nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2015‒08‒19
23 papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. Neoliberalism, ‘Digitization’, and Creativity: the Issue of Applied Ontology By Juniper, James
  2. Social Institutions and Gender Inequality in Fragile States: Are they relevant for the Post-MDG Debate? By Boris Branisa; Carolina Cardona
  3. A missing touch of Adam Smith in Amartya Sen's Public Reasoning : the Man Within for the Man Without By Laurie Bréban; Muriel Gilardone; Benoît Walraevens
  4. Type II errors in IO multipliers By Tobias Emonts-Holley; Andrew Ross; J Kim Swales
  5. Contesting through projects. The case of associative local currencies By Jérôme Blanc
  6. Faire science avec l’incertitude : réflexions sur la production des connaissances en Sciences Humaines et Sociales By Giovanni Fusco; Frédérique Bertoncello; Joël Candau; Karine Emsellem; Thomas Huet; Christian Longhi; Sebastien Poinat; Jean-Luc Primon; Christian Rinaudo
  7. Les dynamiques plurielles d’innovation au sein des SCOP : les conditions d’un entrepreneuriat d’utilité sociale By Olivier Boissin; Hervé Charmettant; Jean-Yves Juban; Yvan Renou
  8. The influence of critical realism on managerial prediction By Nuno Ornelas Martins; Ricardo Morais
  9. Social provisioning and financial regulation: An Institutionalist-Minskyian agenda for reform By Faruk Ulgen
  10. Simulating knowledge diffusion in four structurally distinct networks: An agent-based simulation model By Mueller, Matthias; Bogner, Kristina; Buchmann, Tobias; Kudic, Muhamed
  11. U.S. Multidimensional Poverty by Race and Motherhood: Evidence from Pennsylvania Census Data By Feridoon Koohi-Kamali; Ran Liu
  12. Identité, Intentionnalité, Opacité et Gouvernance Interactive By Magali Orillard
  13. Métabolisme social et langages de valuation. Apports et limites de l'économie écologique de Joan Martinez-Alier à la compréhension des inégalités environnementales By Laura Centemeri; Gildas Renou
  14. Applying Behavioral Economics to the Public Sector By James Alm; Carolyn J. Bourdeaux
  15. Populismo Racional By Roque B. Fernández
  16. Gender education gaps among indigenous and nonindigenous groups in Bolivia By Reimao,Maira Emy Nakayama; Tas,Emcet Oktay
  17. Decommodification of financial regulation : some unpleasant lessons from the 2007 crisis By Faruk Ülgen
  18. Using Pollutant and not-Pollutant Capital into a dynamic analysis of Environment-Economic integrated models: a critical approach By Loreno Cecconi
  19. Territorial clusters of economic cooperation : citizens' and institutional processes for social innovation By Myriam Matray; Jacques Poisat
  20. MA-6-T-VA PAS CRACK-ER L'intention entrepreneurial de 6 femmes dans les quartiers By Amélie Notais; Julie Tixier
  21. Novelty, Hysteresis, and Growth By Mario Amendola; Jean-Luc Gaffard
  22. Wage-labor nexus and the economic regulation in Algeria By Samir Bellal
  23. Spatial-Temporal Variations of Embodied Carbon Emission in Global Trade Flows: 41 Economies and 35 Sectors By Jing Tian; Hua Liao; Ce Wang

  1. By: Juniper, James (The University of Newcastle, Newcastle Business School)
    Abstract: The paper extends Foucault’s analysis of neoliberalism in The Birth of Biopolitics. More specifically, I construct and defend an anti-Husserlian approach to the labour process with the objective of investigating how collectively generated forms of intellectual labour have been appropriated under capitalist relations of production. I also interrogate the way that different notions of (computational) applied ontology influence both the nature of and our very conception of social creativity. What, quite wrongly, has been thought of in Spinoza as pantheism is simply the reduction of the field of God to the universality of the signifier, which produces a serene, exceptional detachment from human desire. In so far as Spinoza says—desire is the essence of man, and in the radical dependence of the universality of the divine attributes, which is possible only through the function of the signifier, in so far as he does this, he obtains that unique position by which the philosopher—and it is no accident that it is a Jew detached from his tradition who embodies it—may be confused with a transcendent love. This position is not tenable for us. Experience shows us that Kant is more true, and I have proved that his theory of consciousness, when he writes of practical reason, is sustained only by giving a specification of the moral law which, looked at more closely, is simply desire in its pure state, that very desire that culminates in sacrifice, strictly speaking, of everything that is the object of love in one’s human tenderness—I would say, not only in the rejection of the pathological object, but also in its sacrifice and murder. That is why I wrote Kant avec Sade. (Lacan, 1979: 275-6) But it is like the story of the Resistance fighters who, wanting to destroy a pylon, balanced the plastic charges so well that the pylon blew up and fell back into its hole. From the Symbolic to the Imaginary, from castration to Oedipus, and from the despotic age to capitalism, inversely, there is the progress leading to the withdrawal of the overseeing and overcoding object from on high, which gives way to a social field of immanence where the decoded flows produce images and level them down. Whence the two aspects of the signifier: a barred transcendent signifier taken in a maximum that distributes lack, and an immanent system of relations between minimal elements that come to fill the uncovered field (somewhat similar in traditional terms to the way one goes from Parmenidean Being to the atoms of Democritus). (Deleuze and Guattari,1987: 290-1). Marx was vexed by the bourgeois character of the American working class. But it turned out that the prosperous Americans were merely showing the way for the British and the French and the Japanese. The universal class into which we are merging is not the revolutionary proletariat but the innovative bourgeoisie. (McClosky, D. 2009)
    Keywords: Neoliberalism; Applied ontology; Digitization; Creativity; Foucault
    JEL: B24 B51 E11 L14 L86 O34 P11 P14 P16 P26 Z11 Z18
    Date: 2015
  2. By: Boris Branisa (Institute for Advanced Development Studies); Carolina Cardona (Institute for Advanced Development Studies)
    Abstract: We focus on an issue that appears particularly relevant for fragile states and which has received little attention: social institutions related to gender inequality, defined as societal practices and legal norms that frame gender roles and the distribution of power between men and women in the family, market, and social and political life. We show empirically that fragile states perform worse than other non-fragile developing countries when considering these social institutions. We suggest that a special set of indicators reflecting social institutions related to gender inequality in both fragile states and non-fragile states should be considered in the post-MDG agenda.
    Keywords: Social institutions, Gender inequality, Developing countries, Fragile States, Millennium Development Goals, Post2015 Development Agenda
    JEL: D63 I39 J16 O1
    Date: 2015–06
  3. By: Laurie Bréban (LED - LED - Laboratoire d'Economie Dionysien - Université Paris VIII - Vincennes Saint-Denis); Muriel Gilardone (CREM - Centre de Recherche en Economie et Management - CNRS - Université de Caen Basse-Normandie - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1); Benoît Walraevens (CREM - Centre de Recherche en Economie et Management - CNRS - Université de Caen Basse-Normandie - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1)
    Abstract: This paper aims at questioning what Sen (2009) presents as a theory of justice derived from Smith’s idea of the “impartial spectator”. Sen’s tribute to Smith’s pioneering concept of the impartial spectator already gave rise to a set of criticisms that we divide in two kinds: 1) Sen’s reading is unfaithful with regard to the original Smithian concept (Forman-Barzilai, 2010; Gilardone, 2010; Bruni, 2011; Alean, 2014; Shapiro, 2011; Ege, Igersheim & Le Chapelain, 2012) and 2) Sen’s reading is a weak point of his theory of justice (Shapiro, 2011; Ege, Igersheim & Le Chapelain, 2012). In the paper, we try to address both kinds of criticism. Firstly, we shed a new light on Sen’s reading of Smith and provide a path of reconciliation between Sen’s analysis and Smith’s one. For us, Sen’s impartial spectator is somewhat reminiscent of another figure from Smith’s moral philosophy: “the man without”. Secondly, we show that, in Smith’s analysis, “the man without” is pointless without his genuine concept of the impartial spectator, called “the man within”. We conclude by arguing that Smith’s “man within” could constitute the missing piece in Sen’s analysis of the process which must lead public reasoning towards more justice. Introducing a missing touch of Smith could thus strengthen Sen’s idea of open impartiality in public reasoning for challenging Rawls’ contractualist theory of justice.
    Date: 2015–06–13
  4. By: Tobias Emonts-Holley (Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde); Andrew Ross (Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde); J Kim Swales (Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde)
    Abstract: This paper compares methods for calculating Input-Output (IO) Type II multipliers. These are formulations of the standard Leontief IO model which endogenise elements of household consumption. An analytical comparison of the two basic IO Type II multiplier methods with the Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) multiplier approach identifies the treatment of non-wage income generated in production as a central problem. The multiplier values for each of the IO and SAM methods are calculated using Scottish data for 2009. These results can be used to choose which Type II IO multiplier to adopt where SAM multiplier values are unavailable.
    Keywords: Input-Output, Social Accounting Matrix, multipliers, Scotland
    JEL: E17 R13 R15
    Date: 2015–04
  5. By: Jérôme Blanc (TRIANGLE - Triangle : action, discours, pensée politique et économique - CNRS - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Lyon - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon)
    Abstract: Associative currencies that circulate locally and for market activities have been developing in France mainly since 2010. They are built on a contestation oriented toward an alternative economy and they are shaped as projects aiming at acting on reality. Consequently, they operate a convergence between criticism and initiative. This text analyses this articulation. It studies the paradox by which initiative associated to criticism takes the general form of the project, and possibly the codes and grammar of project seen as a normative and standardised methodology, which are precisely a product of the society that is the target of the criticism. The text, thus, starts with an analysis of the criticism or contestation that drives associative currencies initiatives. Then, it shows why these initiatives take the form of the project and stresses the essential contradiction between project and contestation of neoliberal capitalism. An insight into a particular associative currency initiative, seen through the lenses of project management, helps identify how the latter leads to shifts in the project itself. More generally, resources proofs contribute to the submission of these initiatives to the grammar of project. This raises doubts over the capacity of such projects to realize their alternative dimension and, consequently, to contribute to the desired social transformation.
    Abstract: Les monnaies associatives à circulation locale et commerciale, qui ont émergé en France depuis 2010 principalement, sont construites sur des fondements contestataires en vue d'une économie alternative et prennent la forme de projets destinés à agir sur la réalité. Elles font donc converger la critique et l'initiative. C'est sur cette articulation que s'interroge ce texte. Il s'agit d'interpeller le paradoxe par lequel l'initiative associée à la critique prend la forme générale du projet, si ce n'est les codes et la grammaire du projet en tant que méthodologie standardisée et normative, lesquels sont précisément le produit de la société que la contestation dénonce. A cette fin, ce texte commence par caractériser ce qui est critique ou contestation dans les initiatives de monnaies associatives. Il poursuit en montrant en quoi ces initiatives relèvent de la forme du projet et soulève la contradiction essentielle entre projet et contestation du capitalisme dans sa forme néolibérale. L'examen d'une initiative monétaire associative particulière au filtre de la gestion de projet permet d'identifier les déplacements que cette dernière occasionne sur le projet lui-même. Plus largement, les épreuves de ressources constituent des facteurs de soumission à la grammaire du projet. Cela interroge en définitive sur la capacité de tels projets de réaliser leur dimension alternative et donc de contribuer à la transformation sociale désirée.
    Date: 2015–07–01
  6. By: Giovanni Fusco (ESPACE - Études des structures, des processus d'adaptation et des changements des espaces - CNRS - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis - UAPV - Université d'Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse - Université de Provence - Aix-Marseille 1 - Université de la Méditerranée - Aix-Marseille 2); Frédérique Bertoncello (Axe 4 : Territoires, systèmes techniques et usages sociaux (MSHS Sud-Est) - MSHS Sud-Est - Maison des Sciences de l'Homme et de la Société Sud-Est - Université de Corse Pasquale Paoli - UCPP - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis - CNRS, CEPAM - Culture et Environnements, Préhistoire, Antiquité, Moyen-Age - CNRS - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis); Joël Candau (LAPCOS - Laboratoire d'Anthropologie et de Psychologie Cognitive et Sociale - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis, Axe 4 : Territoires, systèmes techniques et usages sociaux (MSHS Sud-Est) - MSHS Sud-Est - Maison des Sciences de l'Homme et de la Société Sud-Est - Université de Corse Pasquale Paoli - UCPP - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis - CNRS); Karine Emsellem (ESPACE - Études des structures, des processus d'adaptation et des changements des espaces - CNRS - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis - UAPV - Université d'Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse - Université de Provence - Aix-Marseille 1 - Université de la Méditerranée - Aix-Marseille 2); Thomas Huet (CEPAM - Culture et Environnements, Préhistoire, Antiquité, Moyen-Age - CNRS - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis, Axe 4 : Territoires, systèmes techniques et usages sociaux (MSHS Sud-Est) - MSHS Sud-Est - Maison des Sciences de l'Homme et de la Société Sud-Est - Université de Corse Pasquale Paoli - UCPP - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis - CNRS); Christian Longhi (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis - CNRS, Axe 4 : Territoires, systèmes techniques et usages sociaux (MSHS Sud-Est) - MSHS Sud-Est - Maison des Sciences de l'Homme et de la Société Sud-Est - Université de Corse Pasquale Paoli - UCPP - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis - CNRS); Sebastien Poinat (CRHI - Centre de recherche d'histoire des idées - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis - CNRS, Axe 4 : Territoires, systèmes techniques et usages sociaux (MSHS Sud-Est) - MSHS Sud-Est - Maison des Sciences de l'Homme et de la Société Sud-Est - Université de Corse Pasquale Paoli - UCPP - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis - CNRS); Jean-Luc Primon (URMIS - Unite de recherche migrations et sociétés - UP7 - Université Paris Diderot - Paris 7 - CNRS - Institut de recherche pour le développement [IRD] : UR205 - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis, Axe 4 : Territoires, systèmes techniques et usages sociaux (MSHS Sud-Est) - MSHS Sud-Est - Maison des Sciences de l'Homme et de la Société Sud-Est - Université de Corse Pasquale Paoli - UCPP - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis - CNRS); Christian Rinaudo (URMIS - Unite de recherche migrations et sociétés - UP7 - Université Paris Diderot - Paris 7 - CNRS - Institut de recherche pour le développement [IRD] : UR205 - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis, Axe 4 : Territoires, systèmes techniques et usages sociaux (MSHS Sud-Est) - MSHS Sud-Est - Maison des Sciences de l'Homme et de la Société Sud-Est - Université de Corse Pasquale Paoli - UCPP - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis - CNRS)
    Abstract: Because of their epistemological and methodological specificities, Humanities and Social Sciences cannot avoid the question of uncertainty. Researchers in these disciplines are thus forced to “do science with the uncertainty”, by integrating it in the process of knowledge production, from object conceptualisation, to phenomena analysis and modelling, to decision support. Through uncertainty, the question of knowledge production in the Humanities and Social Sciences is thus clearly posed. This paper is the collective work of an interdisciplinary group of researchers and draws examples from different research fields. It proposes an overall reflexion on the specificities of uncertainty in the Humanities and Social Sciences and on their consequences on the produced knowledge.
    Abstract: En raison de leurs spécificités épistémologiques et méthodologiques, les Sciences Humaines et Sociales ne peuvent pas écarter la question de l’incertitude. Il s’agit donc de « faire science avec l’incertitude », de l’intégrer dans tout le processus de production de connaissance, de la conceptualisation des objets d’étude à l’aide à la décision, en passant par l’analyse et la modélisation des phénomènes. À travers l’incertitude, c’est la question de la production de la connaissance en SHS qui est posée. Emanant d’un collectif interdisciplinaire de chercheurs, l’article propose une réflexion sur les caractéristiques de l’incertitude en SHS et leurs conséquences sur les connaissances produites, en s’appuyant sur des exemples issus de différents disciplines.
    Date: 2014–06–23
  7. By: Olivier Boissin (CREG - Centre de recherche en économie de Grenoble - Grenoble 2 UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France); Hervé Charmettant (CREG - Centre de recherche en économie de Grenoble - Grenoble 2 UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France); Jean-Yves Juban (CERAG - Centre d'études et de recherches appliquées à la gestion - Grenoble 2 UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France - CNRS); Yvan Renou (CREG - Centre de recherche en économie de Grenoble - Grenoble 2 UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France)
    Abstract: This research paper is in the field of social and solidarity economy (SSE) and covers the analysis of the link between the SCOP governance and its ability to promote innovation in economic and social terms. The issue revolves around the following question: what legal principles and those of SCOP's governance are the central drivers of economic and social innovation? We propose to analyze this question in two parts. (i) The system of SCOP: a specific Corporate Governance. We develop the idea that the legal SCOP framework generates a powerful lever in order to innovate on both the social and economic level. (ii) We then develop an empirical analysis. These case studies are representative of the sectorial diversity and allow the understanding of innovative dimensions in SCOP. In conclusion, this research opens a new problematic: financial risk management in uncertain environments.
    Abstract: Ce papier de recherche s'inscrit dans le domaine de l'économie sociale et solidaire (ESS) et vise l’analyse du lien entre le régime SCOP et sa capacité à favoriser des innovations sur le plan économique et social. La problématique retenue est la suivante : en quoi les principes juridiques et de gouvernance propres aux SCOP représentent le levier central de l’innovation économique et sociale ? Après avoir montré que le régime des SCOP conditionne en profondeur le mode d’organisation interne de ces structures, une analyse empirique est conduite afin d’identifier les principaux leviers d’innovations économiques et sociales. Au final, ces expériences de terrain permettent d’ouvrir une interrogation sur une limite du modèle des SCOP : la prise de risque en situation d’innovation placées en environnement incertain.
    Date: 2015–05–27
  8. By: Nuno Ornelas Martins (Faculdade de Economia e Gestão, Universidade Católica Portuguesa - Porto); Ricardo Morais (Faculdade de Economia e Gestão and CEGE, Universidade Católica Portuguesa - Porto)
    Abstract: In this conceptual paper we suggest that a critical realist perspective alters managerial views on prediction and strategy formation. For that purpose, we review alternative notions of prediction in economic theory in the light of critical realism. In addition, we review the role of prediction in alternative streams of thought on strategy formation. The corollary of such a literature review is a new conceptualisation of the organisational environment as an open system which is not prone to prediction but can be a source of learning for strategists. Such critical realist view alerts researchers and practitioners for the provisional nature of scientific explanations and the dangers of premature prediction. Critical realism is thus a promising avenue for further research on strategy formation and more appropriate strategizing.
    Keywords: critical realism, prediction, economic modelling, strategy formation
    Date: 2015–07
  9. By: Faruk Ulgen (CREG - Centre de recherche en économie de Grenoble - Grenoble 2 UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France)
    Abstract: This article seeks to put social provisioning into perspective with regard to the financial instability issue in capitalism. The analysis rests on an institutionalist-Minskyian endogenous instability assumption and maintains that monetary/financial stability is a peculiar public good or specific commons since it concerns the whole society and its viability conditions in time and not only the individuals involved in private financial relations. Consequently, the provision of financial stability becomes essentially a matter of public policy and requires the intervention of public power in order to prevent finance from becoming a public bad. This result relies on the distinction between private "normal" goods and ambivalent/transversal money (and related financial relations). It then points to the necessity of a public organization and tight regulation of finance and financial markets while standard equilibrium models assume that social optimum and stability can be provided by private self-adjustment and market prices mechanisms.
    Date: 2015–01–02
  10. By: Mueller, Matthias; Bogner, Kristina; Buchmann, Tobias; Kudic, Muhamed
    Abstract: In our work we adopt a structural perspective and apply an agent-based simulation approach to analyse knowledge diffusion processes in four structurally distinct networks. The aim of this paper is to gain an in-depth understanding of how network characteristics, such as path length, cliquishness and the distribution and asymmetry of degree centrality affect the knowledge distribution properties of the system. Our results show - in line with the results of Cowan and Jonard (2007) - that an asymmetric or skewed degree distribution actually can have a negative impact on a network's knowledge diffusion performance in case of a barter trade knowledge diffusion process. Their key argument is that stars rapidly acquire so much knowledge that they interrupt the trading process at an early stage, which finally disconnects the network. However, our findings reveal that stars cannot be the sole explanation for negative effects on the diffusion properties of a network. In contrast, interestingly and quite surprisingly, our simulation results led to the conclusion that in particular very small, inadequately embedded agents can be a bottleneck for the efficient diffusion of knowledge throughout the networks.
    Keywords: innovation networks,knowledge diffusion,agent-based simulation,scale free networks,Netzwerk,Simulation,Wissen
    Date: 2015
  11. By: Feridoon Koohi-Kamali; Ran Liu
    Abstract: The combined influence of gender and race has been a principal defining feature of poverty in the USA, especially for single mothers. While the recent applications of capability-based multidimensional poverty (MP) measurement to the USA have examined race and gender, they have done so without taking into account the effects of the intersection of the two. This paper addresses directly that gap in the US literature on multidimensional poverty employing the US census data for 2006-2010 for Pennsylvanian households, a state with key income poverty indicators close to the mid-poverty values for all the 50 US states. We employ the dual cut-off procedure for our main results to present MP measures by levels of population subgroups. We carry through this approach for four levels of MP measures and finally identify Hispanic and African-American single mothers as the most deprived, though single motherhood remains a key influence on poverty regardless of race. We check robustness of ranking single mother households by race with different dual cut-off values, and by two alternative measures based on fussy set theory that allow for vagueness in the boundary of poverty. The poverty ranking by single motherhood show Hispanic as the most deprived, and White as the least deprived, with African-America coming in-between. Finally, our probit analysis for chances of being poor based exclusively on the intersection of race and gender/marital status of households indicates that being a non-White single mother household has the largest impact on poverty status defined either multidimensionally or by income. Our findings suggest effective poverty reduction public policy be target especially, though not exclusively, non-White single mothers.
    Date: 2015–07
  12. By: Magali Orillard (AMSE - Aix-Marseille School of Economics - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS) - Ecole Centrale Marseille (ECM) - AMU - Aix-Marseille Université)
    Abstract: This research embarks on a study, from a philosophical point of view, of the behaviour of agents, of actors, belonging to an heterogeneous population, based on a cognitive and social approach of identity and on the hypothesis that the logics of action proceed from an infinite fragmentation of « me » (Elster, Lahire, Sen). The social game in which these agents participate in terms of mediation and of coordination refers to the sociology of translation (Callon) inducing the use of specific processes ( in the sense of pretopology) relative to the emergence of different social forms (Simmel), of hybrid communities taken as ephemeral structures. The goal therefore is to explain through the devices (Lyotard, Déotte), the networks ( as artefacts) established at the origin of these structures conditioning their autonomy, how the different forms of the agents' engagements (Thévenot), lead both to an ambiguity and an opacity of sorts between the individual and the collective and what their likely consequences can be in terms of interactive governance.
    Abstract: Le point de départ de cette recherche correspond à l'étude, d'un point de vue philosophique, des comportements d'agents, d'acteurs, appartenant à une population hétérogène, basée sur une approche cognitiviste et sociale de l'identité et l'hypothèse selon laquelle les logiques d'action relèvent d'une fragmentation infinie des « moi » (Elster, Lahire, Sen). Le jeu social auquel participent ces agents en matière de médiation et de coordination fait référence à la sociologie de la traduction (Callon) correspondant à la mise en œuvre de procédures spécifiques (au sens de la prétopologie) relatives à l'émergence de différentes formes sociales (Simmel), de communautés hybrides en tant que structures éphémères. Le but est alors d'expliquer comment les différentes formes d'engagement des agents (Thévenot), à travers les appareils (Lyotard, Déotte), les réseaux (en tant qu'artefacts) mis en place au niveau de la genèse de ces structures et conditionnant leur autonomie, induisent à la fois une certaine ambiguïté et une certaine opacité entre l'individuel et le collectif et quelles peuvent en être les conséquences en matière de gouvernance interactive.
    Date: 2014–12
  13. By: Laura Centemeri (CEMS - Centre d'étude des mouvements sociaux - CNRS - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales); Gildas Renou (CRAPE - Centre de Recherches sur l'Action Politique en Europe - CNRS - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Rennes - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1)
    Abstract: Les travaux de Martinez-Alier constituent aujourd’hui une borne qui est devenue décisive dans le débat contemporain sur la question environnementale, notamment pour ce qui concerne l’analyse des inégalités environnementales en tant qu’inégalités d’accès aux ressources naturelles et en tant qu’inégalités dans l’exposition aux nuisances et aux risques environnementaux. Il considère que la crise environnementale est la conséquence directe de la perpétuation d’un système économique reposant sur l’objectif de la croissance. La contestation scientifique de la civilisation de la croissance industrielle sans fin que Martinez-Alier déploie ne peut toutefois pas être séparée de la volonté de contribuer activement à la constitution d’un sujet politique porteur d’une critique d’un tel modèle. Dans cette contribution, nous verrons comment ce positionnement à la frontière de la réflexion théorique et de l’action politique génère des tensions internes à son cadre conceptuel, notamment dans la manière d’envisager l’enjeu du pluralisme des « langages de valuation » de l’environnement
    Date: 2015–04–11
  14. By: James Alm (Department of Economics, Tulane University); Carolyn J. Bourdeaux (Department of Public Management and Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University)
    Abstract: "Behavioral economics", or the application of methods and evidence from other social sciences to economics, has increased greatly in significance in the last two decades. In this paper we discuss the basic elements of behavioral economics. We then assess several applications of behavioral economics to the analysis of the public sector, including specific applications to public economics and, importantly, to the closely related area of public budgeting. We conclude with suggestions on -- and predictions of -- topics in which future applications should prove useful.
    Keywords: behavioral economics, public economics, public budgeting
    JEL: H0 H3 H61 H83
    Date: 2014–04
  15. By: Roque B. Fernández
    Abstract: En la interpretación del populismo es frecuente encontrar opiniones basadas en que el voto ciudadano es comprable con prebendas y subsidios, sugestionable con símbolos o articulaciones discursivas que apelan a su inconsciente, o manipulable por la superstición de que existe un líder hegemónico benevolente que resolverá sus necesidades insatisfechas. En este trabajo se argumenta todo lo contrario: el populismo perdura en el tiempo más por la interacción de ciudadanos racionales con políticos racionales que por las subjetividades compradas o discursivamente creadas mediante símbolos o supersticiones. El enfoque racional del populismo habilita la discusión técnica de posibles instituciones que logren mejorar un sistema democrático. Del análisis que aquí se presenta resulta evidente que el verdadero desafío que plantea el populismo a la democracia republicana está en el orden social elegido como sistema de representación ciudadana. El populismo argumenta que el mejor orden social de representación se logra mediante la construcción de un líder hegemónico. La democracia republicana argumenta que el mejor orden social de representación se logra mediante la construcción institucional (federalismo, justicia independiente, división de poderes…) donde el liderazgo político está sometido a fuertes restricciones. El trabajo concluye demostrando que instituciones débiles son las precursoras del populismo y, que una vez instaurado, el populismo contribuye a debilitar aun mas tales instituciones para poder perpetuarse. Respetando principios democráticos, el populismo solo puede ser atenuado fortaleciendo las instituciones que se encargan tanto de limitar y dividir el poder como de auditar la gestión de gobierno.
    Date: 2015–07
  16. By: Reimao,Maira Emy Nakayama; Tas,Emcet Oktay
    Abstract: This paper studies gender education gaps among indigenous and nonindigenous groups in Bolivia. Using the National Census of Population and Housing 2012 and an estimation method analogous to difference-in-differences, the paper finds that the intersection of gender and indigenous identity confers cumulative disadvantage for indigenous women in literacy, years of schooling, and primary and secondary school completion. Although gender education gaps have become narrower across generations, there remain significant differences among indigenous groups. The Aymara have the largest gender gap in all outcomes, despite having high overall attainment rates and mostly residing in urban centers, with greater physical access to schools. The Quechua have relatively smaller gender gaps, but these are accompanied by lower attainment levels. The paper discusses the possible sources of these differentials and highlights the importance of taking gender dynamics within each indigenous group into greater consideration.
    Keywords: Education For All,Population Policies,Gender and Education,Access&Equity in Basic Education,Primary Education
    Date: 2015–08–10
  17. By: Faruk Ülgen (CREG - Centre de recherche en économie de Grenoble - Grenoble 2 UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France)
    Abstract: The Great Transformation of modern capitalism from the 1980s is the commodification of monetary/financial rules and related regulation. Assuming that free markets result in social optimum, financial liberalization has transformed public regulatory mechanisms into private self-regulation systems relying on market price-directed contractual schemas. In light of the 2007-08 crisis, this article seeks to question this blind faith in the market's self-adjustment capacity. It argues that free markets and individual rationality-based economic efficiency cannot result in social harmony. It maintains that financial stability should not be entrusted to the vicissitudes of markets. It then suggests the decommodification of financial supervision through alternative public regulation that seeks social-stability and economic viability.
    Date: 2015–01–02
  18. By: Loreno Cecconi
    Abstract: This paper analyzes economic-environment integrated dynamic models. These models are built taking into account the coupling between environmental variables and economic variables. In particular, we consider two kinds of capital: pollutant and not-pollutant capital. We start with a simple linear model and after we introduce other variables like the gross output and Government abatement policy. So, we formalize more complex models that often consist of nonlinear differential equations. Central purpose of our work, is the use of the theory of dynamical systems for the analysis of the dynamics of some variables included in models of different structure. We have a critical approach, both in the same mathematical method and assessment of the general economic and political environmental problem in a capitalist economy. Our conclusions are very different from those of mainstream economic theory: we believe that a new model of development is closely related to a new way of thinking about environmental protection, and that the model of capitalist development is inadequate for this purpose.
    Keywords: Dynamic linear-systems, Dynamic non-linear systems, linearization of non-linear system, Jacobian matrix, Environment-economic integrated models, pollutant and non-pollutant capital, pollution stock, Government abatement policy
    JEL: B40 C02 Q50 Q54 Q55 Q58
    Date: 2015–07
  19. By: Myriam Matray (EVS - UMR 5600 Environnement Ville Société - ENSAL - Ecole nationale supérieure d'architecture de Lyon - Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne - CNRS - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - Université Jean Moulin - Lyon III - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne - École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État [ENTPE] - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon); Jacques Poisat (EVS - UMR 5600 Environnement Ville Société - ENSAL - Ecole nationale supérieure d'architecture de Lyon - Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne - CNRS - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - Université Jean Moulin - Lyon III - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne - École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État [ENTPE] - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon)
    Abstract: Coming from civil society and entrepreneurial processes in a bottom-up strategy, territorial clusters of economic cooperation (inspired by french economic clusters) could hardly emerge and develop separately from public institutions. The approach by local collective strategies shows indeed that citizens’ and institutional processes combine to create groups of social actors. But such governance is not obvious, needs to be organized, taking into account the purposes, constraints, means of each stakeholder and in compliance with the necessary but relative autonomy of each of them. The roannaise initiative, POLLENS, highlights the many practical forms that the involvement of public institutions can take in the development of a social cluster, and shows the strategic importance to reach agreements, both for social economy and local public institutions.
    Abstract: Inspirés des pôles de compétitivité mais émanant de la société civile et de dynamiques entrepreneuriales, dans une logique ascendante, les Pôles territoriaux de coopération économique pourraient difficilement émerger et se développer totalement à l’écart des pouvoirs publics. L’approche par les stratégies collectives locales montre, en effet, que les processus citoyens et institutionnels se combinent pour faire émerger des collectifs. Mais une telle gouvernance ne va pas de soi, nécessite d’être construite et organisée, en tenant compte des objectifs, contraintes, moyens de chaque partie prenante et dans le respect de la nécessaire, mais relative, autonomie de chacune d’elles. L’initiative roannaise, POLLENS, met en lumière les nombreuses formes concrètes que peut prendre l’implication des institutions publiques dans l’émergence, le fonctionnement et le développement d’un pôle et montre l’intérêt stratégique, tant pour l’économie solidaire que pour les élus locaux, de réussir ces articulations-ajustements.
    Date: 2014
  20. By: Amélie Notais (RITM - Réseaux Innovation Territoires et Mondialisation - UP11 - Université Paris-Sud - Paris 11); Julie Tixier (IRG - Institut de Recherche en Gestion - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12 - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée)
    Abstract: Le développement de l’entrepreneuriat social des femmes dans les quartiers dits sensibles ou prioritaires représente un enjeu sociétal majeur. Plus qu’un challenge, c’est bien souvent une utopie qui se dessine quand on recoupe ces thèmes car l’entrepreneuriat féminin révèle des spécificités, des singularités qui s’avèrent souvent des handicaps (Cornet et Constantinidis, 2004). Ce constat est ici pris à contre-pied en s’appuyant sur les travaux d’Alter (2012). Cet auteur propose dans son ouvrage, La force de la différence, une thèse intéressante. A partir des itinéraires de patrons atypiques, il tente de comprendre comment les « différents » parviennent à « transformer l’identité pour soi en identité sociale, ce qui suppose de reconnaître sa différence, de la faire accepter par les normaux et les autres différents. » (Alter, 2012, p. 38). Il démontre la possibilité d’inverser et de réinventer son destin, d’échapper aux mécanismes de reproduction et/ou de discrimination. Il creuse ainsi l’idée que sous certaines conditions, la différence peut devenir une force. C’est dans cet esprit que cette recherche s’intéresse à des entrepreneurs « différents ». Différents puisque ce sont des femmes (souvent issues de l’immigration), qui vivent dans des quartiers et souhaitent y entreprendre autrement. Les récits de vie de six femmes engagent une réflexion pour mieux saisir leur intention d’entreprendre socialement. Plusieurs questions se posent alors. Cette intention entrepreneuriale présente- t-elle des spécificités ? L’analyse de ces spécificités pourrait-elle guider un mode d’accompagnement adapté à la création d’entreprise sociale ? Après une revue de littérature sur les trois sources de spécificités/différences de ces entrepreneures, un cadre conceptuel et des descripteurs opérationnels de l’intention entrepreneuriale sont proposés. Ce cadre est confronté aux récits de vie de six femmes rencontrées au coeur de « la Cité des 4000 » de la Courneuve. Leurs histoires témoignent d’un désir d’émancipation économique et de motivations sociales profondément ancrées dans leur territoire.
    Date: 2014
  21. By: Mario Amendola (Dipartimento di Scienze Sociali ed Economiche - Università degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza" [Rome]); Jean-Luc Gaffard (OFCE - OFCE - Sciences Po)
    Abstract: Novelty and hysteresis are the main engines of economic evolution. However, they are also at the origin of co-ordination issues, as the consequences of any innovative choice can never be fully expected. Thus, there is no sense in analysing economic change as an intertemporal equilibrium with rational expectations. Not only growth and fluctuations cannot be dissociated, but there is no long-term trend that would be independent from what happens in the short- term. The explicit consideration of essential evolutionary phenomena like novelty and hysteresis help a clearer understanding of some important episodes of contemporaneous economic history. The periods considered are characterized by crises and structural changes, and it is exactly when important disturbances affect the functioning of the economies that the relevant features of their behaviour come to the surface and hence the right interpretations of the phenomena taking place, with the adequate policy implications, can be formulated.
    Date: 2014–05
  22. By: Samir Bellal (Université M'hamed Bouguara Boumerdè - Université M'Hamed Bougara Boumerdes - UMBB (ALGERIA))
    Abstract: In this article, it is question of the characterization of the wage-labor nexus established in favor of industrialization project engaged by Algeria in the 70s, and the changes which occurred in the configuration of the wage-labor relationships as a result of the liberal reforms introduced since the early 90s. Finally, we end the analysis with questioning on the status currently given to the wage-labor nexus as constituent element of the mode of regulation of the economy as a whole.
    Abstract: Dans cet article, il est question de la caractérisation du rapport salarial institué en Algérie à la faveur du projet d'industrialisation lancé dans les années 1970, puis des changements qui se sont produits dans la configuration du rapport conséquemment aux réformes libérales initiées depuis le début des années 1990. Nous terminons par des interrogations sur le statut conféré présentement au rapport salarial en tant qu'élément constitutif du mode de régulation de l'économie dans son ensemble. L'analyse conclut à la non-centralité de l'institution « rapport salarial » dans la régulation économique d'ensemble. La question du rapport salarial est inhérente à tout régime d'accumulation. En Algérie, pays où fut instauré un régime d'accumulation de type rentier, la question du rapport salarial a constamment été reléguée au second plan du débat sur le développement économique. Ce statut mineur accordé au rapport salarial se retrouve également dans la régulation économique. Ainsi, grâce à la rente pétrolière, des procédures institutionnelles spécifiques ont été mises en place afin de produire le compromis régulateur, procédures dont les spécificités se lisent dans les configurations concrètes particulières que prend le rapport salarial tout au long de la trajectoire économique du pays. Dans ce qui suit, il sera question de la caractérisation du rapport salarial institué à la faveur du projet d'industrialisation engagé dans les années 1970, puis des évolutions qui se sont produites dans la configuration du rapport suite aux mesures de libéralisation initiées depuis le début des années 1990.
    Date: 2014–03
  23. By: Jing Tian; Hua Liao; Ce Wang
    Abstract: The spatial-temporal variations of embodied carbon emissions in international trade at global scope are still unclear. This paper studies the variations of outflows and inflows of embodied carbon emissions at 35-disaggregated sectors level of 41 countries and regions, and an integrated world input-output model is employed. It also examines what would happen if there were not international trade flows in China, USA and Finland, the representatives of three different levels of the global balance of embodied carbon. We find that: (1) Embodied carbon in global trade increases at about 3% per year since 1995 World Trade Organization founded, and East Asia tends to burden more from the net increase of the balance of embodied carbon. (2) China¡¯s export has the largest and increasing outflow of carbon burden, USA's import the largest and increasing inflow of carbon burden, and Finland¡¯s export and import have the decreasing carbon burden. (3) The global trade structure tends to be not so much carbon-intensive. BRIIAT (Brazil, Russia, India, Indonesia, Australia and Turkey) has the largest embodied carbon intensity in export (about 7.35 kg/$) while NAFTA (the United States, Canada and Mexico) the largest embodied carbon intensity in import (about 10.32 kg/$). (4) There existed some inclination of embodied carbon flows including neighbors-centered outflows and country-centered inflows.
    Keywords: Embodied carbon flow, International trade, Spatial-temporal variations, Input-output analysis
    JEL: Q54 Q40
    Date: 2014–09–16

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