontracting relations analysis.
    Abstract: Cet article porte sur l'inversion des rôles et des causalités dans l'approche dominante en économie du travail et de l'emploi à travers deux illustrations, l'une portant sur la sphère de la production l'autre sur le marché du travail. Il met également en avant les apports et les problématiques de recherche privilégiés par les approches non standards et donne une illustration à travers le cas des relations de sous-traitance.
    Keywords: mainstream economics,heterodox economics,subcontracting relations,inversion,labour economics,approche dominante,hétérodoxie,sous-traitance,économie du travail
    Date: 2016–10
  10. By: Mariana Mazzucato (Science Policy Research Unit, University of Sussex, UK); Douglas K Robinson (Science Policy Research Unit, University of Sussex, UK)
    Abstract: U.S. public activities in space directed via NASA are undergoing change. While NASA has historically been able to drive market creation, through its procurement policy (which is much weaker in Europe), the past decade has seen a visible shift in US space policy, away from NASA-directed developments in low-Earth orbit (LEO) towards an ecosystem with a mix of private, not-for-profit, and public actors in LEO. This has fundamentally changed NASA‘s role from an orchestrating/directing role, to a more ‘facilitating’ one driven by commercialization needs. This shift in mission and approach has ramifications for the LEO ecosystem as well as NASA’s innovation policy, which has previously centred on clearly defined “mission-oriented” objectives, such as putting a man on the moon or creating the shuttle fleet. Such objectives required ‘active’ innovation policy whereby NASA both funded and ‘directed’ the innovation, within its walls and with its partners. The emerging multi-actor ecosystem approach has involved a more open-ended objective that does not have a unified nor clearly defined end-game. In this situation, NASA’s ability to shape activities in a direction in line with its mission will depend on its relationships with other members in the system. The rise of new actors in the space eco-system, and new relationships between them, presents interesting challenges for innovation policy informed by an Innovation System approach. In this paper, we critique the market failure approach of public intervention in markets and describe further work to be done in the innovation systems literature - more focus on the interactions between agents (and the type of agents) as complimentary to the dominant focus on funding programmes in innovation systems. In this paper, we present the evolving processes of NASA’s engagement in building a low-earth orbit economy to draw out case specific insights into a public agency shifting its mission to incorporate approaches to facilitate the market creation policy. The paper focuses on the way that NASA structures its new innovation policy, away from a classical supply side oriented R&D investment through NASA itself, towards a policy of orchestration and combination of instruments rather. We close the paper with a reflection on the ramifications of NASA’s approach to building a sustainable low-Earth orbit economic ecosystem.
    Keywords: Space economy, market creation, innovation ecosystem, mission-oriented innovation policy, NASA
  11. By: Pilon, André Francisco
    Abstract: In view of the overwhelming pressures on the global environment and the need to disrupt the systems that drive them, an ecosystemic theoretical and practical framework is posited for the evaluation and planning of public policies, research and teaching programmes, encompassing four dimensions of being-in-the-world (intimate, interactive, social and biophysical), as they combine, as donors and recipients, to induce the events (deficits/assets), cope with consequences (desired/undesired) and contribute for change (potential outputs). The focus should not be on the “bubbles” of the surface (consequences, fragmented issues), but on the configurations deep inside the boiling pot where the problems emerge. New paradigms of development, growth, power, wealth, work and freedom, embedded at institutional level, include heterogeneous attributes, behaviours and interactions and the dynamics of the systems (institutions, populations, political, economic, cultural and ecological background). Instead of dealing with the bubbles (segmented, reduced issues) and trying to solve isolated and localized problems without addressing the general phenomenon, the proposal emphasizes the definition of the problems deep inside the “boiling pot”, where the problems emerge, encompassing the current “world-system” with its boundaries, structures, techno-economic paradigms, support groups, rules of legitimation, and coherence. In the socio-cultural learning niches, heuristic-hermeneutic experiences generate awareness, interpretation and understanding beyond established stereotypes, both from a thematic (“what”) and an epistemic point of view (“how”).
    Keywords: education, culture, politics, economics, ethics, environment, ecosystems
    JEL: I00 I25 I28 I29 O21 O31 Q2 Q28 Q5 Q51 Q56 Q57 Q58
    Date: 2016–11–05
  12. By: Múñoz, Féliz-Fernando (Departamento de Análisis Económico (Teoría e Historia Económica). Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.); Encinar, María-Isabel (Departamento de Análisis Económico (Teoría e Historia Económica). Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.); Cañibano, Carolina (INGENIO, CSIC and Universidad Politécnica de Valencia.)
    Abstract: This paper provides an analytical framework allowing the accommodation, comparison and classification of different economic theories and schools of economic thought. We provide the basic analytical elements to address the explanatory potential of economic models as well as a criterion for scientific progress. The starting point is that in “modern economic theory”, each particular theory –and all models derived- share a common structure. This common structure is formed by a set of statements S1 which characterize the agent (its properties and modes of interaction) and its action (including choice) space; a set of statements S2 regarding the economic behavior of the characterized agent, and a set of economic laws L which are logical co-implications of the systematic application of S2 over S1. This set or system of statements T={S1,S2,L} forms a theory. It is possible to address the explanation of new economic phenomena or processes by developing new economic models or theories T. This exercise is made possible by adding properties, qualifications or new information to the statement systems S1 and S2 that lead to new laws L. The approach proposed is useful for classifying different economic theories as illustrated by an analysis and characterization of the Neoclassical, Austrian and Keynesian theoretical frameworks.
    Keywords: economic theory, allocative processes, action plans, economic behavior, economic laws
    JEL: B0 B4
    Date: 2016–11
  13. By: Mockshell, Jonathan; Birner, Regina
    Abstract: While there is renewed interest to promote agricultural development, there is a lively policy debate on the appropriate instruments to achieve this goal. While some actors argue that agricultural development requires strong government support and input subsidies, others criticize those state-focused instruments and favor market-oriented approaches. Applying a narrative policy analysis approach, this paper addresses the question: Who has a better story-line? The study aims to contribute to a better understanding of contested policy debates using the case of Senegal as an example. The study applies the Advocacy Coalition Framework, and combines quantitative cluster analysis with qualitative narrative policy analysis. Transcripts of in-depth interviews conducted with policy stakeholders in Senegal are the primary data source. The empirical analysis reveals that, there are two coalitions with opposing policy narratives: a large “agricultural support” coalition and a small “agricultural support critique” coalition. The story-line of the agricultural support critique emphasizes that, the government provision of input subsidies is ineffective while story-line of the proponents of such policies consider support essential to promote agricultural development. The analysis of the narratives suggests that, the agricultural coalition has a convincing story-line with a clear beginning (low productivity caused by lack of inputs), middle (providing subsidized inputs) and end (increased productivity). In contrast, the agricultural support critique essentially presents “non-stories” (focusing on what should not be done without providing a convincing alternative story-line of what should be done). Based on the proposition that a more consensus-oriented approach will ultimately lead to more effective agricultural policies, the study explores strategies to achieve a “discursive turn” and examines the role of policy brokers in this context.
    Keywords: Agricultural support policies, Narrative policy analysis, Advocacy coalition framework, Cluster analysis, Senegal, Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2016–09
  14. By: Rocco Zizzamia (Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit at the University of Cape Town); Simone Schotte (German Institute of Global and Area Studies and the Georg-August-University Göttingen); Murray Leibbrandt (Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit, University of Cape Town.); Vimal Ranchhod (SALDRU, University of Cape Town)
    Abstract: Apartheid imposed a rigid racialised system of unequal resource distribution on South African society, resulting in one of the highest rates of inequality in the world. Since apartheid ended in 1994, this aggregate income inequality has not improved. The persistence of extraordinarily high levels of poverty and inequality makes the definition and measurement of the 'middle class' particularly challenging. A review of previous work on the middle class, both in South Africa and in other developing countries, illustrates the difficulty of addressing this challenge. Recent research showing growth in the South African middle class often classifies as 'middle class' households which either fall below the basic-needs poverty line or are vulnerable to poverty. This notion of economic insecurity conflicts with the sociological understanding of the middle class as an 'empowered' class. In this paper, we attempt to develop a conceptually and empirically rigorous approach to defining and measuring the middle class in South Africa. Arguing that the notion of 'empowerment' is central to the social and political meanings of 'middle class', we propose an empirical strategy that uses (in)vulnerability to poverty as the key criterion defining middle class status. Using the panel dimension of the nationally representative National Income Dynamics Study (NIDS), we present a probability model that predicts the risk of staying in or falling into poverty over a six-year time frame, depending on a broad array of initial household conditions and resources. We select the expenditure level associated with a maximum risk to poverty of 10 percent as the lower bound of the middle class and the expenditure level associated with effective invulnerability to poverty as the upper bound. This gives us a monthly per capita expenditure range of R3,104 to R10,387 (January 2015 prices). Using these thresholds, we find that the middle class in South Africa is smaller than previous research has suggested (with a population share of about 13.5 percent in 2014), and has grown sluggishly since 1993. Despite this, there has been considerable demographic transformation within the middle class, with Africans now outnumbering whites by a significant margin.
    Date: 2016
  15. By: Aguiar de Medeiros, Carlos (Institute of Economics, UFRJ); Trebat, Nicholas (Institute of Economics, UFRJ)
    Abstract: This paper discusses the connections established in recent non–neoclassical literature between growth, structural change and income distribution in large developing econo-mies. We argue that though many analyses have the merit of reintroducing income distribution as a factor in economic growth, they rely almost exclusively on macroeconomic theory, and thus ignore the structural changes that have taken place in recent decades and the ways in which structural aspects of an economy (such as resource availability, market size and geopolitical factors) affect policy options and growth. We argue that Latin American countries today face the same challenge that has constrained their development trajectory historically: to diversify their economic structure through new technological capabilities and greater equality and social progress.
    Keywords: Structuralism; profit–led; devaluation; New Developmentalism
    JEL: E60 O13 O40
    Date: 2016–10
  16. By: Alessandro Vercelli (DEPS, University of Siena and SOAS, University of London); Eric Clark (University of Lund); Andrew Gouldson (The University of Leeds)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the relationship between finance and environmental sustainability. The first part summarises a few crucial methodological and foundational issues underlying meaning and implications of financialisation, sustainability and their mutual relation. The second part focuses on a particularly significant case study: the unsustainability of the existing energy system based on carbon fuels focusing on the urgency of a rapid transition to a low carbon economy. The third part explores which role financial instruments may play to facilitate the transition towards a low carbon economy. In particular, it investigates the implications for sustainability of the growing trade of energy derivatives. The forth part examines the consequences of the disembedment of money from the socioecological flows of matter and energy. The fifth part investigates the relations between financialisation of built environments and urban sustainability. The final part of the paper draws the main policy implications from the preceding analysis in the light of the growing problems affecting environmental policy in a financialised economy. The main policy conclusion is that, notwithstanding the growing conflict between the ongoing process of financialisation and sustainability, finance has to play a crucial role to implement a process of convergence towards a sustainable path of development.
    Keywords: financialisation, sustainability, low carbon economy, energy derivatives, disembedment of money, financialisation of built environment, urban sustainability, green paradox, sustainability policies
    JEL: B40 F10 F18 G15 H50 O11 O33 P10 P52 Q20 Q30 Q40
    Date: 2016–06–30
  17. By: Janger, Jürgen; Schubert, Torben; Andries, Petra; Rammer, Christian; Hoskens, Machteld
    Abstract: In October 2013, the European Commission presented a new indicator intended to capture innovation outputs and outcomes and thereby "support policy-makers in establishing new or reinforced actions to remove bottlenecks that prevent innovators from translating ideas into products and services that can be successful on the market". This article aims to evaluate the usefulness of the new indicator against the background of the difficulties in measuring innovation outputs and outcomes. We develop a unique conceptual framework for measuring innovation outcomes that distinguishes structural change and structural upgrading as two key dimensions in both manufacturing and services. We conclude that the new indicator is biased towards a somewhat narrowly defined "high-tech" understanding of innovation outcomes. We illustrate our framework proposing a broader set of outcome indicators capturing also structural upgrading. We find that the results for the modified indicator differ substantially for a number of countries, with potentially wide-ranging consequences for innovation and industrial policies.
    Keywords: Innovation Output,Innovation Outcome,Innovation Measurement,Structural Change,Structural Upgrading,EU 2020 Strategy,Innovation Policy
    JEL: O25 O31 O38 O52
    Date: 2016
  18. By: Klein, Malte; Sauer, Andreas
    Abstract: On the occasion of the 30th anniversary of Innovation System research, this paper presents an extensive literature review on this large field of innovation research. Building on an analytical basis of the commonalities "system" and "innovation", the authors analyze the four main Innovation System approaches: National Innovation Systems (NIS), Regional Innovation Systems (RIS), Sectoral Innovation Systems (SIS) and Technological Innovation Systems (TIS). The analysis is structured systematically along ten comprehensive criteria. Starting with the founder(s) of each theory and the research program within each Innovation System approach was developed (1), the basic thoughts of each Innovation System approach are explained (2). For five case studies most cited (3), spatial boundaries are examined (4) and units of analyses are derived (5). By comparing the underlying theoretical concept and empirical results, the authors show patterns in the evolution of Innovation System research overall. By studying the basic components (6) and a functional analysis (7), each Innovation System approach is broken down into structural pieces and functional processes. If available, the authors present one or several taxonomies (8) for each Innovation System approach and summarize similar approaches (9), in order to classify and integrate the approaches into the ongoing innovation research. The identification of further research (10) shows which steps will need to be taken in the next years in order to evolve Innovation System research further and deeper. After the conclusion, the extensive table of comparison is presented which can serve as a guideline for academics and practitioners from basic and applied science, industry or policy that need to understand which Innovation System approach may be best for their specific analytical purposes.
    Keywords: Innovation System,National Innovation System,Regional Innovation System,Sectoral Innovation System,Technological Innovation System
    Date: 2016
  19. By: Kauhanen, Antti
    Abstract: Occupational restructuring is one of the most significant recent changes in the labor markets. Occupational gender segregation means that it may have very different impacts on men and women. In this article, I describe occupational restructuring, the driving forces behind it, and how it may affect men and women.
    Date: 2016–11–02
  20. By: Ulrich Morawetz (Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna); Dieter Mayr (Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna); Doris Damyanovic (Institute of Landscape Planning, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna)
    Abstract: Urbane grüne Infrastruktur beschreibt natürliche und naturnahe Grünräume in der Stadt. Diese wirken sich auf das Ökosystem, das menschliche Wohlbefinden sowie auch auf (Immobilien)Märkte aus. Um diese Auswirkungen stadtplanerisch zu steuern, ist ein mögliches Instrument ein „Grünflächenfaktor“. Wir schlagen einen Grünflächenfaktor auf Bauplatzebene vor, der sich als gewichtete Summe gärtnerisch gestalteter Flächen berechnet. Die Gewichte entsprechen den ökologischen Funktionen und Auswirkungen auf die Lebensqualität des Menschen. Auch der Kapitalisierung dieser Grünräume in Immobilienpreisen wird in dem Index Rechnung getragen. Dieser Leitfaden beschreibt die Überlegungen, die hinter der Integration ökonomischer Einflüsse in den Grünflächenfaktor stehen. Auch werden im Text unterschiedliche Politikinstrumente diskutiert. Die Leitlinie richtet sich an jene, die ökonomische Aspekte in eine Regelung der Bereitstellung grüner urbaner Infrastruktur integrieren möchten. Sie soll als Ideengeber und Diskussionsgrundlage dienen. Die Leitlinie basiert auf den Erkenntnissen des in den Jahren 2014 und 2015 von MitarbeiterInnen der Universität für Bodenkultur durchgeführten Projektes „MehrWertGrün! – Nachhaltiges Management urbaner grüner Infrastruktur“. Beteiligt an dem Projekt waren Florian Reinwald, Doris Damyanovic, Christina Czachs, Christiane Brandenburg, Ulrich Morawetz und Dieter Mayr. Vielen Dank an Nicole Überreich für das Korrekturlesen. Finanziert wurde das Projekt vom Jubiläumsfonds der Stadt Wien für die Universität für Bodenkultur Wien.
    Keywords: Urbane Grüne Infrastruktur, Grün- und Freiflächenindex, Ökonomie
    JEL: R29
    Date: 2016–10
  21. By: Berre, David; Ndegwa, Michael; Karuiki, Sarah; De Groote, Hugo
    Abstract: In the first phase of the CCAFS Program (Climate Change, Agriculture and Food security), climate-smart agriculture practices (CSAP) were identified and needed to be tested. In the semi-arid maize-growing areas of Kenya, dry-tolerant varieties and maize-legume intercropping appeared as the most appropriate CSAP, and this paper presents farmer’s evaluation of these farming systems. During on-station and on-farm trials in Makueni County, participatory evaluation of intercropping systems of five maize varieties and four beans varieties was conducted. In total, 150 farmers participated; they scored each variety on the basis of several phenotypic criteria and provided an overall score for the variety. Results emphasized the complexity of their varieties’ perception. In order to explain the overall score by different agronomic and socio-economic factors, a cumulative mixed model effect was estimated, including random effects for each farmer. Dry-tolerant varieties had a significant lower score, as GLP92 for beans and TEGO for maize. Socio-economic factors including age and gender of the participants influenced the overall score of varieties. We demonstrated that farmers who already purchased improved seed tended to give lower score. Finally, an OLS regression allowed exploring the weight of each phenotypic criterion in the overall score of a maize or bean varieties. This analysis revealed that farmer’s perception of a good variety is complex and rely on multiple criteria unlike most of the breeding program mainly based on yield oriented indicators
    Keywords: Ordinal regression, Participatory evaluation, maize-bean intercropping, climate-smart agriculture, Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2016–09
  22. By: Cherrie Bucknor
    Abstract: There are about 24 million Hispanic workers in the United States. They come from a variety of backgrounds and face unique challenges in the U.S. labor market. Focusing on trends in the overall Hispanic community can conceal notable differences among Hispanics of different ethnic subgroups. This paper presents data on the Hispanic workforce, highlighting the similarities and differences among Hispanics of different ethnic subgroups. The first section focuses on the diversity of the Hispanic workforce, examining differences based on gender, educational attainment, and citizenship. The second section provides data on several challenges that Hispanics currently face in the labor market, including unemployment, low wages, poverty, language barriers, and low access to health and retirement benefits. The last section shows the impact that union representation has in these areas.
    JEL: I I2 I24 J J1 J15 J11
    Date: 2016–11
  23. By: Heinz Welsch (University of Oldenburg, Department of Economics); Philipp Biermann (University of Oldenburg, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: Previous research has found that subjective well-being (SWB) is lower for individuals classified as being in poverty. Using panel data for 39,239 individuals living in Germany from 2005-2013, we show that people’s SWB is negatively correlated with the state-level poverty ratio while controlling for individual poverty status and poverty intensity. The negative relationship between aggregate poverty and SWB is more salient in the upper segments of the income distribution and is robust to controlling for the rate of unemployment and per capita GDP. The character of poverty as a public bad suggests that poverty alleviation is a matter not only of equity, but of efficiency.
    Keywords: poverty; poverty ratio; subjective well-being; public bad; life satisfaction
    JEL: I31 I32 D60
    Date: 2016–11
  24. By: Ursula Henz; Colin Mills
    Abstract: This article examines the influence of job demands and job-related resources on the experience of two dimensions of work-life conflict (WLC) in Britain. Theory suggests that higher levels of resources should reduce WLC but empirical analyses often fail to find this effect. We address the issue by examining the impact of a wide range of resources as well as their interactions with job demands. Analyses of the Working in Britain 2000 survey suggest that job resources and demands affect WLC through different processes, which differ for the two types of WLC. They fail to find evidence that job resources dampen the effects of job demands on WLC. They also document that many effects of job characteristics depend on context or vary by gender, for example, the effects of job pressure and job autonomy.
    Keywords: work-life conflict; job resources; job demands; buffer hypothesis
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2015
  25. By: Ettl, Kerstin; Welter, Friederike; Achtenhagen, Leona
    Abstract: Die vorliegende Studie untersucht die Presseberichterstattung über Unternehmerinnen insbesondere mit Blick darauf, welches Bild von Unternehmerinnentum in den Presseberichten vermittelt wird. Zu diesem Zweck wurden Artikel in sechs ausgewählten überregionalen deutschen Tageszeitungen im Zeitraum 2004-2013, sowie ausgewählte Artikel aus schwedischen Printmedien ausgewertet. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Berichterstattung zunehmend vielfältiger wird und die Sichtbarkeit von Unternehmerinnen zunimmt. Allerdings werden auch heute noch klassische Stereotype und traditionelle Rollenbilder durch die Berichterstattung transportiert.
    Abstract: The present study examines how the daily press in Germany contributes to presenting and spreading role models for women entrepreneurs. Therefore we analyzed six of the biggest nationwide newspapers in the space of time 2004-2013. For comparison we furthermore included selected Swedish print media. Our results show that women entrepreneurs get more and more visible in the press discourse, but traditional stereotypes and role models are still presented in several of the articles.
    Keywords: Gender,Gründungen/Selbstständigkeit,Start-up/Self-Employment,Enterprise Management
    JEL: M13 L26 J16
    Date: 2016

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