nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2015‒05‒30
twenty-one papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. Climate Change and Sustainable Welfare: An Argument for the Centrality of Human Needs By Ian Gough
  2. A tale of paradigm clash: Simon, situated cognition and the interpretation of bounded rationality By Petracca, Enrico
  3. What happened to heterodox economics in Germany after the 1970s By Heise, Arne; Thieme, Sebastian
  4. "Unpaid Work and the Economy: Linkages and Their Implications" By Indira Hirway
  7. Gender Disparity and Women Empowerment in Assam By Nayak, Purusottam; Mahanta, Bidisha
  8. Full cost, profit et concurrence By Jael, Paul
  9. The Socio-Economic Status of Women in the Urban Slums of India By Rambarran, Richard
  10. An attitude of complexity: thirteen essays on the nature and construction of reality under the challenge of Zeno's Paradox By Albers, Scott
  11. Beyond Radicalism and Resignation: The Competing Logics for Public Participation in Policy Decisions By Rikki Dean
  12. Import Dependency in Turkey: an Input-Output Analysis By Osman Aydogus; Cagacan Deger; Elif Tunali Caliskan; Gulcin Gurel Gunal
  13. Development Blocks in Innovation Networks. The Swedish Manufacturing Industry, 1970-2007 By Taalbi, Josef
  14. Comment appréhender les temporalités de l’histoire économique ? Plaidoyer pour une cliométrie des événements rares. By Claude Diebolt
  16. Intermediation, Money Creation, and Keynesian Macrodynamics in Multi-agent Systems By Bill Gibson; Mark Setterfield
  18. Are Female Headed Households in Distress? Recent Evidence from Indian Labour Market By Mukherjee, Nandini; Ray, Jhilam
  19. The Great Collapse in Value Added Trade By Arne J. Nagengast; Robert Stehrer
  20. Gender salary and promotion gaps in Japanese academia: Results from science and engineering By Ana Maria Takahashi; Shingo Takahashi; Thomas Maloney
  21. Developing an indicator-based framework for monitoring older people’s human rights: key findings for Peru, Mozambique and Kyrgyzstan By Polly Vizard

  1. By: Ian Gough
    Abstract: Since climate change threatens human wellbeing across the globe and into the future, we require a concept of wellbeing that encompasses an equivalent ambit. This paper argues that only a concept of human need can do the work required. It compares need theory with three alternative approaches. Preference satisfaction theory is criticised on the grounds of subjectivity, epistemic irrationality, endogenous and adaptive preferences, the limitlessness of wants, the absence of moral evaluation, and the non-specificity of future preferences. The happiness approach is found equally wanting. The main section shows how these deficiencies can be addressed by a coherent theory of need. Human needs are necessary preconditions to avoid serious harm, are universalisable, objective, empirically grounded, non-substitutable and satiable. They are broader than 'material' needs since a need for personal autonomy figures in all theoretical accounts. While needs are universal, need satisfiers are most often contextual and relative to institutions and cultures. The satiability and non-substitutability of needs is critical for understanding sustainability. The capability approaches of Sen and Nussbaum are compared but argued to be less fundamental. Finally, human needs provide the only concept that can ground moral obligations across global space and intergenerational time and thus operationalise 'sustainable welfare'.
    Keywords: Human needs, welfare theory, wellbeing, global justice, intergenerational justice, sustainability, preferences, capabilities
    JEL: B5 I00 P46 Z13
    Date: 2014–07
  2. By: Petracca, Enrico
    Abstract: The intellectual figure of Herbert A. Simon is well known for having introduced the influential notion of bounded rationality in economics. Less known, at least from the economists’ point of view, is the figure of Simon as eminent cognitive psychologist, co-founder of so-called cognitivism, a mainstream approach in cognitive psychology until the 80s of the last century. In fact, the two faces of Simon’s intellectual figure, as rationality scholar and as cognitive scientist, are not factorizable at all: according to Simon himself, cognitivism is bounded rationality and bounded rationality is cognitivism. This paper tries to answer a simple research question: has the notion of bounded rationality fully followed the development of cognitive psychology beyond cognitivism in the post-Simonian era? If not, why? To answer such questions, this paper focuses on a very specific historical episode. In 1993, on the pages of the journal Cognitive Science, Simon (with his colleague Alonso Vera) openly confronted the proponents of a new (paradigmatic) view of cognition called situated cognition, a firm challenger of cognitivism, which was going to inspire cognitive psychology from then on. This paper claims that this tough confrontation, typical of a paradigm shift, might have prevented rationality studies in economics from coming fully in touch with the new paradigm in cognitive psychology. A reconstruction of the differences between cognitivism and situated cognition as they emerged in the confrontation is seen here as fundamental in order to assess and explore this hypothesis.
    Keywords: Herbert A. Simon; bounded rationality; situated cognition theory; economics and cognitive psychology
    JEL: B31 B41 D03 D80
    Date: 2015
  3. By: Heise, Arne; Thieme, Sebastian
    Abstract: In the context of ongoing criticisms of the lack of pluralism in economics, the present article aims to discuss the development of 'heterodox' economics since the 1970s. Following Lakatos's concept of scientific research programs (srp), and concentrating on the situation in Germany, the article will discuss classifications of economics, and will specify the understanding of diversity in the light of 'axiomatic variations' of the economic mainstream. This will form the basis for the subsequent description of the development of heterodoxy in Germany, with special reference to the founding of new universities and the reform movements in the 1970s. It can be shown that the heterodox scene flourished in this period, but that this pluralization remained fragmented and short-lived; by the 1980s at the latest heterodoxy was again on its way to marginalization. The history of heterodoxy in Germany thus presents itself as an unequal 'battle of the paradigms', and can only be told as the story of a failure.
    Keywords: heterodox economics,pluralization,philosophy of science,sociology of science
    JEL: A11 B20 B50 Z13
    Date: 2015
  4. By: Indira Hirway
    Abstract: Unpaid work, which falls outside of the national income accounts but within the general production boundary, is viewed as either "care" or as "work" by experts. This work is almost always unequally distributed between men and women, and if one includes both paid and unpaid work, women carry much more of the burden of work than men. This unequal distribution of work is unjust, and it implies a violation of the basic human rights of women. The grounds on which it is excluded from the boundary of national income accounts do not seem to be logical or valid. This paper argues that the exclusion reflects the dominance of patriarchal values and brings male bias into macroeconomics. This paper shows that there are multiple linkages between unpaid work and the conventional macroeconomy, and this makes it necessary to expand the boundary of conventional macroeconomics so as to incorporate unpaid work. The paper presents the two approaches: the valuation of unpaid work into satellite accounts, and the adoption of the triple "R" approach of recognition, reduction, and reorganization of unpaid work, recommended by experts. However, there is a need to go beyond these approaches to integrate unpaid work into macroeconomics and macroeconomic policies. Though some empirical work has been done in terms of integrating unpaid work into macro policies (for example, understanding the impacts of macroeconomic policy on paid and unpaid work), some sound theoretical work is needed on the dynamics of the linkages between paid and unpaid work, and how these dynamics change over time and space. The paper concludes that the time has come to recognize that unless unpaid work is included in macroeconomic analyses, they will remain partial and wrong. The time has also come to incorporate unpaid work into labor market analyses, and in the design of realistic labor and employment policies.
    Keywords: Unpaid Work; System of National Accounts; Time-Use Survey; Gender Equality
    JEL: D13 E01 I3 J3 J08 J16
    Date: 2015–05
  5. By: Kalpana J. Modi
    Abstract: Women have been given an inferior social status. Conservative social customs like sati, child marriage, dowry, social boycott of widows have made women’s life miserable. Thus, women experience several accumulated disadvantages. They face not only gender discrimination of various degrees but also suffer the most from sexual harassment, atrocities and crimes. All these factors, coupled with the low female literacy rate, make the role of education very challenging. At present, there is an increasing awareness of the need to empower women in order to raise their status. It is strongly believed that providing education to women who have been denied opportunities in this area until now would bring about the desired changes. Intense efforts are being made to enhance the enrolment of women at all levels of education. In this paper the author has discussed why education is important for empowering women. The author also discusses the teenaged Pakistani activist Malala Yousafzai who was shot by Taliban gunmen in her native Pakistan for daring to attend school. Malala Yousafzai has given strong message to the world that all girls have right to attend school and realize their dreams. Key words: women’s education, women’s empowerment
    Date: 2014–09
  6. By: Sangita Deota
    Abstract: For the past years the conversation about women and leadership has revolved around challenges of Work-Life-Balance which most of the time actually means “Work-Family-Balance”. Woman hardly make it to the top of the companies not because of their personal choice but because of the fact that lots of ambitious women make them off the path of leadership. Women are also gently but firmly avoided while deciding about future leaders, this is mainly because their work and family invariably clash. By this the Government as well as the corporate is not using the talent deck upto it’s full potential. This research paper tries to address the varied dimentions which needs deep insight into the reasons of absenteesm of women leader & suggestions for their work life balance for the purpose of cultural, structural & organisational growth. Key words: Women in leadership, Work life balance, ambitious, talent deck
    Date: 2014–06
  7. By: Nayak, Purusottam; Mahanta, Bidisha
    Abstract: The present paper is an attempt to analyze the status of women vis-à-vis men and their empowerment in terms of various socioeconomic and political indicators such as access to education, employment, household decision making power, financial autonomy, freedom of movement, exposure to media, political participation, experience of domestic violence etc in the state of Assam using secondary data obtained from various sources. The study reveals that development process in the state is not gender neutral; women enjoy quite inferior status as compared to the average women in India. Percentage of women in the government services and their political participation is quite low and does not show any sign of significant improvement. Sex ratio though not in favor of women is improving over time. Women enjoy better status in the state as compared to women in India in terms of decision making power at the household level while the situation is reverse in case of their financial autonomy and sexual violence. Inter district disparity is rampant in the state. Districts like Kamrup and Tinsukia in spite of having high per capita DDP have not been able to transform the development effort to bridge the gender gap. Districts with high literacy rates are having high proportion of female main and marginal workers and low proportion of non-workers. Higher the literacy higher is the female workforce participation rate. Female enrolment rate is below fifty per cent in spite of universalization of primary education and provision of mid-day meal schemes. Although Government has undertaken a number of steps the situation has remained gloomy mainly because the educated women are not forward looking and cherish the baseless age old customs. There is a need to create awareness towards achieving the desired goal of women empowerment in the state.
    Keywords: Gender disparity, women empowerment, Assam, India
    JEL: A1 O1
    Date: 2015–05–26
  8. By: Jael, Paul
    Abstract: During the marginalist controversy, full costers failed to convince economists of the superiority of full cost pricing over marginal theory of imperfect competition. The controversy was closed prematurely; various contributions published immediately thereafter in the fifties did not renew the debate despite their relevance. Topics included entry prevention, target rate of profit and the emergence of the market price. The present paper shows that the full cost pricing is not so justified by the need for a rule of thumb than as a rational behaviour aiming at long term profit maximisation, especially in the case of highly competitive markets with few suppliers. The paper focuses also on the relationship between full cost pricing and changes in demand (mostly cyclical). It is also shown that the race for performance deserves a central position in the analysis of competition; it is too often neglected in favour of the sole competition on margins.
    Keywords: prix; concurrence; structure de marché; full cost
    JEL: D21 D40 D49
    Date: 2014
  9. By: Rambarran, Richard
    Abstract: The Indian Economy has been transforming, and is now poised to take over China as the leading developing country in the world in terms of its pace of development. (Sharma, 2011) While this is by no measure bad news for a country, it does pose specific problems, an interesting ones at that, where huge masses of traditional inhabitants are now faced with an ‘upturning’ of their familiar cities and constructs as never before. Of particular interest is those who reside in the slums of India, especially within the urban districts. More specifically, the women of the urban slums, encapsulated within their traditional and conservative role, have the most adjusting and adapting to do in this rapidly expanding Indian economy. This paper will seek to delve in to the Socio-Economic status of the women in these Urban Slums as we seek to examine the nature of the growth and development on their lives, and how the transformation has been unique for them, analyzed both from a theoretical and individualist realism approach.
    Keywords: women, urban, slums, India, poverty, growth, development
    JEL: J1 R0
    Date: 2014–11
  10. By: Albers, Scott
    Abstract: This book is about the construction of reality. The central aim of this study is to understand how gravity works and how it may be focused and manipulated. While I do not have an answer to this question, the discoveries along the way have been worth collecting into a single volume for future reference.
    Keywords: Kondratiev Wave, Okun's Law, Pi, The golden mean, gross national product, employment, consciousness
    JEL: B41 B5 C01 C02 C5 C50 C6 C63 E0 E00 E01 E10 E19 E30 N00 N01 N11 Z10 Z13
    Date: 2015–05–26
  11. By: Rikki Dean
    Abstract: From the World Bank to the Occupy Movement, support for greater citizen participation in social policy decisions has become ubiquitous. This paper argues that existing typologies of participation are problematic in that they do not recognise the plurality of competing participatory logics that explain this rise in support for participation from groups with such divergent world views. Participatory practice is constructed in multiple ways, and each construction can only be understood with reference to the normative conception of societal organisation it encompasses. However, existing typologies take one of two approaches: either they assume one particular normative bias and categorise participatory forms as accordingly legitimate or illegitimate (for instance, Arnstein's ladder), or they categorise by institutional design features without reference to the broader social and political ideology that informs the use of these designs. This paper draws on Grid-Group Cultural Theory to outline an alternative approach. Participatory practice is categorised along two intersecting dimensions: sociality, the extent to which participation is solidaristic or agonistic, and negotiability, the extent to which participatory spaces are prescribed or negotiated. From these dimensions four archetypes of participation are derived, each with its own participatory logic, conception of the participant, preferred institutional forms, and links to broader social and political philosophies.
    Keywords: public participation, citizen engagement, participatory democracy, deliberative democracy, participatory governance, choice, voice, bureaucracy, health policy, housing policy, social exclusion policy, participation typology, Grid-Group Cultural Theory
    Date: 2014–12
  12. By: Osman Aydogus (Department of Economics, Ege University); Cagacan Deger (Department of Economics, Ege University); Elif Tunali Caliskan (Department of Economics, Ege University); Gulcin Gurel Gunal (Department of Economics, Ege University)
    Abstract: Import dependency is important for the development process. High import dependency implies, among many items, a vulnerability to foreign exchange shocks. This study examines the intermediate inputs import dependency of Turkish economy. Main contribution is the construction of an import matrix for year 2008, whereas the most recent official one is from year 2002. The analysis reveals dependency of Turkish economy on especially raw material inputs obtained from abroad.
    Keywords: input-output models, import dependency, Turkey
    JEL: C67 F10 O50
    Date: 2015–05
  13. By: Taalbi, Josef
    Abstract: The notion of development blocks suggests the co-evolution of technologies and industries through complementarities and the overcoming of imbalances. This paper studies groups of closely related industries and their co-evolution in the network of Swedish product innovations, by combining statistical methods and qualitative data from a newly constructed innovation output database, SWINNO. The study finds ten sets of closely related industries in which innovation activity has been prompted by the emergence of technological imbalances or by the exploitation of new technological opportunities.
    Keywords: Development Blocks; Community Detection; Network Analysis; Technological Imbalances
    JEL: N1 N7 O3
    Date: 2015–05–23
  14. By: Claude Diebolt
    Abstract: L’objet de cet article est d’élaborer, par la combinaison de l’approche systémique et de l’idée de régulation, une grille de lecture théorique susceptible de contribuer à un renouveau méthodologique pour une meilleure appréhension des temporalités de l’histoire économique. Le système régulé entraîne des cycles ; il génère des chocs. Ce sont les reflets de la temporalité d’un système économique donné. Ce faisant, nos investigations cliométriques participent d’un vaste programme de recherche visant à réconcilier l’épistémologie du Verstehen (comprendre) avec celle de l’Erklären (expliquer). Elles ambitionnent de favoriser la rencontre du fait avec le fait stylisé ; les modélisations théoriques de la croissance, des cycles et des systèmes économiques avec les interrogations empiriques aux frontières de l’histoire économique.
    Keywords: Cliométrie, approche systémique, idée de régulation, événements rares, histoire économique, temporalités.
    JEL: A12 A20 B41 B52 C18 C22 C81 C82 N1 N3 P1 P5
    Date: 2015
  15. By: P. V. Krishna
    Abstract: The present research paper is aimed to deal the awareness and participation level of elected women representatives in the PRIs in East Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh. About 144 elected women representatives of various cadres are selected for the study and their views is presented in tabular manner. It is found that the woman representation is basically depends on reservations. Most women file their candidature for elections to PRIs not out of their own will, but due to the pressure of husbands, sons or other male member of the family or the village or due to the pressure of some political party; but those who contested as independents have had the credit of working for the people of their locality. The women elected representatives are aware of the objectives of the PRIs. Majority are involving in the Poverty Alleviation Programmes. It is suggested that the government should provide special grants and provisions as an encouragement to them towards under take welfare programmes effectively and to participate in local government activities. Key words: Directive Principles, Fundamental Rights, Women Status, grass root organizations, Panchayat Raj Institutions, poverty alleviation
    Date: 2014–03
  16. By: Bill Gibson (University of Vermont); Mark Setterfield (Department of Economics, New School for Social Research)
    Abstract: Keynesian economists refer to capitalism as a monetary production economy, in which the theory of money and the theory of production are inseparable (Skidelsky, 1992). One important aspect of this, brought to light by Robertson following the publication of The General Theory, is that in a Keynesian economy, endogenous money creation is logically necessary if the economy is to expand. A Keynesian economy cannot operate with an exogenously given supply of money as in verticalism. One way to ensure that money is endogenous is to simply assume that the supply of money is infinitely elastic, known in the literature as horizontalism. In this view, prior savings cannot be a constraint on current investment and it follows that the level of economic activity is determined by effective demand. Using a multi-agent systems model, this paper shows that real economies, especially those subject to recurrent financial crises, can be neither horizontalist nor verticalist. Horizontalism overlooks microeconomic factors that might block flows from savers to investors, while verticalism ignores an irreducible ability of the system to generate endogenous money, even when the monetary authority does everything in its power to limit credit creation.
    Keywords: Multi-agent system, intermediation, endogenous money, Keynesian macroeconomics
    JEL: D58 E12 C00
    Date: 2015–05
  17. By: Sneha Master
    Abstract: Sustainability of human beings depends on very large extent on the availability of natural resources for future generation. Conservation and accountable usage of natural assets is the responsibility of present generation. Government intervention in the form of law is considered as an important tool for making effective implementation of this responsibility in today’s era. The key is not only to measure the total value of natural assets but also to measure the distribution of benefits, how much goes to each stakeholder group and the dependence of each group on natural capital especially the poor. Key words: green accounting, commerce, legal perspective
    Date: 2014–12
  18. By: Mukherjee, Nandini; Ray, Jhilam
    Abstract: Abstract : Acknowledging women as economic agents with their direct contribution to growth continues to remain the focus of the nation among it’s various objectives even in the Twelfth Plan which suggest various ways of making economic growth truly inclusive . In order to be inclusive the nature and the composition of growth should be such that it should include the poor, particularly the excluded/ marginalised group like women and the disadvantaged socio-economic group. If women lack sufficient decent work opportunities and continue to remain excluded from the main stream economy and cannot contribute to the development process as economic agents for a considerable period of time then can have serious implications for future growth of Indian economy. In India recently there is a debate regarding “Missing female labour” where some portrayed this decline as a positive effect due to rising participation in education among young females and others claim that it was crowding-out of female labour in the face of agricultural stagnation and slowdown of economic growth. The objective of the present paper is to investigate the present status of households headed by female in rural and urban India and examine their demographic structure and employment pattern in comparison to male headed households using unit level data of NSSO employment and Unemployment (68th Round). The paper also look into the difference across various socio religious groups. We found that existence of Female headed household(FHH) arising out of several factors mainly absence of male member viz, widowhood, divorce, separation and desertion,migration of male members for long periods etc. The educational status of female head is poor compare to the male head and this results into lower capability and skill of the female head and resulting poor socio-economic condition. A significant section of female headed household (FHHs)is single membered. Average amount of land owned by FHH is much lower that the male headed household. It is found that nearly 60% of female head are not in labour force and are either attending education or engaged in domestic duty. This exclusion from labour market may work as a hindrance for further empowerment. It can be observed that a significant section of women above 15+ age group are attending educational institute .The low rate of participation of women in wage employment is an issue of concern and debate. The present of socio-economic condition and growth process need to be much more inclusive to distribute the beneficiaries of growth and economic progress if it is to function in an effective manner. The results of economic reforms and it’s impact on all the marginal section of the society need to be examined carefully. Across tribal group women of FHHs have larger presence as own account worker than women of Male Headed Households (MHH). Interestingly higher percentage of women of tribal group and Scheduled caste (SC) from FHHs are engaged as wage worker. Around 11% of tribal women from FHHs are working as regular/salaried employee. Again women from muslim group has lower presence in this category. Though women from MHHs are in less percentage share compared to FHHs, presence of upper caste Hindu s are higher as regular wage employee who are coming from MHHs. Again Muslim women from MHHs are less in number. A large section of SC, ST women both from MHHs and FHHs are working as casual worker. This may be a distress drive phenomenon. A small percentage of women from Hindu upper caste coming from MHHs as well as FHHs are working as casual workers compared to other socio-religious group. This indicate that casual employment among women is high among the so called backward group though for the Muslim women it is low. Women from Muslim group both in case of MHHs and FHHs have very low percentage participation in the labour market. More than 70% from FHHs and 77% from MHHs of Muslim women are not in the labour force. Nearly 45-50 % Muslim women are engaged in domestic work and other work along with domestic duty. Surprisingly such percentage is also high for women of upper Hindu coming from MHHs (nearly 36%). This indicate that along with the backward group like Muslim women, the so called higher Hindu upper caste women are also less in the labour market. Among the poor worker from FHHs 46% of them are engaged in crop related activity, 11% in building works, 7% in retail trade, 4% incivil engineering related activities. A large section of SC, ST women both from MHHs and FHHs are working as casual worker. A significant portion of Women of FHH are present in retail trade, tobacco manufacturing , and building construction. The nature of job as well the other conditions in these sectors generally not suitable for the women. Still women from FHH has higher presence in this sectors than women from MHH indicating a distress driven participation. The policy need to be more inclusive in nature and it requires on the one hand larger capacity building and skill development for women of all section and on the other generation of awareness regarding equality in terms of dignity, opportunity and right.
    Keywords: Female Headed Household, Gender, Employment, Labour Market
    JEL: J16 J71
    Date: 2014–01
  19. By: Arne J. Nagengast; Robert Stehrer (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw)
    Abstract: Abstract This paper studies the great collapse in value added trade using a structural decomposition analysis. We show that changes in vertical specialisation accounted for almost half of the great trade collapse, while the previous literature on gross trade has mainly focused on final expenditure, inventory adjustment and adverse credit supply conditions. The decline in international production sharing during the crisis may partially account for the observed decrease in global trade elasticities in recent years. Second, we find that the drop in the overall level of demand accounted for roughly a quarter of the decline in value added exports while just under one third was due to compositional changes in final demand. Finally, we demonstrate that the dichotomy between services and manufacturing sectors observed in gross exports during the great trade collapse is not apparent in value added trade data.
    Keywords: great trade collapse, vertical specialisation, trade in value added, input-output tables, structural decomposition analysis
    JEL: F1 F2 C67 R15
    Date: 2015–04
  20. By: Ana Maria Takahashi (Graduate School of Economics, Kobe University); Shingo Takahashi (International University of Japan); Thomas Maloney (University of Utah)
    Abstract: Using original survey data on Japanese academics in science and engineering, we examined the gender salary and promotion gaps. We found a 6\% gender salary gap after controlling for ranks. This gap was unaffected when quality and quantity of publications were controlled for. In contrast, promotion gap disappeared when publication variables were controlled for. We failed to find negative effects of marriage and children on women's salary and promotion, though a positive sorting into motherhood could conceal such negative effects, and we provided suggestive evidence for this. Men and women are equally likely to move to other universities voluntarily, and the salary premiums from these job changes are the same for both genders, suggesting that outside job offers are not responsible for the gender salary gap. Finally, there are substantial gender differences in academic labor market dropout rates, which could lead to underestimation of the gender salary and promotion gaps.
    Date: 2015–05
  21. By: Polly Vizard
    Abstract: This project was commissioned by HelpAge International as a basis for broader efforts to develop an indicator-based system for monitoring older people's human rights in different countries across the world. The project has three key aims, 1) to develop an indicator-based system for monitoring older people's human rights, based on the good practice model published by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR). 2) to develop a social survey instrument that can be used to build up evidence against the indicators on a country by country basis. 3) to present findings based on the survey data for Peru, Mozambique and Kyrgyzstan. A particular priority has been to address existing research and evidence gaps by extending knowledge and understanding of the outcomes of older people across a range of critical areas of life (or "domains"), including in relation to multidimensional deprivation, discrimination, neglect, maltreatment and abuse. Internationally, there is also a paucity of data on older people's outcomes that is disaggregated by narrow age band and by characteristics such as gender, disability status, ethnic group and area type (urban / rural). Another key priority has been to begin to build up an evidence base of disaggregated data of this type. In this research report, we set out the indicator-based system that has been developed to meet these aims (the HelpAge panel on the human rights of older people) together with details of the social survey instrument that has been developed in order to build up an evidence base against the indicators (the HelpAge survey on the human rights of older people). The survey was fielded in Peru, Mozambique and Kyrgyzstan during the course of 2012 and key findings based on the survey for these countries are also reported.
    Keywords: Human rights, older people, multidimensional deprivation, neglect, abuse, discrimination, Peru, Mozambique, Kyrgyzstan, HelpAge International, violence, dignity, participation, standard of living,
    Date: 2013–08

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