nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2015‒10‒25
twelve papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. Gender inequality and the empowerment of women in rural Viet Nam By Newman Carol
  2. The increase of gender wage gap in Italy during the 2008-2012 economic crisis. By Piazzalunga, Daniela; Di Tommaso, Maria Laura
  3. The Role of Women in Traditional Agriculture: Evidence From Italy By Federico, Giovanni; Martinelli, Pablo
  4. Crisis without End: Neoliberalism in a Globalized Environment Modeling the Historic Rise of Neoliberalism and its Systematic Role in Recent Economic Downturns By Rambarran, Richard
  5. Social norms theory and development economics By Eriksson,Lina Maria Jorun
  6. Die Nachhaltigkeit von Genossenschaftsbanken: Ergebnisse einer empirischen Erhebung By Klein, Florian
  7. Cadre conceptuel de qualification des entités de l’économie sociale dans les statistiques By Marie J. BOUCHARD; Paulo CRUZ FILHO; Martin ST-DENIS
  8. The impact of controversy on the production of scientific knowledge By Amelia Sharman
  9. Que « produit » l’entreprise d’économie sociale ? By Sybille MERTENS; Michel MAREE
  10. La construction de la statistique de l'économie sociale et solidaire (ESS) en France : une mobilisation progressive d'acteurs très divers By Danièle DEMOUSTIER; Elisa BRALEY; Thomas GUERIN; Daniel RAULT
  11. Rough Guide to the Impact of the Crisis on the Third Sector in Europe By Tony VENABLES
  12. Die Ausgestaltung der Problemkreditbearbeitung von Genossenschaftsbanken: Erste Ergebnisse einer empirischen Erhebung By Schlaefke, Mike

  1. By: Newman Carol
    Abstract: This paper examines gender inequality and female empowerment in rural Viet Nam. Using an extensive panel dataset on 2,181 households, we examine how the welfare of women living in rural areas has evolved during a period of dramatic rural transformation, 2
    Keywords: Economic development, Households, Microeconomics, Women
    Date: 2015
  2. By: Piazzalunga, Daniela; Di Tommaso, Maria Laura (University of Turin)
    Abstract: The paper examines the gender wage gap in Italy during the 2008-2012 economic crisis, using cross-sectional EU-SILC data. The gender wage gap has increased from 4% (2008) to 8% (2012), but after 2010 the growth (and its unexplained component) was particularly pronounced in the upper part of the wage distribution, suggesting that two different patterns have been underway, depending on the period. In fact, in 2010-2011 a wage freeze in the public sector was introduced as an austerity measure, and the average public sector premium had a signicant drop of 4%, even more pronounced for women. Using counterfactual analysis, we show that such wage freeze has been one of the major causes of the growth of the gender wage gap, disproportionately aecting women, who are more likely to be employed in the public sector. The `policy effect' accounts for more than 100% of the increase between 2009 and 2011, while other changes, if anything, would have reduced the gender gap.
    Date: 2015–07
  3. By: Federico, Giovanni; Martinelli, Pablo
    Abstract: Gender roles in the past may affect current perceptions of the 'rightful' place of women in the society, with potential major consequences on economic development. This paper explores the historical roots of gender roles by focusing on female work in agriculture, which accounted for most employment in traditional societies. We rely on a newly compiled data-set of female occupation and crop mix for Italy in the 1930s. We show that crop mix did determine the level of female gainful employment in a complex way. Some products could be classified either ‘male-intensive’ (like wheat and cow milk) or ‘female-intensive’ (like corn and beef), but quite a few were largely ‘gender-neutral’ (like wine and oil).
    Keywords: agriculture; gender roles; Italy
    JEL: J16 N30 N50 O13 Q12
    Date: 2015–10
  4. By: Rambarran, Richard
    Abstract: Since the 1970’s, both politically and theoretically, neoliberalism as an ideology has been on a persistent rise to the point where, in the twenty first century, it has garnered hegemonic dominance. Despite several recurring crises in countries since the ascendance of neoliberalism, we yet remain reluctant to point out the political economy philosophy as the root cause of the crises. Instead, many of the academics within Economics prefer to offer bouts of highly technical reasons for the downturn- this is especially true and almost solely applicable to those who practice within the ‘neoclassical’ conjecture of Economics. In a typical Marxian sense, one would have to look no further than the economic system to determine both economic and social outcomes of a country. What dictates that economic system however is the political philosophy of the leaders who guide the economic system- the policy makers. This paper attempts to show the neoliberal political philosophy, as the common thread for major crises within the last two decades. It also proposes a societal trinity for which change is driven through complexed interactions among the political, economic and social spheres.
    Keywords: Neoliberalism, Crises, Liberalization, Recession, Financialization, Hegemony
    JEL: O11 O19 P12 P16
    Date: 2015–10–22
  5. By: Eriksson,Lina Maria Jorun
    Abstract: Social norms affect almost every aspect of people?s lives, and can be an obstacle to or support economic development. This paper outlines what social norms are and how they work, providing examples from everyday life and from development case studies. Sometimes not much can be done about changing undesirable social norms. In those cases, development economists need to be aware of how the existence of those norms can impact the effects of the policies they advocate. But of particular importance to development economists is the ways in which social norms can be changed, at least under some circumstances. Understanding of social norm change is still patchy at best, but the paper outlines the theoretical underpinnings of change, with empirical evidence from various policies aimed at changing social norms. However, some of those policies raise ethical concerns that would require attention.
    Keywords: Gender and Social Development,Access to Finance,Population Policies,Ethics&Belief Systems,Anthropology
    Date: 2015–10–20
  6. By: Klein, Florian
    Abstract: Genossenschaftsbanken sind darauf ausgerichtet, für ihre Mitglieder einen MemberValue zu erbringen. Damit ihnen dies dauerhaft gelingt, ist ein nachhaltiges Arbeiten unabdingbar. Dieses Arbeitspapier widmet sich der Fragestellung, welche Nachhaltigkeitsleistungen von den Genossenschaftsbanken erbracht werden und wo sie Handlungsfelder zur Aufrechterhaltung ihrer Nachhaltigkeit sehen. Als Grundlage der Analyse dienen die Ergebnisse einer bundesweiten Befragung der Genossenschaftsbanken, die im März 2015 durchgeführt wurde. Die Ergebnisse lassen darauf schließen, dass die Nachhaltigkeitsleistungen in der ökologischen Dimension von durchschnittlicher sowie in der ökonomischen und sozialen Dimension von überdurchschnittlicher Höhe sind. Prioritärer Handlungsbedarf kann sowohl in der ökologischen als auch in der ökonomischen Dimension identifiziert werden.
    Abstract: Cooperative banks are intended to create values for their members. In summary, these values form the MemberValue. For this to succeed, sustainably working is necessary. This working paper analyses the sustainable activities of cooperative banks as well as fields of action concerning the concept of sustainability. Therefore, a nationwide survey was carried out in March 2015. The findings indicate that average sustainable activities are provided concerning the ecological dimension. Furthermore, they indicate that above-average sustainable activities are provided concerning the economical and the social dimension. Fields of action can be identified in the ecological as well as the economical dimension.
    Date: 2015
  7. By: Marie J. BOUCHARD (École des sciences de la gestion, Université du Québec, Montréal, et CIRIEC-Canada); Paulo CRUZ FILHO (École des sciences de la gestion, Université du Québec, Montréal); Martin ST-DENIS (Université du Québec à Montréal; MCE Conseils)
    Abstract: The starting point of the qualification of the social economy (SE) is that all definitions of the SE underline the primacy of the social purpose over the economic activity. This is especially shown in the empirical features which are typical of the structures and operation of the social economy and which distinguish it from the rest of the economy. This paper analyses some of the most important statistical studies on SE conducted by researchers, academic experts, public institutions and statistical agencies between 2005 and 2012. The resulting conceptual frameworks for doing statistics about the SE usually establish the type of entities, the legal status, sectors of activity that are excluded and a cluster of qualification criteria and their statistical indicators of social economy organizations. Typologies of organizations can also be established on other criteria such as the goals and missions or the modes of financing them. A conceptual framework for qualifying SE organizations should also allow assessing the peripheral components in this field and forecasting its own progress (for example, for the integration of new organizations which would further be acknowledged as being part of the social economy).
    Keywords: social economy, statistical measure, conceptual framework, international comparison
    Date: 2015–03
  8. By: Amelia Sharman
    Abstract: Much of the existing literature employing the framework of controversy focuses on the science-policy interface. However a clear gap exists regarding the way(s) in which controversy may fundamentally shape the production of scientific knowledge itself. This research uses the debate about climate change as a case study to understand the impact of controversy on the production of scientific knowledge, focusing in particular on the interrelated elements of scientific practice and the agency of individual scientists. Based on 63 research interviews with climate scientists, “sceptical voices†about climate change and others, it finds that whereas the majority of climate scientists do not consider sceptical voices to have an impact on scientific practice, the vast majority do identify impacts on scientific agency. The predominant type of agency-related impact is increased caution, followed by disruption, a greater focus on communication, defensiveness and reluctance to publicly engage. It is argued that scientists’ ability to distinguish between impacts on agency and practice is both a performative expression of Gieryn’s (1999) notion of boundary work and a function of controversy, with the greater the impact of controversy, the less fluid and contingent the boundary between the two. Boundary work is thus a more active and explicit process under conditions of public scientific controversy, as scientists work to ensure the independence and unassailability of their cognitive authority in contested domains. Potential implications for epistemological norms and the social value of science are also identified.
    Date: 2015–09
  9. By: Sybille MERTENS (Chaire Cera Cooperative and Social Entrepreneurship, HEC - Ecole de Gestion de l'Université de Liège, Belgique); Michel MAREE (Centre d'Economie Sociale, HEC - Ecole de gestion de l'Université de Liège)
    Abstract: A social enterprise stands out in comparison with other private providers of goods and services because it is managed according to non-capitalist objectives, which has important consequences in terms of quantification: whether to generate management indicators (profitability ratios, structure ratios, etc.) or to create statistics on a macroeconomic level, conventional measurements often prove to be poorly adapted for providing an accurate quantitative understanding of what a social enterprise produces. In this article, we demonstrate that because of its complexity, the accurate evaluation of the production of social enterprise is hindered by a major conceptual and theoretical problem. We first review how the production of the social enterprise is now taken into account by the conventions of the national accounting. We later illustrate that it is necessary to introduce the notion of “broadened production” if we want to take into account all the dimensions of what the social enterprise really produces. Finally, we concluded by showing how this “broadened production” can unfortunately not be the object of a unique monetary measurement, and that it is therefore necessary to let go of the idea that it would be possible to measure the actual contribution of the social enterprise to the gross domestic product. We instead plead for recognition of the complexity of the production activity of social enterprise and formulate propositions that support the measurement of this production within another framework than national accounting.
    Keywords: social enterprise, production, performance, statistics, national accounting
    JEL: L33 E01
    Date: 2015–05
  10. By: Danièle DEMOUSTIER (ESEAC - IEP Grenoble, France); Elisa BRALEY (ex CNCRES, France); Thomas GUERIN (CRESS PACA, France); Daniel RAULT (ex conseiller DIES, France)
    Abstract: This paper proposes the history of statistics of Social and Solidarity Economy (SSE) in France, social construct which expresses both the mobilization but also the representations and resistances of various social and institutional players. It emerged from the recognition of Social Economy by national players and public authorities in the 1980s. In spite of a consecutive important involvement of INSEE (Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques), the production of statistics on SSE is still the concern of numerous private actors. While its recognition by its global weight reaches a relatively broad consensus and has allowed the commitment of public authorities including the nomination of a Minister for SSE, whereas the figures become more refined, multiple questions remain on the perimeter, on the categories, on the indicators.
    Keywords: France, social economy, history, statistical measure
    Date: 2015–04
  11. By: Tony VENABLES (Founder and former director of European Citizen Action Service is currently setting up ECIT)
    Abstract: This article is a revised and updated version of an earlier publication. It begins by looking at the issue of the definition of the third sector arguing in favour of a coming together of the concepts of civil society and social economy – what they share as core values outweighing their differences. The article goes on to give an impressionistic assessment of the effects of the crisis on the third sector overall. The next part takes a different perspective, looking at the impact of the crisis from the viewpoint of the individual organisation and the range of possible strategies from going it alone to merger. Finally, in the conclusion 10 recommendations are put forward for giving the third sector more visibility.
    Keywords: Europe, civil society, social economy, third sector, definition, economic crisis, funding mix, hybridity
    Date: 2015–08
  12. By: Schlaefke, Mike
    Abstract: Gegenstand dieses Arbeitspapiers ist die Ausgestaltung der Problemkre-ditbearbeitung von Genossenschaftsbanken. Auf Basis einer repräsentativen Stichprobe von 212 Genossenschaftsbanken, konnten erstmalig repräsentative Ergebnisse zu den zahlreichen Facetten der Problemkreditbearbeitung für diese Institutsgruppe gewonnen werden. Die Ergebnisse der empirischen Untersuchung zeigen, dass die Mehrheit der Genossen-schaftsbanken eine Aufbauorganisationsform gewählt hat, bei der der Marktbereich neben der Betreuung des Normalkreditgeschäfts auch die Intensivbetreuung übernimmt. Weiterhin kann für die Abgrenzung des risikorelevanten Kreditgeschäfts beobachtet werden, dass der Abgrenzungsbetrag mit zunehmender Institutsgröße steigt. In Bezug auf das Ri-sikofrüherkennungssystem ist zu beobachten, dass quantitative Kriterien tendenziell häufiger zur Anwendung kommen als qualitative Indikatoren. Schließlich zeigt sich in Bezug auf die Offenlegungspflicht nach § 18 KWG, dass die Mehrheit der Genossenschaftsbanken einen Offenlegungsbetrag definiert hat, der unterhalb der gesetzlichen Vorschrift liegt.
    Abstract: This paper deals with the organisational design of the management of problem loan processing in cooperative banks. For a representative sample of 212 cooperative banks, evidence was found for following issues: The majority of cooperative banks has chosen an organisational structure, in which front office undertake both, normal lending business and intensive supervision. Furthermore, the threshold for risk-relevant lending business increases with institutional size. In relation to the early warning system it can be observed that quantitative indicators are used more frequently than quantitative criteria. Finally, the majority of cooperatives banks has determined a threshold for the collection of borrower documents that lies below Section 18 of the German Banking Act (§ 18 KWG).
    Date: 2015

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