nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2015‒11‒01
23 papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. Innovation Bureaucracy: Does the organization of government matter when promoting innovation? By Karo , Erkki; Kattel , Rainer
  2. Women entrepreneurship. Changes in access to credit and business results (2003-2013) By Antonio Garcia-Tabuenca; Federico Pablo-Martí; Fernando Crecente-Romero
  3. A Critical Statement of Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen, La Décroissance, Entropie, Écologie, Économie, Éditions Sang de la Terre, Paris, 3rd edition, 2006. Texts selected and translated by Jacques Grinevald and Ivo Rens By Antoine Missemer
  4. A Decomposition of Multidimensional Economic Well-being: an application to Spanish regions By Jesus Perez-Mayo; Carlos Díaz-Caro
  5. Théorie économique et gestion des déchets radioactifs. oser le conflit By Véronique Thireau
  6. Disputed (Disciplinary) Boundaries. Philosophy, Economics, Value Judgments. By Silvestri, Paolo
  7. Andalusian Economic Structure over Social Accounting Matrices from FES analysis perspective By Jorge Manuel Lopez; Manuel Alejandro Cardenete
  9. Market vs. system failure as a rationale for EU regional policy? A critique from an evolutionary economic perspective By Peter Schmidt
  10. The living space, and local and regional economy:An examination of human mobility and human living By John X. LAMBINO
  11. Social Entrepreneurship: Does Institutional Environment Make a Difference? By José Cadima Ribeiro; José Freitas Santos; Susana Bernardino
  13. Rural entrepreneurship and Innovation: some successful women?s initiatives By Lúcia Pato
  14. Spatial Aspects of Agent-Based Modeling of Large Economy By Larisa Melnikova; Victor Suslov; Alexander Tsyplakov; Naimdjon Ibragimov; Dmitry Domozhirov; Vitaly Kostin
  15. The Green Entrepreneurial State By Mariana Mazzucato
  17. Twenty Challenges for Innovation Studies By Ben R. Martin
  18. Better than nothing? : dowry in the absence of the legal protection of women's inheritance rights By Makino, Momoe
  19. The making of inequality.Capital, labour and the distribution of income. By Maurizio Franzini; Mario Pianta
  20. Boys’ and girls’ ability to comprehend school book texts in sixth grade By Tuula Merisuo-Storm
  21. Decomposition of sectoral water consumption: a subsystem SAM model for Extremadura, Spain. By Alberto Franco Solís; Francisco Javier De Miguel Vélez
  22. Trade Bounded Rationality and Bounded Individuality By Davis, John
  23. ¿Debería la Historia del Pensamiento Económico ser incluida en los Planes de Estudio de Economía en Pregrado? By Roncaglia, Alesandro

  1. By: Karo , Erkki (Ragnar Nurkse School of Innovation and Governance, Tallinn University of Technology); Kattel , Rainer (Ragnar Nurkse School of Innovation and Governance, Tallinn University of Technology)
    Abstract: Current research on how to organize the role of government in innovation – both how governments support innovation in markets and how governments achieve innovations within public organizations for improving its market supporting activities – converges around a rather simplified single-organization explanations: innovations are driven by either (Weberian) elite expert organizations or (Schumpeterian) fluid peripheral organizations. We show that looking at history of innovation bureaucracy, a more complex picture emerges: historically we find a rich organizational variety for implementing diverse innovation policy goals. We show that historically the organizational variety is, first, driven by highly diverse public-private relationships; and second, the variety itself is an important factor in success and failure of innovation policies. Combining analytical lenses created by Weber and Mintzberg we build analytical framework based on routines and capacities to analyze organizational variety in innovation bureaucracy. We show how different kinds of public organizations are successful at delivering different kinds of innovation policy goals and impacts. Particularly important is the distinction between organizations capable of innovations in policies (instrumental performance) vs organizations supporting innovations in private sector (substantive performance). We finish with discussing the importance of organizational variety for the concept of entrepreneurial state.
    Keywords: innovation policy; Weberian bureaucracy; organizational varieties; policy capacities
    JEL: B15 B52 O20 O25 O30 O38 P11
    Date: 2015–10–22
  2. By: Antonio Garcia-Tabuenca; Federico Pablo-Martí; Fernando Crecente-Romero
    Abstract: The research on women entrepreneurship has mainly studied these topics: i) the characteristics and motivations (Brush and Hisrich, 1991; Pablo-Martí et al., 2014), ii) the strategic choice (Verheul et al., 2008), iii) the role of leadership (Schwartz, 1976; Justo et al. 2006)), iv) the entry barriers (Brush and Gatewood, 2008), mainly access to funding (Klapper and Parker, 2010), and v) the performance and achieved results (Coleman and Robb, 2009; Díaz and Jiménez, 2010; Crespo-Espert et al., 2012). These topics have been well studied. However, further research on this field is required. The long period of crisis from 2007 on has changed some of the findings related to these issues. This is especially significant in the most affected economies such as those of the southern countries of the EU. In these countries the severity of the crisis has had significant consequences for the productive sector (destruction of companies, high unemployment, credit restrictions) and on public finances under severe uncertainty (sovereign debt crisis, banking crisis). This is generating major changes in productive activity and business competitiveness, which is associated with the deleveraging of companies, as well as the varying prevalence of smaller companies (SMEs) in the economies. In this context, it may be hypothesized that the progress and results of activities led by women entrepreneurs had significant changes between the period before the crisis and the current stage of uncertain recovery. In this paper we analysed the dynamics and evolution of entrepreneurial activity of women in Spain in the period 2003-2013. It includes a stage of strong expansion and other recessive. Also, the research focuses on the differences found in two of the topics listed above: a) the obstacles in accessing to funding and b) the results of businesses women-owned compared to those of male-owned businesses. We made use of the SABI database. It includes information from the commercial registers. It has over one million companies with employees that represent most of the Spanish companies. The samples for this study differentiate whether the company is owned by a man or a woman. These samples are representative for company sizes, sectors and regions. Thus the results that adopt a regional approach can be segmented for a better understanding of the different types of women's businesses. The variables of the study are some financial indicators: credit ratio, debt ratio, productivity, EBITDA over assets, EBITDA over turnover, economic profitability and financial profitability. We employ various dummies to control for differences in size, sector and location of firms. The results allow understanding the different behaviour of women entrepreneurs and its reasons. They can also serve to develop new entrepreneurship policies related to gender in economic recovery.
    Keywords: women entrepreneurs; credit; debt; business results; SMEs; business cycle
    JEL: B54 M21 G30
    Date: 2015–10
  3. By: Antoine Missemer (TRIANGLE - Triangle : action, discours, pensée politique et économique - CNRS - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Lyon - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon)
    Abstract: Cet exposé critique revient sur les rapports entre Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen et la notion de décroissance, à partir d'un examen du recueil de textes publié par Jacques Grinevald et Ivo Rens.
    Keywords: Grinevald, bioeconomics,Georgescu-Roegen, degrowth,Grinevald,bioéconomie,décroissance
    Date: 2014
  4. By: Jesus Perez-Mayo; Carlos Díaz-Caro
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyze the evolution of well-being changes due to, on one side, the changes in the weighting scheme and, on the other, changes in the indicators along the time. An alternative methodology is proposed in this paper that allows one to decompose a multidimensional index of economic well-being by distinguishing such effects from some dimensions as adjusted consumption, real wealth, inequality and economic security. The analysis is performed between 2000 and 2010 for all the Spanish regions. The main results show the relevance of differentiating between both components of change.
    Keywords: well-being; decomposition; regional inequalities
    JEL: I31 I32
    Date: 2015–10
  5. By: Véronique Thireau (Chrome - EA 7352 - Université de Nîmes)
    Abstract: Théorie économique et gestion des déchets radioactifs : Oser le conflit Véronique Thireau 1 Théorie économique et gestion des déchets radioactifs : Oser le conflit Séminaire CERDACC 30 avril 2015 par V. Thireau Université de Nîmes, équipe Chrome (EA7352) La gestion des déchets radioactifs implique d'emblée de s'interroger sur les risques inhérents à cette activité toute particulière, d'ailleurs appelée à se développer dans un futur proche. Les « risques » liés à leur niveau de radioactivité et à leur durée de vie supposent en effet des prises de décisions publiques spécifiques pour lesquelles il n'y a pas nécessairement et spontanément accord et coopération mais plus souvent conflits, retards voire indécisions 1. Ce type de risque comporte donc bel et bien des aspects politiques et, surtout, appelle un traitement « politique » c'est à dire collectif, et donc dépassant le cadre de réflexion et l'horizon d'un individu. Si cette posture peut sembler plutôt naturelle, en droit public notamment, elle l'est de moins en moins en économie, en tous cas dans cette économie contemporaine 2 , oublieuse d'Adam Smith, Karl Marx ou John Maynard Keynes, centrée sur l'action individuelle et assimilant jusqu'à l'action de l'Etat à un comportement maximisateur. Notre propos vise donc à observer comment cette discipline est en mesure de répondre à ce défi et cela, eu égard aux attentes de nos concitoyens vis-à-vis de ces déchets aussi inquiétants que lancinants, nimbés d'un « secret » 3 peu accessible au profane quand ils ne sont pas objets de dissimulation à défaut d'être dissimulés.
    Keywords: dechets radioactifs, conflits, localisation
    Date: 2015
  6. By: Silvestri, Paolo (University of Turin)
    Abstract: The paper aims to address the following two questions: what kind of discourse is that which attempt to found or defend the autonomy or the boundaries of a discipline? Why do such discourses tend to turn into normative, dogmatic-excommunicating discourses between disciplines, schools or scholars? I will argue that an adequate answer may be found if we conceive disciplines as dogmatics, where such discourses often take the form of a discourse on the foundation of a discipline, a foundation in the name of which the scholar speaks and with which he/she entertains an identity relationship. To this purpose I will re-examine the methodological discourses of (and debates between)Pareto, Croce and Einaudi on the demarcation issue between philosophy, economics and value-judgments as highly instructive to understand such issues.
    Date: 2015–09
  7. By: Jorge Manuel Lopez; Manuel Alejandro Cardenete
    Abstract: Over the last 60 years, regional economic analysis has been interested in identifying common patterns and regularities of regional economic structure. The identification of such patterns suggests that there predictable relationships between different levels of structural regional development. Since Social Accounting Matrices (SAM) are database containing the total transactions in an economy, it is possible to use them to comparise the economic structure embedded in them. As regional SAM provide a detailed description of the economic structure, they provide a valid basis for this category of analysis. The aim of this paper is to determine those structural components and similarities in economic relationships within the regional economy (Andalusia) over a determined period of time (1990-2010), specifying the Fundamental Economic Structure (FES), quantifying and classifying their components both individual and holistic sense. The FES methodology applied in this paper is a set of complementary techniques, focused on revealing key components in the overall economy. Quantifying the features of each component will allow us ranking the core and the periphery ot the economic structure. The FES approach provide us those elements of the economy categorized like predictable, stable and important. And the features combination let us to classify the core components of the economy. The results show us the relevance of partitions related to tertiary activities. They have more probabilities to be predicted using a proxy of the size of the economy, specially in Commercial Services, Retail sales and Transport and Communications. Besides, the structure of Andalusian economy is quite stable in comparison with other regional analysis and the stability is focused in tertiary sector and some industrial activities like Electric energy, Chemical and Machinery, Refinning or Mining and Steel. In terms of importance, the connectivity analysis provide that the principal interactions are brought about Retail sales, Transport and Comunications and Other Services located in tertiary-tertiary, secondary-tertiary and primary-tertiary partitions of the economy. There are also important cells in the secondary sector in this sense like Construction, Vehicles or Refining. This type of interactions between secondary and tertiary sectors, and absence of primary activities are the main characteristics of the andalusian economy structure, with no apreciable change over period of analysis. It can be concluded that there is a temporal FES for the regional economy in Andalusia in the period of analysis and under this methodology it is possible to identify not just relevant activities but key flows of interactions in the economy and let to estimate and forecast the cell values of the core of the economy determining the degree of development of the economy.
    Keywords: fundamental economic Structure; social Accounting Matrix; structural change
    JEL: C67 R15
    Date: 2015–10
  8. By: Francesca Tosi
    Abstract: One of the main debates around multidimensional poverty assessment concerns the degree of arbitrariness used to inform poverty analysis. Which dimensions matter and who should be selecting them are questions that repeatedly raise issues of ethics and legitimacy. We hold that, in order to justify normative decisions in support of poverty assessment, the latter has to be addressed as a social justice question. We propose a reconceptualization of multidimensional poverty analysis starting from John Rawls’ seminal work on the conception of justice by (i) reviewing the most influential philosophical frameworks for analysing social justice; (ii) showing that Rawls’ principles of justice can frame investigations on multidimensional poverty in constitutional democracies; and (iii) analysing the idea of an overlapping consensus to show that the scrutiny of national Constitutions can serve the purpose of unambiguously informing empirical poverty analyses as they undoubtedly convey people’s value judgements and public shared ideas.
    Keywords: Multidimensional poverty; Social justice; Constitutional approach; Dimensions selection; Overlapping consensus
    JEL: D30 D63 I30 I32
    Date: 2015–10
  9. By: Peter Schmidt
    Abstract: This paper reconsiders the economic explanation of EU regional policy from an evolution- ary perspective. It contrasts the neoclassical equilibrium notions of market and government failure with the prevalent evolutionary neo-Schumpeterian and Austrian-Hayekian percep- tions. Based on this comparison the paper criticises that neoclassical failure reasoning still prevails in non-equilibrium evolutionary economics when regional policy issues are exam- ined. This is more than surprising since proponents of evolutionary economics usually view their approach as incompatible with its neoclassical counterpart. In addition, it is shown that this ?fallacy of failure thinking? even finds its continuation in the alternative concept of ?system failure? with which some evolutionary economists try to explain and legitimate regional policy interventions in local, regional or national innovation systems. The paper argues that in order to prevent the fruitful and more realistic evolutionary approach from undermining its own criticism of neoclassical economics and to create a consistent as well as objective evolutionary policy framework it is necessary to eliminate the equilibrium spirit from it. Finally, the paper delivers an alternative evolutionary explanation of EU regional policy which is able to overcome the theory-immanent contradiction of the hitherto evolu- tionary view on this subject. Building on the preceding remarks, policy implications for EU regional policy from a ?proper? evolutionary perspective are deduced.
    Keywords: market failure; system failure; EU regional policy; evolutionary economics
    JEL: B52 B53 F15 H53 O20 R10
    Date: 2015–10
  10. By: John X. LAMBINO
    Abstract: The paper examines human mobility and human living, and how human beings relate with space. The paperfs objective is to reevaluate and advance the theory on locality, and local and regional economy. The paper initially gives a brief and broad overview on the existing theoretical frameworks to position its arguments. It then examines the formation of the Philippine territory and the Filipino people to look at the different forms in how human beings relate with space and the natural environment. After that, it uses an anthropo-historical perspective to look at the major lifestyles and human relationships with the natural environment from the dawn of human history to the present time. The objective is to ferret-out the spatial requirements and lifestyle stereotypes of human existence. It asserts that human existence has two forms: existence as individuals and existence as members of the human species. Furthermore, it asserts that human existence is sustained through a material exchange with the natural environment, and therefore spatiality is a necessity for human existence. From these perspectives, the paper argues that human living understood as the process of human existence has three modes: economic production (acquisition of the means to satisfy material and psychological needs), individual reproduction (recovery of the life force of the individual), and species reproduction (reproduction of the human species). The paper then pointed-out four major stereotypes of human lifestyle according to human mobility and spatiality for human existence. A. Nomadic lifestyle stereotype. B. Sedentary agricultural lifestyle stereotype. C. Lifestyle stereotype under simple reproduction. D. Lifestyle stereotype under expanded reproduction. Finally, the paper reconstitutes and redefines locality, and local and regional economy to give focus on human beings and human living. Locality is the entity that holistically unites the different processes of individual reproduction, species reproduction, and economic production at a defined space. Local and regional economy is the unfolding at a defined space of individual reproduction, species reproduction, economic production, and their interactions.
    Keywords: Locality; Local Economy; Regional Economy; Living Space; Human Mobility
    JEL: B40 J61 R10 Z13
    Date: 2015–10
  11. By: José Cadima Ribeiro; José Freitas Santos; Susana Bernardino
    Abstract: Social entrepreneurship has been recognized as a helpful instrument of social and economic policy. The European Commission, namely, has recognized very early the importance of social organizations on economic growth and social innovation, through their contribution for the development of societies endowed with better levels of democracy, activism and social cohesion. Having that in mind, the purpose of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of the link between social entrepreneurship and institutional environment in Portugal. A quantitative approach is used in the study, and primary data were collected through an online survey. A questionnaire was emailed to, both, Portuguese Non-Governmental Organizations and projects available on the Portuguese Social Stock Exchange. In the analysis of the data we used descriptive statistics, factorial analysis and t-student tests to validate (or not) the research hypotheses. The results show that a favorable institutional environment (social, institutional) seems to have a low influence on the decision-making process related to the creation of new social entrepreneurial initiatives. Conversely, the sense individuals hold about the skills required to develop the new venture and the previous knowledge that their action will produce a desirable outcome have a significant weight on their decision. This conclusion supports the idea that many social entrepreneurs can emerge even in developing regions where the institutional environment is weak. Therefore, social entrepreneurship could be an instrument of regional development and contribute to attenuate the social and economic differences among Portuguese regions.
    Keywords: Social Entrepreneurship;Social and Solidarity Economy; Regional Development.
    JEL: R11
    Date: 2015–10
  12. By: Muhammed Veysel Kaya (Kirikkale University)
    Abstract: Generally, if the labor markets are accepted as two polarized blocks, surveying the economic and social dimensions of wages will be pertinent. It has become a confliction between employers and employes, shuttered in this distinction, a fair regulation of wages for many economists were forced to detect new formulas. Clearly, in order to provide optimum data of macro-economic balance, both sides should be satisfied. However, in the labor economics literature as secondary actors employes and employers need to accept the existence of public and unions. These secondary actors acquirement from labor markets seat the economic balance on a quartet trivet. So far, in observance of the doctrinal explanation that it can be obtained is a multi-dimensional and multi-functional wage model on the basis of four basic actors in the labor market can be reached will contribute to the balance.
    Keywords: Wage theories, elements of wage, efficiency wage models, wage determinants, wage differentials, labor peace, an optimum wage formula.
    JEL: E24 J31 O15
  13. By: Lúcia Pato
    Abstract: Although rural entrepreneurship is an emergent field of study and has emerged as one of the most noticeable ways to promote rural development, the few studies concerning the theme are still incipient. Moreover, a lot of studies focus on farmers and rural entrepreneurs as a whole and little research emphasises women?s entrepreneurship, particularly in Portugal. Thus, this study explores entrepreneurial initiatives conducted by women in one of the most peripheral areas of Portugal - Montemuro (municipality of Castro Daire), where subsistence agriculture continues to be the main economic activity. These women have been stimulated to develop entrepreneurial activity in the countryside, taking advantage of local and endogenous materials (flax and wool) and traditional knowledge that through for generations mothers passed orally to daughters. Indeed, these women who have continually been working this type of materials in their homes, putting into practise what they have learnt from their grandmothers and mothers, began to create innovative and fashionable products. The aim of this study, therefore, is to explore women´s entrepreneurship in rural communities of Montemuro region, raise awareness of the role that these women play in rural development and identify some strategic considerations towards the development of their work. Concerning methodological procedures, in addition to the collection of data and news from newspapers and visits on internet pages about these women?s work, this paper is based on exploratory visits in the study communities of the Montemuro region and in the technique of observation. Apart from this, an interview was conducted in one of the organizations of women. The results of the study point out that the women of Montemuro try to not only create their own work, but also keep the culture and local traditions alive, therefore contributing to rural development. However several difficulties in the development of these entrepreneurial initiatives persist and further progress must be made. According to this, rural and local resources should be seen as valuable and entrepreneurial actions must be continually supported in order to contribute towards a process of rural development. Governmental and other institutional support should be directed to these women entrepreneurs in areas which they have lack of knowledge and expertise and conduct to the creation of a culture of entrepreneurship in the local context. Moreover, the success of entrepreneurship actions depends on the cooperation and creation of networks among the different actors that live in the rural communities. In terms of limitations we emphasize the exploratory nature of the study. Thus in order to understand behaviours and attitudes of these women entrepreneurs, limitations and opportunities of their entrepreneurial actions, an in-depth study will be interesting, maybe in the form of a study case.
    Keywords: Rural entrepreneurship; Innovation; Woman; Rural development
    JEL: L26 R11
    Date: 2015–10
  14. By: Larisa Melnikova; Victor Suslov; Alexander Tsyplakov; Naimdjon Ibragimov; Dmitry Domozhirov; Vitaly Kostin
    Abstract: The paper presents a pilot version of spatial agent-based model simulating the national economy of Russia. The model is supposed to be used for evaluation the effects of industrial and spatial policies. The object of modeling is multi-regional economic space of Russia in its interaction with foreign market. The space is physical; locations of agents are defined by geographical coordinates. The basic hypothesis is that decisions of agents on microeconomic level lead to spatial changes on macroeconomic level. We consider Arrow-Debreu model with Leontief technologies as a microeconomic prototype of our model. Theoretical construction of the model, referred to models of stochastically converging equilibrium. The basic features of the model presented are the following. We explicitly account for space, consideringr interactions between trading agents located in physical space. Moreover, the model is compatible and exchanges information with an existent multiregional input-output model that uses the identical. There are agents of the following types: firms, households, commodity markets, labour market and foreign markets. Agents take decisions on the base of microeconomic models under bounded rationality with the account of transportation costs. Geographical pattern of the model is referred to the stylized map of Russia. Distance is measured as a length of the shortest arc between 2 points on the Earth with their coordinates of longitude and latitude. Initialization of the model uses some elements of geo-informational approach as well as informational exchange with multiregional input-output model. Agents are located on the map on the base of geographical coordinates of cities, real data on demography and statistical performance of economic activities. . Statistical performance is collected mostly across macro-regions and activities and is visualized by graphs. The model is realized on ?Lua? programming language. Spatial pattern of interactions among agents is created by two-part transport tariff: the first part is proportional to the amount of commodities and the second part is proportional to the distance between 2 agents and to the amount of deliveries. In the report we illustrate the algorithm of trade between households with the account of transportation costs. The geographic structure of commodity flows is analyzed. The report also presents some results of the experiments accomplished. We studied the influence of transportation costs on the convergence of prices to the state of quasi-equilibrium. Experiments demonstrated that the Law of One-Price is not observed. Prices converge to clusters within regions, which reflect the impact of differences in industrial pattern of regions. The prospects of future development of the model are discussed.
    Keywords: Spatial agent-based model; multi-industrial economy; transportation costs
    JEL: C63 R1 D58
    Date: 2015–10
  15. By: Mariana Mazzucato (SPRU (Science Policy Research Unit), School of Business, Management & Economics, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9SL, U.K.)
    Abstract: The paper considers the direct, strategic investments that have been made by international public institutions creating and shaping (not only fixing) green technology. It builds on the key themes found in The Entrepreneurial State: debunking public vs. private sector myths.
    Keywords: Financial institutions; environment; economic development; technological change; industrial policy
    JEL: G20 O13 O16 O38 L52
    Date: 2015–10
  16. By: Pasquale Tridico
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to identify the determinants of the increase in income inequality that rich countries have experienced over the last two decades. My hypothesis is that along with the financialisation of economies that has taken place since 1990, inequality increased because labour flexibility intensified, labour market institutions weakened as trade unions lost power, and public social spending started to retrench and did not compensate the vulnerabilities created by the globalization process. Using data from 34 OECD countries from 1990 to 2013, I empirically evaluate this hypothesis. My results clearly suggest that the increase in inequality over the last two decades is caused by an increase in financialisation, a deepening of labour flexibility, the weakening of trade unions, and the retrenchment of the welfare state.
    Keywords: inequality, financialisation, labour market, welfare states
    JEL: I38 G01
    Date: 2015–10
  17. By: Ben R. Martin (SPRU (Science Policy Research Unit), School of Business, Management and Economics, University of Sussex, UK)
    Abstract: With the field of innovation studies now half a century old, the occasion has been marked by several studies looking back to identify the main advances made over its lifetime. Starting from a list of 20 advances over the field’s history, this discussion paper sets out 20 challenges for coming decades. The intention is to prompt a debate within the innovation studies community on what are, or should be, the key challenges for us to take up, and more generally on what sort of field we aspire to be. It is argued that the empirical focus of our studies has failed to keep pace with the fast changing world and economy, especially the shift from manufacturing to services and the increasingly urgent need for sustainability. Moreover, the very way we conceptualise, define, operationalise and analyse ‘innovation’ seems somewhat rooted in the past, leaving us less able to grapple with other less visible or ‘dark’ forms of innovation.
    Keywords: innovation studies; science policy; research challenges; dark innovation
    JEL: O30 O32 O38 Q55
    Date: 2015–10
  18. By: Makino, Momoe
    Abstract: The practice of dowry is often thought to be the root cause of the unequal treatment of women in India. For women without inheritance rights, however, dowry may function as their only source of protection. Using a nationwide dataset and exploiting a natural experimental situation, this study explores the effects of dowry on women's empowerment in India, a society where women do not have inheritance rights. In such a society, dowry seems to enhance women's status in the marital household. The effects reverse when women have equal inheritance rights as their brothers. Empirical analysis suggests that the outright ban on dowry that ignores the context may not necessarily benefit women.
    Keywords: India, Women, Social customs, Property law, Marriage, Dowry, Inheritance rights, Amendment
    JEL: J12 J16 K11 N35 Z13
    Date: 2015–10
  19. By: Maurizio Franzini (Department of Economics and Law, Sapienza University of Rome); Mario Pianta (Department of Economics, Society & Politics, Università di Urbino "Carlo Bo")
    Abstract: Inequality is a major problem of today’s capitalism. The rise of disparities in income and wealth has been documented by many studies, and this paper provides a concise and updated documentation of facts and trends in advanced countries, contributing to an interpretation of the sources and dynamics of inequality. First, the evolution of relations between capital and labour is investigated, providing empirical evidence on the distribution of income between profits and wages. Second, the market processes that shape disparities of income – of individuals and households, before and after taxes, redistribution and public services – are addressed, showing the complexity of current trends. Third, disparities in wealth are examined, showing a much starker picture than that resulting from income inequality. The explanation of these developments points to four ‘engines of inequality’ – the power of capital over labour, the rise of ‘oligarchs capitalism’, the individualisation of economic conditions, the retreat of politics – that are at the source of today’s inequalities. A full analysis of the dynamics of inequality, an interpretation of its mechanisms and a set of policy proposals to reverse it are developed in our book “Explaining inequality” (Franzini and Pianta, 2015).
    Keywords: Inequality, Income distribution, Profits, Wages
    JEL: D31 D33 E24 I38
    Date: 2015
  20. By: Tuula Merisuo-Storm (University of Turku, Department of Teacher Education in Rauma)
    Abstract: When studying almost any area in the school curriculum, the students use texts to acquire new information. It seems that for the students in primary, and especially, in secondary school, the textbooks are still today an important source of information. A considerable part of the time the students spend in their classroom and doing their homework is involved in textbook material.The goal of the study was to find out how well sixth graders (11–12 year-olds) comprehend the textbooks used in the sixth grade history and natural sciences classes; and if there are differences in the girls’ and boys’ reading comprehension skills. Altogether, 247 students (122 girls and 125 boys) took part in the study. About half of them read the text about whales in their natural science book and the other half the text about the great wall in China in their history book. After reading the text, the students answered ten questions and explained the meaning of the ten words underlined in the text. The results show that the students in both groups had no difficulties in answering those questions to which the answers were directly found in the texts. However, those questions proved to be difficult that required inference skills. The girls succeeded in both groups significantly better than the boys in answering the questions (t= 3.57, p= .000; t= 2.73, p= .008). For instance, there were two questions related to the history book chapter that not a single boy was able to answer correctly. Deriving the meaning of the words from the text context and explaining them proved to be even more demanding. The girls were significantly more skilful in explaining the words in the natural sciences book than the boys (t= 2,70, p= .008) but in explaining the meanings of the history book concepts there was no significant difference between the genders. The results of the study show that there are many students who enter secondary school with very poor reading comprehension skills. Therefore, it is important that the students are taught to comprehend texts related to different school subjects. They should learn to choose the best strategies when reading various types of texts. The textbooks of different school subjects may be constructed differently and contain different vocabulary and concepts. Consequently, the students need to be taught how the text context helps to understand the meaning of an unfamiliar word.
    Keywords: reading comprehension, gender, textbooks, deriving the meaning of words
  21. By: Alberto Franco Solís; Francisco Javier De Miguel Vélez
    Abstract: Though most direct water use is generally associated with agriculture, and therefore with the production of food, there is a clear consensus that considering indirect water uses is a relevant factor to be considered in any environmental analysis. In this regard, the subsystems input-output approach makes it possible to isolate the water relations of a limited number of activities as part of the entire production sphere and thus obtain specific production information of them. However, not directly related with production, the demand of goods and services closely linked to available income, also play a significant role in water consumption. Hence, in this paper we propose an extension of the input?output subsystem model to account for all transactions within a Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) and capture the entire flow by which water depletion is caused and transmitted throughout the economic system. Our approach, which divides the water consumption into different components, illustrates how the individual patterns of water depletion differ among economic agents. The starting point of the subsystems representation consists of the decomposition of the N accounts of a SAM system into two categories of institutions: m endogenous and s exogenous. By taking into account this separation of the accounts, in this paper, we analyze separately all the endogenous economic agents, and for each one, we apply a subsystem division of its water consumption. The empirical application is for the Spanish regional economy of Extremadura, and the economic and environmental data are for the year 2005. Our results show that large asymmetries exist not only in the quantitative contribution of the different economic agents to water consumption, but also in the decomposed effects of this contribution. In particular, this decomposition allows illustration of the pull effects of the SAM economic agents on the others, and this shows the effective consumption caused by one agent, no matter which is the agent that causes the end water consumption. Models such as the one presented here also have limitations, like the shortage of data or parameter specification. However, they are of great interest to define the direction that environmental or economic policies should take if we are to reduce water consumption or increase water use efficiency levels.
    Keywords: water; subsystem input-output approach; social accounting matrix.
    Date: 2015–10
  22. By: Davis, John (Department of Economics Marquette University)
    Abstract: This paper argues that since the utility function conception of the individual is derived from standard rationality theory, the view that rationality is bounded suggests that individuality should also be seen as bounded. The meaning of this idea is developed in terms of two ways in which individuality can be said to be bounded, with one bound associated with Kahneman and Tversky's prospect theory and the "new" behavioral economics and a second bound associated with Simon's evolutionary thinking and the "old" behavioral economics. The paper then shows how different bounded individuality conceptions operate in nudge economics, agent-based modeling, and social identity theory, explaining these conceptions in terms of how they relate to these two behavioral economics views of bounded rationality. How both the "new" and "old" individuality bounds might then be combined in a single account is briefly explored in connection with Kirman's Marseille fish market analysis.
    Keywords: bounded rationality, bounded individuality, nudge economics, agent-based modeling, social identity theory, Marseille fish market
    Date: 2014–07
  23. By: Roncaglia, Alesandro
    Abstract: Mainstream views concerning the uselessness or usefulness of HET are illustrated. These rely on a hidden assumption: a ‘cumulative view’ according to which the provisional point of arrival of contemporary economics incorporates all previous contributions in an improved way. Critiques of positivism led philosophy of science to recognise the existence of different approaches – in economics, as in other sciences. Conceptualisation, recognised by Schumpeter as the first stage in economic theorising, is the stage in which the different visions of the world underlying the different approaches, take shape – and are better recognised. In this, HET plays an essential role. As an illustration, the differences between the classical and marginalist conceptualisations of the economy are illustrated. Thus HET is essential in both undergraduate and graduate economic curricula, as a decisive help towards a better understanding and evaluation of formalised theories/models in the first case, and as an education to the philological method of research, essential in the first stage of theorising, in the case of graduate curricula Resumen: Este artículo discute los puntos de vista de la corriente de pensamiento dominante respecto a la utilidad o inutilidad de la Historia del Pensamiento Económico (en adelante HPE). Estos puntos de vista se basan en un supuesto oculto: una “visión acumulativa” según la cual el punto de llegada provisional de la economía contemporánea debe incorporar todas las contribuciones teóricas anteriores de una forma mejorada. Los críticos del positivismo le permitieron a la filosofía de la ciencia reconocer la existencia de diferentes enfoques, tanto en la economía como en otras ciencias. La conceptualización, reconocida por Schumpeter como la primera etapa en la teorización económica, permite que las diferentes visiones del mundo en las cuales se basan los diversos enfoques, tomen forma y alcancen un mayor reconocimiento. Es aquí donde la HPE juega un papel esencial. En este artículo se toma como ejemplo las diferencias entre los enfoques clásicos y marginalistas de la Economía. De esta forma, la HPE resulta esencial en los Planes de Estudio de Economía tanto a nivel de pregrado como de posgrado. En el primer caso como una ayuda decisiva para una mejor comprensión y evaluación de los teorías/modelos ya formalizados y, en el segundo caso, como una formación en el método filológico de investigación, esencial en la primera etapa de la teorización.
    Keywords: history of economic analysis, undergraduate curricula, graduate curricula, heterodox approaches, stages of economic theorising. Historia del análisis económico, Planes de estudios de Economía de pregrado, Planes de estudios de Economía de posgrado, Enfoques heterodoxos, Etapas de la teorización económica.
    JEL: A20 B30
    Date: 2015–05–01

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