nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2015‒11‒21
seventeen papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. Gender Identity and Womens' Supply of Labor and Non-market Work: Panel Data Evidence for Germany By Anna Wieber; Elke Holst
  2. Shifting Boundaries in Economics: the Institutional Cognitive Strand By Ambrosino, Angela; Fontana, Magda; Gigante, Anna Azzurra
  3. An empirical analysis of the global input-output network and its evolution By Jakob Grazzini; Alessandro Spelta
  4. Architectural innovation in China: The concept and its implications for institutional analysis By Conlé, Marcus
  5. A model of cognitive and operational memory of organizations in changing worlds By Giovanni Dosi; Luigi Marengo; Evita Paraskevopoulou; Marco Valente
  6. Entrepreneurial Funding Challenges for Latin American Women Start-up Founders By Katherina Kuschel; María-Teresa Lepeley; Fernanda Espinosa; Sebastián Gutiérrez
  7. The Capability Threshold: Re-examining the definition of the middle class in an unequal developing country By Ronelle Burger; Camren McAravey; Servaas van Den Berg
  8. Accounting for Productivity Growth: Schumpeterian versus Semi-Endogenous Explanantions By Johannes W. Fedderke and Yang Liu
  9. Copreneurial Women in startups: Growth-oriented or lifestyle? An aid for technology industry investors By Katherina Kuschel; María-Teresa Lepeley
  10. Time varying fiscal multipliers in an agent-based model with credit rationing By Mauro Napoletano; Andrea Roventini; Jean-Luc Gaffard
  11. Trust, Ability-to-Pay, and Charitable Giving By Paul Missios; Ida Ferrara
  12. LA QUALITÉ DES RELATIONS SOCIALES AU SEIN DES SCOP By Hervé Charmettant; Jean-Yves Juban; Nathalie Magne; Yvan Renou; Guillaume Vallet
  13. Banks, Market Organization, and Macroeconomic Performance: An Agent-Based Computational Analysis By Quamrul Ashraf; Boris Gershman; Peter Howitt
  14. The Economic Feedbacks of Loss of Biodiversity and Ecosystems Services By Anil Markandya
  15. O salário mínimo e a oferta de trabalho das famílias pobres: uma abordagem coletiva com os dados da PNAD Contínua (2012-2015) By Solange Ledi Gonçalves; Naercio Aquino Menezes Filho
  16. Volunteering to Take on Power: Experimental Evidence from Matrilineal and Patriarchal Societies in India By Debosree Banerjee; Marcela Ibanez; Gerhard Riener; Meike Wollni
  17. Charitable giving and intermediation By Nadine Chlaß; Lata Gangadharan; Kristy Jones

  1. By: Anna Wieber; Elke Holst
    Abstract: This paper aims to verify results of the innovative study on gender identity for the USA by Bertrand et al. (2015) for Germany. They found that women who would earn more than their husbands distort their labor market outcome in order not to violate traditional gender identity norms. Using data from the German Socio-economic Panel Study we also find that the distribution of the share of income earned by the wife exhibits a sharp drop to the right of the half, where the wife’s income exceeds the husband’s income. The results of the fixed effects regression confirm that gender identity has an impact on the labor supply of full time working women, but only in Western Germany. We also show that gender identity affects the supply of housework but in contrast to the US where women increase their contribution to non-market work when they actually have a higher income than their husbands, we find for Germany that women only barely reduce their weekly hours of non-market work once their income exceeds that of their husbands.
    Keywords: gender roles, gender gap, female labor supply, non-market work, SOEP
    JEL: D10 J12
    Date: 2015
  2. By: Ambrosino, Angela; Fontana, Magda; Gigante, Anna Azzurra (University of Turin)
    Abstract: The paper proposes a critical interpretation of the development of new institutional economics and of its relationship with other economic fields. Consistently with the oil-spot dynamics model, new institutionalism can be described as an enlargement of the mainstream that, in time, seems to further expand towards heterodoxy by branching and specializing. Institutional cognitive economics positions itself at the borders between these two areas. With its focus on the cognitive processes underlying institutional genesis and evolution, it is the result of the integration process between the ideas of new (D.C. North’s in particular) and old institutionalism (T. Veblen’s in particular) plus the injection of F. Hayek’s theories on the link between mind and institutions. Institutional cognitive economics also represents an example of interdisciplinary cross-fertilization that is taking place at the border of social sciences and that might represent the future of our discipline.
    Date: 2015–11
  3. By: Jakob Grazzini (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore; Dipartimento di Economia e Finanza, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore); Alessandro Spelta (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore; Dipartimento di Economia e Finanza, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore)
    Abstract: Data, without a model, are just numbers. The analysis of networks in economics should take into account how economic agents react to exogenous shocks. In order to determine the centrality of a node in the global input-output network, we analyze the network through the lenses of an economic model calibrated on empirical data. We show that formalizing the nodes as firms, and modeling the links as the result of firms' behavior (trade), is impor- tant for the economic interpretation of the network topology. Moreover, using the calibrated model, we define a fragility index that measures the ability of the system to absorb exogenous shocks. We find that the fragility of the production network has increased from 1995 to 2011.
    Keywords: Input-output, Network, Fragility.
    JEL: C67
    Date: 2015–10
  4. By: Conlé, Marcus
    Abstract: China´s rapid economic ascent has been accompanied by brilliant institutionalist scholarship elaborating on the significance of institutional diversity for China´s recent development trajectory. As valuable as these analyses are, their foundation in the transition literature seems to have resulted in their focusing mainly on offering explanations for the characteristics and the (temporary) persistence of institutional diversity rather than on providing insights about the impact of that diversity on such issues as innovation and competitive advantage. This focus has arguably contributed to both, a limited understanding of China´s development model as well as a limited impact of the findings concerning China´s institutional reality on the research program of the comparative capitalisms, specifically on the debate on the benefits and flaws of the so-called Varieties of Capitalism (VoC). Building on recent work on innovation in China, the present paper seeks to provide a typology of architectural innovation, a concept that was originally introduced by Rebecca Henderson and Kim Clark as an extension to the radical/incremental innovation typology, in order to capture the main features of a pattern that appears to be found in a great number of China´s (assembly) industries. After illustrating this pattern with the help of an exemplary case study of China´s passenger vehicle sector, the paper will give a brief discussion of how institutional diversity and the various roles of government relate to the identified pattern of innovation.
    Keywords: China,varieties of capitalism,architectural innovation,assembly industries,passenger vehicles
    Date: 2015
  5. By: Giovanni Dosi; Luigi Marengo; Evita Paraskevopoulou; Marco Valente
    Abstract: This work analyzes and models the nature and dynamics of organizational memory, as such an essential ingredient of organizational capabilities. There are two sides to it, namely a cognitive side, involving the beliefs and interpretative frameworks by which the organization categorizes the states of the world and its own internal states, and an operational one, including routines and procedures that store the knowledge of how to do things. We formalize both types of memory by means of evolving systems of condition-action rules and investigate their performance in different environments characterized by varying degrees of complexity and non-stationarity. Broadly speaking, in simple and stable environments memory does not matter, provided it satisfies some minimal requirements. In more complex and gradually changing ones more memory is better. However there is some critical level of environmental instability above which forgetfulness is evolutionary superior from the point of view of long term performance. Moreover, above some (modest) complexity threshold stable and robust cognitive categorizations and routinized behavior emerge.
    Keywords: organizational memory, routines, cognitive categories, condition-action rules
    Date: 2015–12–11
  6. By: Katherina Kuschel; María-Teresa Lepeley; Fernanda Espinosa; Sebastián Gutiérrez (School of Business and Economics, Universidad del Desarrollo)
    Abstract: Purpose: This study explores the funding opportunities for women start-up founders who have received support from the Chilean government agency accelerator Start-Up Chile. It examines the role of gender in Latin American women founders at the stage when they are raising funds and equity capital. Design/methodology/approach: The study includes an inductive, qualitative approach and interviews with 20 female founders. Findings: The thematic analysis revealed 10 subthemes that condition founder’s access to capital in the following categories: capital needs, network, and individual characteristics. Originality/value: The contribution of this study is the identification of predominant factors for female entrepreneurs raising capital followed by implications for public policies in entrepreneurial ecosystems including future research orientation.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, New high-technology ventures, Female founders, Entrepreneurial ecosystem, Start-Up Chile, Latin America
    Date: 2015–10
  7. By: Ronelle Burger (Department of Economics, University of Stellenbosch); Camren McAravey (Department of Economics, University of Stellenbosch); Servaas van Den Berg (Department of Economics, University of Stellenbosch)
    Abstract: In a polarised and highly unequal country such as South Africa, it is unlikely that a definition of the middle class that is based on an income threshold will adequately capture the political and social meanings of being middle class. We therefore propose a multi-dimensional definition, rooted in the ideas of empowerment and capability, and find that the ‘empowered middle class’ has expanded significantly since 1993 also across vulnerable subgroups such as blacks, female-headed households and rural inhabitants. It also is much larger than when measured in terms of income. Differing trends between the middle class defined based on income and based on capabilities is attributed to improved capabilities have not been rewarded with a proportional increases in access to the labour market. It is disconcerting that links to the labour market improved only slightly and this is attributed to sluggish labour market growth and low quality of education. We find that the middle class tend to have lower expectations around social mobility than the vulnerable. It is concerning that vulnerable individuals harbour unrealistically high expectations of the social mobility of the households and do not understand the determinants of social mobility and labour market prospects – possibly due to a mixture of heightened expectations following the political transition, but also the continued disconnection and marginalisation of vulnerable subpopulations from the mainstream economy.
    Keywords: Middle class, Capability approach, South Africa
    JEL: I32 I38 N97 D31
    Date: 2015
  8. By: Johannes W. Fedderke and Yang Liu
    Abstract: This paper examines the nature and sources of productivity growth in South African manufacturing sectors, in international comparative perspective. On panel data estimations, we find that the evidence tends to support Schumpeterian explanations of productivity growth for a panel of countries including both developed and developing countries, and a panel of the South African manufacturing sectors. By contrast, for a panel of OECD manufacturing sectors, semi-endogenous productivity growth is supported. However, we also report evidence that suggests that sectors are not homogeneous. For this reason time series evidence may be more reliable than panel data. Time series evidence for South Africa suggests that prospects for the sustained productivity growth associated with Schumpeterian innovation processes, is restricted to a narrow set of sectors, strongly associated with the chemicals and related sectors, machinery and transport equipment, and basic iron and steel sectors. Semi-endogenous growth finds much weaker support. For the OECD manufacturing sectors, both semi-endogenous and Schumpeterian growth finds support, with semi-endogenous growth more prevalent than for South African manufacturing. The sustained productivity growth associated with Schumpeterian growth frameworks is relatively rare everywhere.
    JEL: O47
    Date: 2015
  9. By: Katherina Kuschel; María-Teresa Lepeley (School of Business and Economics, Universidad del Desarrollo)
    Abstract: Purpose – Latin American investors are commonly suspicious of investing in copreneurial ventures (a male and female couple) integrated in working teams and show even higher levels of uncertainty when startups are led by a female founder. This paper addresses issues related to women as leaders in copreneurial tech ventures and analyzes whether these ventures are growth-oriented or conform to limited partnerships that merely meet women’s needs for a standard of living. Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative, inductive and constructive approach was needed for addressing the research question. Three copreneurial women and two divorced copreneurs were interviewed. A grounded theory approach was followed to analyze data, which identified emerging themes. Findings – Copreneurial teams in technology have similar and complementary high levels of education and skill development. After enough time working together, each partner is well aware of mutual skills and each other’s strengths, allowing them to identify their roles. Both divide work and family, and have developed a level of mutual trust that is essential to moving forward. They commonly show a workaholic tendency with a high rational underpinning. All of these factors strengthen collaboration, and in many instances this business liaison can remain intact despite a breakdown in a sentimental relationship. Additional findings show that their growth-orientation take multiple structures. Practical implications – This study conveys information that can help investors make decisions that support these copreneurial teams. Originality/value – Although representing an increasingly common type of startup team, copreneurs in technology have not yet been addressed as a specific sample in family business research.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship, copreneurs, new high-technology ventures, female founders, Latin America
    Date: 2015–10
  10. By: Mauro Napoletano (OFCE); Andrea Roventini (Department of economics); Jean-Luc Gaffard (OFCE)
    Date: 2015–11
  11. By: Paul Missios (Department of Economics, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada); Ida Ferrara (Department of Economics, York University, Toronto, Canada)
    Abstract: In the literature on privately provided public goods, altruism has been motivated by what contributions can accomplish (public goods philanthropy), by the pleasure of giving (warm-glow philanthropy), or by the desire to personally make a difference (impact philanthropy). We revisit these motives but allow for income heterogeneity and distrust in the institutional structures involved. We also model socially motivated philanthropy when income-heterogeneous donors take trust and ability-to-pay into account. We show key differences across the four models in terms of crowding out and in the effects of income distribution. In the socially motivated model, low-income donors may contribute more than high-income donors, giving theoretical foundation to the frequently observed "U-shaped" pattern of giving.
    Keywords: Philanthropy, Social Motivation, Trust, Ability to Pay, Crowding Out.
    JEL: D03 H31 H41 Q53
    Date: 2015–11
  12. By: Hervé Charmettant (CREG - Centre de recherche en économie de Grenoble - Grenoble 2 UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France); Jean-Yves Juban (CERAG - Centre d'études et de recherches appliquées à la gestion - Grenoble 2 UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France - CNRS); Nathalie Magne (TRIANGLE - Triangle : action, discours, pensée politique et économique - CNRS - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Lyon - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon); Yvan Renou (CREG - Centre de recherche en économie de Grenoble - Grenoble 2 UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France); Guillaume Vallet (CREG - Centre de recherche en économie de Grenoble - Grenoble 2 UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France, UMRESTTE - Unité Mixte de Recherche Epidémiologique et de Surveillance Transport Travail Environnement - INRETS - Institut National de Recherche sur les Transports et leur Sécurité - Institut de Veille Sanitaire (INVS) - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1)
    Abstract: La crise et les dérives constatées dans certaines entreprises classiques ont contribué à renouveler l’attention portée aux SCOP comme modèle alternatif d’entreprise. Elles restent cependant mal connues et c’est dans le but de contribuer à éclairer leurs spécificités qu’une équipe de cinq économistes et gestionnaires des universités Grenoble 2 et Lyon 2 s’est lancée depuis plus d’un an dans un travail de terrain. L’enquête a été menée auprès d’une quarantaine de SCOP de la région Rhône-Alpes sur le thème des « relations sociales » en se centrant sur le fonctionnement du collectif que forme l’entreprise coopérative.
    Keywords: Scop, gouvernance, GRH, relations sociales, coopération
    Date: 2013–12
  13. By: Quamrul Ashraf; Boris Gershman; Peter Howitt
    Abstract: This paper is an exploratory analysis of the role that banks play in supporting what Jevons called the "mechanism of exchange." It considers a model economy in which exchange activities are facilitated and coordinated by a self-organizing network of entrepreneurial trading firms. Collectively, these firms play the part of the Walrasian auctioneer, matching buyers with sellers and helping the economy to approximate equilibrium prices that no individual is able to calculate. Banks affect macroeconomic performance in this economy because their lending activities facilitate the entry and influence the exit decisions of trading firms. Both entry and exit have ambiguous effects on performance, and we resort to computational analysis to understand how they are resolved. Our analysis draws an important distinction between normal times and worst-case scenarios, in which the economy experiences systemic breakdowns. We show that banks provide a "financial stabilizer" that more than counteracts the familiar financial accelerator and that the stabilizing role of the banking system is particularly apparent in bad times. In line with this result, we also find that under less restrictive lending standards banks are able to more effectively improve macroeconomic performance in the worst-case scenarios.
    Keywords: Agent-based computational model, Market organization, Banking system, Macroeconomic stability, Financial stabilizer
    JEL: C63 E00 E63 G20 G28
    Date: 2015
  14. By: Anil Markandya
    Keywords: biodiversity, ecosystem services, biodiversité, écosystèmes
    JEL: O44 Q22 Q57
    Date: 2015–11–19
  15. By: Solange Ledi Gonçalves; Naercio Aquino Menezes Filho
    Abstract: O objetivo desse artigo é examinar os impactos da política de aumentos do salário mínimo (SM) na oferta de trabalho das famílias pobres brasileiras, por meio de da estimação de modelos de racionalidade coletiva. São utilizados os microdados longitudinais trimestrais da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios Contínua (PNADC/IBGE), para o período entre 2012 e 2015 e o método de diferenças em diferenças (DD). Os resultados mostram que depois dos aumentos do SM há uma diminuição da participação no mercado de trabalho dos adolescentes em 3% e um aumento na oferta de trabalho dos chefes e cônjuges em 1,4% e 4,7%, respectivamente. Também foi possível verificar que a diferença na escolaridade entre chefes e cônjuges impacta positivamente a oferta de trabalho dos cônjuges e diminui a oferta de trabalho dos chefes, ou seja, atua no sentido de aumentar o poder de barganha dos chefes no processo de decisão intrafamiliar sobre a oferta de trabalho. Além disso, se o domicílio apresenta chefe do sexo masculino, o chefe e o adolescente apresentam maior participação no mercado de trabalho
    Keywords: Labour supply; Minimum wage; Poverty; Collective rationality models
    JEL: J22 J38 I38
    Date: 2015–11–10
  16. By: Debosree Banerjee (Georg-August-University Göttingen); Marcela Ibanez (Georg-August-University Göttingen); Gerhard Riener (University of Düsseldorf); Meike Wollni (Georg-August-University Göttingen)
    Abstract: Gender equity in the creation and enforcement of social norms is important not only as a normative principle but it can also support long term economic growth. Yet in most societies, coercive power is in the hands of men. We investigate whether this form of segregation is due to inherent gender differences in the willingness to volunteer for take on positions of power. In order to study whether potential differences are innate or driven by social factors, we implement a public goods game with endogenous third-party punishment in matrilineal and patriarchal societies in India. Our findings indicate that segregation in coercive roles is due to conformity with pre-assigned gender roles in both cultures. We find that women in the matrilineal society are more willing to assume the role of norm enforcer than men while the opposite is true in the patriarchal society. Moreover, we find that changes in the institutional environment that are associated with a decrease in the exposure and accountability of the norm enforcer, result in increased participation of the segregated gender. Our results suggest that the organizational environment can be adjusted to increase representation of women in positions of power, and that it is critical to take the cultural context into account.
    Keywords: Gender; Norm enforcement; Segregation; Third party punisher; Public goods game
    JEL: C90 C92 C93 C92 D03 D70 D81 J16
    Date: 2015–11–13
  17. By: Nadine Chlaß (Department of Economics, University of Turku, Finland and University of Jena, Germany); Lata Gangadharan (Department of Economics, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia); Kristy Jones (Department of Economics, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia)
    Abstract: Charitable donations are often made through intermediaries who can fund themselves from these same donations. Donors who purchase charitable output through an intermediary incur a principal-agent problem with unobservable prices. We compare charitable giving in an experiment with and without intermediation. Different donor types emerge: 41 per-cent of all donors reduce their donation in response to intermediation, 59 per-cent of all donors give as much or more with than without intermediation. The price of charitable output does not explain these types and appears to only matter after taking characteristics of donors' moral judgement into account.
    Keywords: charitable giving, altruism, intermediation, charitable institutions, price elasticity, moral judgement reasoning
    JEL: C91 D64 L31
    Date: 2015–11–19

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