nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2015‒01‒09
29 papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. Capitalism and Inequality Re-Examined By Jon D. Wisman
  2. Schumpeter and the meanings of rationality By Mário Graça Moura
  3. Social Identity and Class Consciousness By Hanappi, Hardy; Hanappi-Egger, Edeltraud
  4. Re-establishing an Ecological Discourse in the Policy Debate over How to Value Ecosystems and Biodiversity By Clive L. Spash; Iulie Aslaksen
  5. Analysis of Structural Changes in Andalusian Economy Using Social Accounting Matrices By Pilar Campoy Muñoz; Manuel Alejandro Cardenete Flores; María del Carmen Delgado López
  6. On Schumpeter’s 'The Past and Future of Social Sciences'. A Schumpeterian Theory of Scientific Development? By Lucarelli, Stefano; Baron, Hervé
  7. A steindlian account of the distribution of corporate profits and leverage: A stock-flow consistent macroeconomic model with agent-based microfoundations By Jo Michell
  8. Has Microfinance Lost its Moral Compass? By David Hulme; Mathilde Maitrot
  9. Gender Promotion Differences in Economics Departments in Japan: A Duration Analysis By Ana Maria Takahashi; Shingo Takahashi
  10. Ethics in the Letter for Shareholders By Albertini, Elisabeth; Charpateau, Olivier; Oxibar, Bruno
  11. Institutions, Civil Society, Trust and Quality of Life: A Social Capital- And Social Identity-Based Approach. Evidence from the Russian Federation By Guido Sechi; Alexander Tatarko; Jurgis Skilters
  12. Does export complexity matter for firms' output volatility? By Daniela MAGGIONI; Alessia LO TURCO; Mauro GALLEGATI
  13. An inquiry into the stability of Islamic Financial Services Institutions in terms of volatility, risk and correlations: A case study of Malaysia employing M-GARCH t-DCC and MODWT Wavelet approaches By Kamaruzdin, Thaqif; Masih, Mansur
  14. Emergence and development of a financial cluster: the evolution of Andorra’s banking deposits in the long-term, 1931-2007 By Marc Galabert Macià
  15. Concepts of retirement and the evaluation of post-retirement work: Positions of political actors in Germany and the UK By Scherger, Simone; Hagemann, Steffen
  16. Exploring the microdynamics of informal evaluation - the case of management consulting projects By Pemer, Frida
  17. 'Ontological Planning' As a New Approach in Urban Development By Ahmet Alkan; Havva Alkan Bala
  18. Implementing the agroecological transition: weak or strong modernization of agriculture? Focus on the mycorrhiza supply chain in France By Valérie Angeon; Rebecca Bilon; Marie Chave
  19. Economic and social resilience: an analysis for the Italians regions after 2007. By Barbara Martini
  20. Trade union responses towards labour market dualization comparing the impact of the varieties of industrial relations in Germany, Slovenia and Poland By Gerber, Christine
  21. Is There Gender Bias Among Voters ?Evidence from the Chilean Congressional Elections By Francisco Pino
  22. Climate change and poverty -- an analytical framework By Hallegatte, Stephane; Bangalore, Mook; Bonzanigo, Laura; Fay, Marianne; Narloch, Ulf; Rozenberg, Julie; Vogt-Schilb, Adrien
  23. Women and political change: Evidence from the Egyptian revolution By Nelly EL MALLAKH; Mathilde MAUREL; Biagio SPECIALE
  24. Varieties of capitalists? The middle class, private sector and economic outcomes in Africa By Handley, Antoinette
  25. "Outside Money: The Advantages of Owning the Magic Porridge Pot" By L. Randall Wray
  26. Gender and the Labor Market: What Have We Learned from Field and Lab Experiments? By Azmat, Ghazala; Petrongolo, Barbara
  27. Beyond Radicalism and Resignation: The Competing Logics for Public Participation in Policy Decisions By Rikki Dean
  28. Intergenerational Mobility of Housework Time in the United Kingdom By Gimenez-Nadal, J. Ignacio; Molina, José Alberto; Zhu, Yu
  29. The Gravitation of Market Prices as a Stochastic Process By Saverio M. Fratini; Alessia Naccarato

  1. By: Jon D. Wisman
    Abstract: Ever since capitalism came to be recognized as a new economic system, it has had vociferous critics, of whom none was more wide-ranging than Karl Marx. Marx recognized that behind its ideological patina of freedom, capitalism, like the exploitative systems of slavery and feudalism, was a social system in which a small class extracted from the mass of producers practically all output above that necessary for bare subsistence. An elite's ability to do so was grounded in its monopoly ownership of the means of production. However, Marx, and other critics faulted it for more than its exploitation and extreme inequality. Sharing much with romanticism, they believed that its very institutions of private property and markets corrupt society and its members. Nevertheless, Marx in particular recognized that capitalism, unlike earlier exploitative systems, was radically dynamic, producing unprecedented wealth, while  transforming not only all it inherited from the past, but also its own nature so as to eventually even empower the producers. Yet his anti-private property and anti-market animus led him to believe that empowered producers would abandon these capitalist institutions. He did not imagine that the dynamism, wealth, and potential freedom that capitalism was delivering might have little chance of flourishing in the absence of these institutions. This article claims that Marx and other critics were wrong to fault capitalism's central institutions for the injustices that accompanied them. These institutions are not the problem. Instead it is the inequality that co-evolved with them and enables them to be used for exploitation.
    Keywords: exploitation, Marx, state power, socialism
    JEL: B51 P11 P16
    Date: 2014
  2. By: Mário Graça Moura (Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Economia)
    Abstract: This paper discusses various meanings of rationality distinguished by Schumpeter – as well as related concepts like rationalisation – and connects them with widely remarked tensions or dilemmas in his substantive works. The well-known contrast between Schumpeter’s commitment to equilibrium economics and his heterodox, evolutionary vision is analysed on the basis of the notions of ‘rationality of the observer’ and ‘rationality in the observed’, developed in his article on 'The Meaning of Rationality in the Social Sciences'. Schumpeter’s thesis of the obsolescence of the entrepreneurial function is also scrutinised, by investigating the coherence between his conceptions of rationality and of rationalisation. This topic is in turn connected with Schumpeter’s assessment of the socialist calculation debate.
    Keywords: Schumpeter, methodology, ontology, rationality
    JEL: B3 B4
    Date: 2014–11
  3. By: Hanappi, Hardy; Hanappi-Egger, Edeltraud
    Abstract: The current economic crisis proves how deep the contradictions inherent in contemporary capitalism really are. At the same time it is evident that the financial crisis goes hand in hand with a social crisis, since an increasing number of people lost trust in governments, trade unions and other representative institutions. A main reason why the European Left nevertheless faces severe challenges in attracting supporters seems to be an experienced loss of what has been called ‘working class identity’ in earlier times. This development has been fuelled by the continuing debate on “identity constructions” as proposed e.g. by post-modernist scholars referring to “fluid” and ambiguous concepts of identity and strictly denying any social categorization. So there is a gap between the loss of working class identity on one hand and the focus on merely social identities on the other hand. To bridge this gap the two trajectories have to be linked. Thus, it is proposed to reflect the whole discussion on “working class identity” in the light of exploitation referring to classical political economy, but additionally to integrate social identity constructions by reviving the concept of alienation.
    Keywords: diversity, exploitation, identity, working class, alienation
    JEL: B50 P16 Z13
    Date: 2014–12
  4. By: Clive L. Spash; Iulie Aslaksen
    Abstract: In this paper we explore the discourses of ecology, environmental economics, new environmental pragmatism and social ecological economics as they relate to the value of ecosystems and biodiversity. Conceptualizing biodiversity and ecosystems as goods and services that can be represented by monetary values in policy processes is an economic discourse being increasingly championed by ecologists and conservation biologists. The latter promote a new environmental pragmatism internationally as hardwiring biodiversity and ecosystems services into finance. The approach adopts a narrow instrumentalism, denies value pluralism and incommensurability, and downplays the role of scientific knowledge. Re-establishing an ecological discourse in biodiversity policy implies a crucial role for biophysical indicators as independent policy targets, exemplified in this paper by the Nature Index for Norway. Yet, there is a recognisable need to go beyond a traditional ecological approach to one recognising the interconnections of social, ecological and economic problems. This requires reviving and relating to a range of alternative ecologically informed discourses, including an ecofeminist perspective, in order to transform the increasingly dominant and destructive relationship of humans separated from and domineering over Nature.
    Date: 2014
  5. By: Pilar Campoy Muñoz; Manuel Alejandro Cardenete Flores; María del Carmen Delgado López
    Abstract: The goal of this work is to analyse the possible effects of the crisis on Andalusian economic structure during the period 2005–2010 using Social Accounting Matrices (SAMs). SAMs describe the circular flow of income and provide a statistical database for the analysis of the key sectors in the regional economy, the linkages between these sectors and their relevance in terms of employment. Specifically, a linear SAM model is applied to calculate the decomposition of multipliers in their three effects (direct, indirect and induced), as well as the multipliers of employment for each sector in the regional economy. The comparative analysis of the different years allows drawing some conclusions about the changes in the productive structure as a consequence of the crisis.
    Keywords: Regional Accounts, Input- Output Tables, Social Accounting Matrices, Multisectoral Models, Key Sectors
    Date: 2014–12–02
  6. By: Lucarelli, Stefano; Baron, Hervé
    Abstract: The present paper, taking the cue from the Italian translation of Vergangenheit und Zukunft der Sozialwissenschaften (The Past and Future of Social Sciences), a Schumpeter’s book which was not always well understood in the literature, tries to pose some questions about Schumpeter’s work. Firstly: is it possible, starting from that book, to reconstruct a Schumpeterian theory of scientific development? Subsequently: is Vergangenheit und Zukunft only «a brief outline of what first became the Epochen [der Dogmen– und Methodengeschichte] and finally the History of Economic Analysis», as Elizabeth Boody Schumpeter wrote in the Editor’s Introduction (July 1952) to the History of Economic Analysis (p. XXXII), or should it be read as a complement of Epochen and, possibly, History? Lastly: is it correct to say that Schumpeter’s work had the ambitious objective of developing a ‘comprehensive sociology’ as the eminent Japanese scholar Shionoya did?
    Keywords: Schumpeter, social sciences, method, scientific development.
    JEL: A12 B25 B31 B41
    Date: 2014–04–30
  7. By: Jo Michell (University of the West of England)
    Abstract: Post Keynesian economics has largely forgotten Steindl's insight that monopolisation of the corporate sector redistributes profits to those firms least likely to invest them productively. Agent-based methods can be used to incorporate Steindl's insights into a simple stock-flow consistent model of monetary circuit. This model illustrates the 'maldistribution of profits' and 'enforced indebtedness' of heterogeneous firms alongside the tendency towards stagnation that occurs with rising monopolisation. The model also demostrates Minsky's assertion that firms' leverage rises over the business cycle can be reconciled with Kalecki's macroeconomic identities showing that profits are 'financed' by the investment expenditures of firms.
    Keywords: Stock-flow consistent, heterogeneous agents, Post-Keynesian
    JEL: C63 E22 E25 E42
    Date: 2014–11
  8. By: David Hulme; Mathilde Maitrot
    Abstract: Abstract This paper argues that microfinance in South Asia, like mainstream finance in North America and Europe, "has lost its moral compass". Our particular concern is with microloans to vulnerable clients. Microfinance institutions (MFIs) have increasingly focussed on financial performance and have neglected their declared social mission of poverty reduction and empowerment. Loans officers in the field are under enormous pressure to achieve individual financial targets and now routinely mistreat clients – especially poor women. The values of neo-liberal mainstream finance in the rich world have spread to microcredit in the villages of Bangladesh and India. This situation is hidden from western publics who are fed the lie of "the magic of microfinance" by their media, guided by the needs and interests of mainstream finance seeking to provide some "good news" about the financial sector as scandal after scandal unfold. Urgent action is needed, particularly from the leaders of the microfinance industry, to refocus their organizations and workforce on achieving both financial and social performance targets.
    Date: 2014
  9. By: Ana Maria Takahashi (Graduate School of Economics, Kobe University); Shingo Takahashi (International University of Japan, Graduate School of International Management)
    Abstract: Using a unique data set from our survey of academic economists in Japan, we present the first detailed study of gender promotion gaps in Japanese academia. The length of time from initial appointment to promotion to associate professor is greater for women than men, largely due to women spending more time as lecturer, the lowest academic rank. The gender gaps in promotions from associate professor to full professor are more complex. Childless women are promoted \emph{faster} than childless men. However, since the burden of parenting disproportionately falls on women, this `reverse' gender gap disappears after a first child is born, and women's time to promotion becomes significantly longer than men's if they have a second child.
    Date: 2014–11
  10. By: Albertini, Elisabeth; Charpateau, Olivier; Oxibar, Bruno
    Abstract: This paper proposes a qualitative study of the ethical values that chairmen use in the letter included in the annual report of 52 listed French firms. An in depth study of the European and North American ethical and moral philosophy enables us to build a grid of concepts within the letters. The aim of the paper is to define what kind of ethical values the chairman discloses and if the nature of values communicated to the shareholders depends on the economical environment. Therefore, we scrutinized the evolution of ethical values between 2007 and 2010. Results show that being a listed firm doesn’t induce a common use of ethical values in the letters. The letter contains several different concepts of ethics but the most important remains the financial one. But some firms disclose only one ethical value, some show substitution of values, and some an increase and an enrichment of the nature of ethical values. Our observation enhances the identification of some stereotypes of ethical values configurations that are independent from activities or size. We discuss the results and link them to practical situations and some theoretical propositions in the corporate social responsibility field.
    Keywords: Ethical values; Philosophy; Corporate Social Responsibility; Chairman’s letter; Qualitative research;
    JEL: A14 G39 M14
    Date: 2014–06
  11. By: Guido Sechi; Alexander Tatarko; Jurgis Skilters
    Abstract: Many scholars, since the early 2000s, advocate for the integration of institutionalist and communitarian views of social capital generation in order to explain civil society dynamics, in particular in countries ? such as former communist states - characterized by transitional processes, with a relevant impact on the structure of societies, and by peculiar features of social networking. According to such a view, the civil society is the resultant of a combination of factors related to the social structure of the social community and the institutional environment, and the ways in which such levels interact. This view is, in a broader sense, an attempt at investigating in a more effective way the way in which social assets in society are generated, and their relation with socio-economic and sustainable development. However, attempted empirical analysis on the basis of such an approach have been mainly carried out at macro level, this way overlooking, to a large extent, the individual determinants of social capital and civic engagement, and the interplay of perceptions of community and institutions and social attitudes. The present paper is an attempt at conciliating the institutionalist and communitarian frameworks through a micro level-focused model, able to investigate the linkage between institutional climate and civic engagement and trust with the support of social psychology theories (in particular, social identity theory). In detail, the proposed approach emphasizes the linkages existing between perceptions of institutional behaviour and civil society empowerment on the one hand, and individual engagement and trust in the society and civil identity on the other; it also focuses on the way in which perceptions and attitudes are related to quality of life (measured in terms of well-being and job-related satisfaction). The analysis is based on over 2000 observations from two macrodistricts of the Russian Federation (Central and North Caucasus okrugs) and over 1000 from the Republic of Latvia. The proposed model investigates the possible causal chain existing between perceptions of civil society empowerment, trust towards institutions, civic engagement, trust and tolerance in the society, and quality of life perception, through a structural equation modelling-based quantitative approach for ordinal variables. Socio-demographic and socio-cultural features (e.g. ethno-religious self-identification, level of education, political affiliation, profession) are accounted for as control variables.
    JEL: Z10 B52 D83 C01
    Date: 2014–11
  12. By: Daniela MAGGIONI (Universit… Politecnica delle Marche, Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali); Alessia LO TURCO (Universit… Politecnica delle Marche, Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali); Mauro GALLEGATI (Universit… Politecnica delle Marche, Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali)
    Abstract: With this paper we provide, for the first time to our knowledge, micro-level evidence on the negative linkage between firm complexity and volatility. A higher sophistication level of a firm's export basket reduces its output fluctuations. When focusing on a sample of exporting and non exporting firms, the average complexity of the production mix equally affects stability of sales of both groups. The stabilising role of firms' production sophistication is driven by complex products' higher income elasticity, technological diversification and market entry barriers.
    Keywords: Capabilities, Demand and supply channels, Output fluctuations, Product Sophistication
    JEL: D22 E32 F43 O12
    Date: 2014–12
  13. By: Kamaruzdin, Thaqif; Masih, Mansur
    Abstract: Islamic Finance as an industry in recent times has been celebrated for its stability and resilience. With the philosophy of risk sharing and strict rules governing its activities to be in line with Islamic Law (the Shariah), the industry is seen as an alternative to the conventional finance with its tainted image of profit maximizing at any cost causing the Global Financial Crisis of 2008 - 2009. Given this claim it would be interesting to investigate the stability of the Islamic Financial Services Institutions (IFSIs) in comparison to the conventional sector. The Malaysian IFSIs were chosen as a case study as the Malaysia‟s Islamic Finance industry developed in the world with strict Shariah screening. As such, the Malaysian IFSIs are investigated to gain insights into their performance in terms of volatility and correlations with the market and then compared to their competitors by employing an M-GARCH t-DCC and also MODWT Wavelet technique to further dissect this volatility into their contributions from the point of view of different time scales. The findings are that IFSIs are much more volatile than their competitors with seemingly independent spikes in volatility unique to themselves but are low in correlation to the market implying that IFSIs volatility may be independent of the market due to assets that require the risk taking in order to justify earnings. IFSIs may need to cooperate in developing risk management standards and practices to mitigate risk that are unique to themselves as well as review the contracts and assets that may expose the IFSIs to too much risk.
    Keywords: Islamic Finance, Islamic Financial Services Institutions, Volatility, Risk, Correlation, Diversification, M-GARCH t-DCC and MODWT Wavelet
    JEL: C22 C58 E44 G2
    Date: 2014–07–23
  14. By: Marc Galabert Macià (Facultat d'Economia i Empresa; Universitat de Barcelona (UB))
    Abstract: This paper explores the origins of Andorra’s financial cluster. It shows that the free movement of currency, the protection of infant industry, and geographical concentration lie at the foundation of the cluster’s competitive advantage. Drawing on a new set of data, the paper also provides for the first time an estimate of the total deposits held by Andorra’s banks between 1931 and 2007. Based on this new information, the paper reaches the conclusion that the development of the cluster went through four distinct phases in which large companies, acting as leaders, played an important role in enhancing the cluster’s business capabilities.
    Keywords: Competitive advantage, Cluster lifecycle, Financial system, Leading firms, Infant industry protection
    JEL: E42 G21 L16 N84
    Date: 2014
  15. By: Scherger, Simone; Hagemann, Steffen
    Abstract: Concepts of retirement and related moral arguments play an important role in debates around pension reform. What retirement is - or should be - varies according to the surrounding welfare culture and an actor's general interests and beliefs. In this paper, we study the meaning that specific collective actors in Germany and the UK attribute to retirement, and their evaluation of post-retirement work, which is an exception to 'normal' retirement. For this purpose, we examine interviews with experts from unions, employer federations and relevant non-profit organisations which have been conducted in the context of a wider comparative project. Additionally, we draw on policy documents by the same actors. Our analysis of the interviews and the documents reveals similar retirement concepts among the same kinds of actors across countries: trade unions and at least some non-profit organisations advocate retirement as a social right and as a distinct (ideally work-free) phase of life. In contrast, employers have a less substantial concept of retirement. At the same time, when morally justifying what retirement should be in their view, the actors refer to ideas that establish a connection to the specific welfare culture surrounding them.
    Abstract: In Debatten um Rentenreformen spielen Vorstellungen darüber, was die Lebensphase des Ruhestands ist oder sein sollte, und darauf bezogene moralische Argumente eine wichtige Rolle. Diese Vorstellungen sind zum einen von der jeweiligen Wohlfahrtskultur geprägt, zum anderen hängen sie eng mit den Interessen und Ansichten der an den Debatten beteiligten Akteure zusammen. In diesem Arbeitspapier untersuchen wir die Bedeutung, die bestimmte kollektive Akteure in Deutschland und Großbritannien dem Ruhestand als Lebensphase zuschreiben, sowie ihre Bewertung von bezahlter Arbeit jenseits der Rentengrenze, die eine Ausnahme vom 'normalen' Ruhestand darstellt. Zu diesem Zweck analysieren wir Interviews mit Experten von Gewerkschaften, Arbeitgeberverbänden und von in diesem Feld relevanten gemeinnützigen Organisationen. Neben den Interviews, die im Rahmen eines größeren vergleichenden Projekts geführt wurden, werden außerdem politische Dokumente (insbesondere Positionspapiere) der gleichen Organisationen einbezogen. Unsere Analyse der Interviews und Dokumente zeigt, dass vergleichbare Akteure in verschiedenen Ländern auch ähnliche Ruhestandskonzepte vertreten: Gewerkschaften und zumindest einige der betrachteten gemeinnützigen Organisationen sprechen sich für Ruhestand als soziales Recht und als eine klar abgegrenzte, idealerweise arbeitsfreie Lebensphase aus. Im Gegensatz dazu vertreten Arbeitgeberverbände ein weniger gehaltvolles Ruhestandskonzept. Gleichzeitig beziehen sich alle Akteure auf Ideen, die Teil der jeweiligen Wohlfahrtskultur sind, wenn sie moralisch rechtfertigen, was der Ruhestand in ihren Augen sein sollte.
    Date: 2014
  16. By: Pemer, Frida (Dept. of Management and Organization)
    Abstract: This paper addresses the question of how management consulting services are evaluated in client organizations. By building on an interview study with organization members in two client organizations and drawing on discourse theory, the current paper shows that clients seldom perform formal evaluations of consulting projects. Instead, the projects are evaluated informally. The findings from the empirical analysis indicate that this informal evaluation takes place through different types of talk, in which the projects and involved actors are given a discursively constructed worth. The paper contributes to the informal evaluation literature by shedding light on how the informal evaluation is carried out and how the worth of management consulting projects are discursively constructed by clients using frame-talk and mythopoetic-talk. It also highlights the importance of regarding the informal evaluation not only as an individual activity, but rather as shared among groups and socially, politically and contextually influenced. The paper also contributes to the management consulting literature by nuancing the hitherto homogenous picture of clients, and giving insights into the mechanisms behind why some projects are perceived by clients as more successful than others.
    Keywords: management consultant; client; informal evaluation; worth; discourse; talk
    Date: 2014–10–01
  17. By: Ahmet Alkan; Havva Alkan Bala
    Abstract: "Ontological Planning" as a new concept, this paper will attempt to clarify an interpretation of the existential philosophy in urban dimension, the adaptability of this interpretation to physical planning and the main principles of ontological planning. These principles will be explained via applications performed at the Mevlana Museum, which is an important site on a global scale, and its surroundings. New concepts have been developed in the planning process in parallel to the processes of urbanization, growth, industrialization and urban development. The social, economic and spatial planning efforts in these concepts and methods aimed to generate solutions that have been inclusive of problems and sustainable. However, something has remained missing during the planning of the city, which is complex and big and constantly creates problems. Planning has usually proven inadequate in searches for solutions to urban problems. The inadequacy of existing concepts and approaches has become more and more apparent in areas of cities that are of importance in terms of historical and architectural heritage. This new approach, which is based on longitudinal observations and the assumption that a relationship can be established between the space and the existentialist philosophy, has been opened to debate in the scientific world. The ontological planning approach, which is presented in this paper, is not a new method, nor is it a hypothesis that excludes the existing methods. On the contrary, it is an attempt to add a new and long-awaited point of view by integrating the "existential philosophy" into the integrative (holistic) and sustainable planning process. Ontological planning will take steps that will enable a fusion of the society and the space via; ? Space planning defined by the idea of existence (being), ? Addition of moral (ethical and aesthetic) criteria to technique, ? Establishment of the relationship between space and love ? Adding spirit to the space ? Addition of the morphological energy of the space to planning.
    Keywords: Urban Planning; Ontological Planning; Mevlana Celaleddin Rumi; Konya
    Date: 2014–11
  18. By: Valérie Angeon; Rebecca Bilon; Marie Chave
    Abstract: Industrial agriculture and its technological package (intensive farming, mechanization, use of chemicals) are no longer in position to ensure food security (Altieri et al., 2012). To overcome the strongly negative externalities produced by this model, agroecological transition may be considered as a privileged pathway. Nevertheless, two major evolutions of modern agriculture can be distinguished (Duru et al., 2014): the weak (implementation of "good practices" that intend to improve the efficiency of chemicals and/or reduce their use) versus strong (substitution of chemical inputs by biodiversity providing ecosystem services) ecologization of agriculture. In this article, we focus on the enhancement of mycorrhiza (symbiosis between roots and soil fungi), key elements of biodiversity becoming a momentum in matter of agroecological engineering. We study the complex interrelationship structure implying a diversity of actors that are closely linked, share norms of action, values. The result of their coordination (market and non-market) and the networks within these actors interact shape a "socio-technical regime" (Geels and Shot, 2007; Vanloqueren and Baret, 2009). This concept is close to Dosi's (1982) evolutionary approach of industrial processes and changes that are embedded in the systems of innovation approach. The aim of this article is to appraise the robustness of the socio-technical regime grounded on the use of mycorrhiza. We pay attention to the most widespread technology: the inoculation of industrial strains. We base our analysis on the identification of the set of actors who pilot the technological trajectory of this agroecological pattern (industrials, scientists, public authorities, farmers). We then produce a heuristic map. Using the stakeholder analysis (Mitchell et al., 1997), we conduct around 30 interviews that permit (i) to characterize the nature of the relationships among agents (information sharing, subsidies, goods and services) and (ii) to specify in what extent these interactions stabilize the existing technological paradigm. We show that the agroecological pattern based on the inoculation of industrial strains corresponds to a weak form of ecologization of agriculture and hinders the emergence of alternative innovative niches (i.e. mobilization of indigenous mycorrhizal networks) that could support a strong modernization of agriculture. Our results then demonstrate that the prevailing socio-technical regime is deeply reinforced although changes occur in the production process. Key words: systems of innovation, evolutionary economics, socio-technical regime, technological paradigm, agroecological transition
    Keywords: systems of innovation; evolutionary economics; socio-technical regime; technological paradigm; agroecological transition code:
    JEL: B52 O33 Q01 Q55
    Date: 2014–11
  19. By: Barbara Martini
    Abstract: Resilience is a physical, engineering and ecological concept. Recently it has attracted attention from regional analyst and it could be a key aspect of the dynamic of spatial economic system (Reggiani et al., 2002), especially concerning how such system responds to shocks, disturbances, and perturbations. The concept of economic resilience is not unitary. We will use the adaptive resilience, defined as the ability of a system to undergo anticipatory or reactionary reorganization of form and/or function so as to minimize impact of a destabilizing shock. In this case the focus is on adaptive capability of system (Sammie e Martin, 2010). Following this approach resilience can be seen as a complex phenomenon and it can be divided in four interrelate dimensions (Martin, 2012): resistance, recovery re-orientation and renewal. We can also find some hysteresis a situation where one time disturbance permanently effect the path of the economy (Romer, 2001). The social resilience is the ability of individuals, organization and community to react, absorb or tolerate threat, stress, and risk (Adger, 2000) but it can be also defined as the ability of a social system to react, respond or recover after a disaster (Cutter, 2008). Several authors (Voss, 2008; Lorenz, 2010; Obrist et al., 2010; Benè et al., 2012) have underlined that three different types of capacities are necessary for understanding the notion of social resilience: coping capacities, adaptive capacities and transformative capacities. This dimension are closely related. The way they interact with each other depend on the context and on the capacity and ability of a given territory. Social capital (Bourdieu (1986) Coleman 1990 Putnam 1993, 1995, 2000) and social resilience are closely related. The aim of the paper is to examine whether and how Italian regions reacted in a resilient way after the economic shock in 2007 under the point of view of the social and economic dimension. As said resilience involves a complex circular feedback over these two dimensions. Our aim is to investigate in depth the nexus by means of suitable measures (indicators) built starting from elementary data collected by available data source (Bank of Italy survey on Household Condition and EU SILC data on living and social condition), exploiting the potential of multifactorial statistical analysis. Specially attention will be devoted to hysteresis.
    Keywords: social resilience; economic resilience; hysteresis; regional growth; o1
    Date: 2014–11
  20. By: Gerber, Christine
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the development of trade unions' adaptation strategies towards the new challenge posed by the dualization of national labour markets into a stable core of standard employment and a growing margin of flexible, often precarious employment. On the basis of the controversial discussion surrounding the theory of Varieties of Capitalism (VoC), the main objective is to shed light on the question of how institutional frameworks shape unions' adaptation strategies. By comparing the developments and union strategies in Germany, Poland and Slovenia - identified as traditionally rather coordinated market economies - the paper aims to connect the still much separated debates on Western and Eastern European regional institutional regimes.
    Date: 2014
  21. By: Francisco Pino
    Abstract: I exploit the unique institution of gender-segregated voting booths in Chile, allowingthe use of actual voting data, instead of self-reported surveys, to test for genderbias among voters. Overall I find evidence of a small but significant negative genderbias: women overall are less likely than men to vote for female candidates. The effect ismainly driven by center-right voters. Selection, candidates’ quality and districts’ characteristicsdo not explain away the results. This evidence does not question whetherfemale leaders have an effect on economic outcomes, but rather the mechanism throughwhich this effect takes place.
    Keywords: gender; voting; electoral system; discrimination; political economy
    JEL: D72 J16 O54
    Date: 2014–12
  22. By: Hallegatte, Stephane; Bangalore, Mook; Bonzanigo, Laura; Fay, Marianne; Narloch, Ulf; Rozenberg, Julie; Vogt-Schilb, Adrien
    Abstract: Climate change and climate policies will affect poverty reduction efforts through direct and immediate impacts on the poor and by affecting factors that condition poverty reduction, such as economic growth. This paper explores this relation between climate change and policies and poverty outcomes by examining three questions: the (static) impact on poor people's livelihood and well-being; the impact on the risk for non-poor individuals to fall into poverty; and the impact on the ability of poor people to escape poverty. The paper proposes four channels that determine household consumption and through which households may escape or fall into poverty (prices, assets, productivity, and opportunities). It then discusses whether and how these channels are affected by climate change and climate policies, focusing on the exposure, vulnerability, and ability to adapt of the poor (and those vulnerable to poverty). It reviews the existing literature and offers three major conclusions. First, climate change is likely to represent a major obstacle to a sustained eradication of poverty. Second, climate policies are compatible with poverty reduction provided that (i) poverty concerns are carefully taken into account in their design and (ii) they are accompanied by the appropriate set of social policies. Third, climate change does not modify how poverty policies should be designed, but it creates greater needs and more urgency. The scale issue is explained by the fact that climate will cause more frequent and more severe shocks; the urgency, by the need to exploit the window of opportunity given to us before climate impacts are likely to substantially increase.
    Keywords: Rural Poverty Reduction,Safety Nets and Transfers,Regional Economic Development,Climate Change Economics,Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases
    Date: 2014–11–01
  23. By: Nelly EL MALLAKH (FERDI); Mathilde MAUREL (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne CNRS - Université Paris 1); Biagio SPECIALE (FERDI)
    Abstract: We analyze the effects of the 2011 Egyptian revolution on the relative labor market conditions of women and men using panel information from the Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey (ELMPS). We construct our measure of intensity of the revolution – the governorate-level number of martyrs, i.e. demonstrators who died during the protests - using unique information from the Statistical Database of the Egyptian Revolution. We find that the revolution has reduced the gender gap in labor force participation, employment, and probability of working in the private sector, and it has caused an increase in women’s probability of working in the informal sector. The political change has affected mostly the relative labor market outcomes of women in households at the bottom of the pre-revolution income distribution. We link these findings to the literature showing how a relevant temporary shock to the labor division between women and men can have long run consequences on the role of women in society.Online Appendix :
    JEL: J16 J21 J22 J30
    Date: 2014–12
  24. By: Handley, Antoinette
    Abstract: Political scientists have generally seen two key features of African political economies.a relatively small or absent middle class, and a middle class that is unusually embedded in the key explanations of the troubled political and economic traje
    Keywords: Africa, middle class, private sector
    Date: 2014
  25. By: L. Randall Wray
    Abstract: Over the past two decades there has been a revival of Georg Friedrich Knapp's "state money" approach, also known as chartalism. The modern version has come to be called Modern Money Theory. Much of the recent research has delved into three main areas: mining previous work, applying the theory to analysis of current sovereign monetary operations, and exploring the policy space open to sovereign currency issuers. This paper focuses on "outside" money--the currency issued by the sovereign--and the advantages that accrue to nations that make full use of the policy space provided by outside money.
    Keywords: Central Bank Independence; Chartalism; Fiat Money; Functional Finance; Innes; Keynes; Knapp; Modern Money Theory; Outside Money; Sovereign Currency; State Money
    JEL: B1 B2 B3 B5 E5 E6
    Date: 2014–12
  26. By: Azmat, Ghazala; Petrongolo, Barbara
    Abstract: We discuss the contribution of the experimental literature to the understanding of both traditional and previously unexplored dimensions of gender differences and discuss their bearings on labor market outcomes. Experiments have offered new findings on gender discrimination, and while they have identified a bias against hiring women in some labor market segments, the discrimination detected in field experiments is less pervasive than that implied by the regression approach. Experiments have also offered new insights into gender differences in preferences: women appear to gain less from negotiation, have lower preferences than men for risk and competition, and may be more sensitive to social cues. These gender differences in preferences also have implications in group settings, whereby the gender composition of a group affects team decisions and performance. Most of the evidence on gender traits comes from the lab, and key open questions remain as to the source of gender preferences—nature versus nurture, or their interaction—and their role, if any, in the workplace.
    Keywords: Discrimination; Field experiments; Gender; Gender preferences; Lab experiments
    JEL: C91 C92 C93 J16 J24 J71
    Date: 2014–05
  27. By: Rikki Dean
    Abstract: From the World Bank to the Occupy Movement, support for greater citizen participation in social policy decisions has become ubiquitous. This paper argues that existing typologies of participation are problematic in that they do not recognise the plurality of competing participatory logics that explain this rise in support for participation from groups with such divergent world views. Participatory practice is constructed in multiple ways, and each construction can only be understood with reference to the normative conception of societal organisation it encompasses. However, existing typologies take one of two approaches: either they assume one particular normative bias and categorise participatory forms as accordingly legitimate or illegitimate (for instance, Arnstein's ladder), or they categorise by institutional design features without reference to the broader social and political ideology that informs the use of these designs. This paper draws on Grid-Group Cultural Theory to outline an alternative approach. Participatory practice is categorised along two intersecting dimensions: sociality, the extent to which participation is solidaristic or agonistic, and negotiability, the extent to which participatory spaces are prescribed or negotiated. From these dimensions four archetypes of participation are derived, each with its own participatory logic, conception of the participant, preferred institutional forms, and links to broader social and political philosophies.
    Keywords: public participation, citizen engagement, participatory democracy, deliberative democracy, participatory governance, choice, voice, bureaucracy, health policy, housing policy, social exclusion policy, participation typology, Grid-Group Cultural Theory
    Date: 2014–12
  28. By: Gimenez-Nadal, J. Ignacio (University of Zaragoza); Molina, José Alberto (University of Zaragoza); Zhu, Yu (University of Dundee)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the relationship between parents' time devoted to housework and the time devoted to housework by their children. Using data from the Multinational Time Use Study for the UK, we find positive intergenerational correlations in housework for both parents, indicating that the more time parents devote to housework, the more time their children will devote to housework. However, when endogeneity of the uses of time are considered using the British Household Panel Survey, we find that only fathers' housework time appears to have a statistically significant effect. The IV estimates fully support the FE estimates and suggest that father's housework induced by his partner's non-traditional gender role attitudes towards domestic division of labour and her actual labour supply in the previous wave, has a large and significant effect on children's housework time. Our results contribute to the field of intergenerational mobility of behaviors.
    Keywords: housework, household, intergenerational transfers, Multinational Time Use Study, British Household Panel Survey
    JEL: J16 J22
    Date: 2014–11
  29. By: Saverio M. Fratini; Alessia Naccarato
    Abstract: The theory of value has been based ever since Adam Smith on the idea that the market prices of commodities, those at which actual trade takes place, gravitate around a central position known as natural prices. This paper seeks to develop a statistical idea of the process in question and suggests in particular that market prices can be said to gravitate around natural prices if the probability of their means being very close to natural prices after t observations tends to 1 as t tends to infinity. A set of possible conditions leading to that result is also presented.
    Keywords: market price, natural price, gravitation, random variables, consistency
    JEL: B51 C32 C62 D46
    Date: 2014–10

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