nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2014‒12‒29
twenty-one papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. Sraffa’s price equations in light of Garegnani and Pasinetti - The ‘core’ of surplus theories and the ‘natural’ relations of an economic system By Bellino, Enrico
  2. Time to Abandon Group Thinking in Economics - Updated By Da Silva, Sergio
  3. Regional Transformation: Institutional Change and Economic Evolution in Regions By Markus Grillitsch
  4. Economics in Times of Crisis. In Search of a New Paradigm By Joanna Dzionek-Kozlowska
  5. Legge del valore, legge dello scambio e problema della trasformazione: una nota By G. Gozzi
  6. Promoting women.s economic empowerment through productive employment and social protection By Otobe, Naoko
  7. Cluster evolution in mature Industrial cluster. The case of Prato Marshallian ID after the entrance of Chinese firm populations (1945-2011) By Luciana Lazzeretti; Francesco Capone
  8. Micro and macro policies in the Keynes + Schumpeter evolutionary models By Giovanni Dosi; Mauro Napoletano; Andrea Roventini; Tania Treibich
  9. An interpretation and critique of the Method of Reflections By Kemp-Benedict, Eric
  10. Essai sur l’Économie de «l’Égalitarisme Libéral». Une Combinaison Sélective des Travaux de Rawls, Sen et Kolm By Claude Gamel
  11. The Republic of Open Science - The institution’s Historical Origins and Prospects for Continued Vitality By Paul David
  12. The Market for Entrepreneurs: The Story of a Failure By José M. Menudo; José Mª O’Kean
  13. Becoming Applied: The Transformation of Economics after 1970 By Roger Backhouse; Beatrice Cherrier
  14. Who becomes a tenured professor, and why? Panel data evidence from German sociology, 1980-2013 By Lutter, Mark; Schröder, Martin
  15. An Analysis of J.R. Commons’s Changing Views on the Role of Sovereignty in the Political Economy By Kota Kitagawa
  16. Emissions structure: a systemic analysis to Brazilian economy ? 2003 and 2009 By Fernando Perobelli; Vinicius Vale
  17. Understanding the dynamics of violent political revolutions in an agent-based framework By Alessandro Moro
  18. A demographic perspective on gender inequality By Christelle Hamel; Wilfried Rault; Rnité de recherche Démographie, genre et sociétés
  19. workers cooperatives and local economic development By Sandrine Stervinou
  20. ICTs? Spatial Diffusion Waves By Anastasia Nagirnaya
  21. Replications in Economics: A Progress Report By Maren Duvendack; Richard W. Palmer-Jones; W. Robert Reed

  1. By: Bellino, Enrico
    Abstract: Within the rich literature that has flowed from Sraffa’s framework of Production of Commodities by means of Commodities a prominent position is occupied by the research programmes carried out independently by two authoritative exponents of this school: Pierangelo Garegnani and Luigi Pasinetti. Certain specific features of their approaches might lead one to perceive them as alternative to one another. Yet, when analysed through a constructive perspective, one discovers not only a common origin and methodology, but also strict complementarity in analysing the main characteristics of industrial systems.
    Keywords: surplus approach, ‘core’ of a capitalist system, structural economic dynamics, ‘natural system’, Garegnani, Pasinetti, Sraffa, Keynes, post-Keynesians
    JEL: B12 B24 B51 D33 E11 E12 E2
    Date: 2014–12–18
  2. By: Da Silva, Sergio
    Abstract: Group thinking is the notion that natural selection favors what is good for the group or the species, not for the individual. Most mainstream evolutionary biology rejects this idea and natural selection is viewed as working on the individual’s genes to promote their own survival and reproduction. Here I show through a couple of examples how group thinking also pervades economics. I argue that the reason for the mistake relies on the fact that economics fails to ground itself in the underlying knowledge provided by biology. Then I suggest how economics can aspire more than being applied logic and turn into a scientific discipline by placing biology on its basis. Finally, I outline how economics should treat group behavior properly.
    Keywords: Economic methodology, Biological basis of economics, Group thinking, Group behavior
    JEL: B41
    Date: 2014–03–31
  3. By: Markus Grillitsch
    Abstract: The overall objective of this paper is to contribute conceptually to the questions why and how regions transform and it joins the debate on economic evolution and institutional change. The paper addresses the challenge of how to conceptualise the interdependencies of institutions of different types and spatial scales. It aims at developing a conceptual framework that i) appreciates the variety of institutional forms and the multi-scalar nature of institutional landscapes, ii) is tangible enough for operationalization in the context of empirical research, and iii) contributes to our understanding about institutional change and economic evolution in regions. The paper offers a review on how institutions have been conceptualised in the context of evolutionary economic geography, a proposal for understanding regional institutional frameworks and institutional change through a novel way of conceptualising institutional layering, a clear distinction between concepts such as agency, networks, social structures and institutional layers, and a discussion about how this can improve our understanding about regional transformation. The concept of institutional layering contributes to the literature on institutional change and institutional complementarity. Important mechanisms and drivers of institutional change within and between institutional layers are discussed. The emphasis in this paper lies on the dynamic interplay between institutional layers. One of the main advantages of the concept of institutional layering is that it illuminates the causality of institutional change. It demands to identify which institutional layer changes how and because of what reason, appreciating also the role of agency and power. In this context, the literature on institutional complementarity underlines the importance of interdependencies between different types of institutions for institutional change as well as economic outcomes. The concept of institutional layering contributes by providing an analytical framework for studying these interdependencies. Furthermore, several mechanisms are identified how the concept of institutional layering contributes to our understanding of regional transformation. The variety and connectedness of institutional layers in a region have an effect on learning and knowledge exchange, the probability to benefit from related variety, the forming of collective interests and resources, the exploration of path plasticity as well as institutional dynamics. Depending on the degree of variety and connectedness of institutional layers, regions will therefore experience differences in the speed of economic evolution, resilience, and the likelihood for continuous or disruptive changes. Using the two dimensions, variety and connectedness of institutional layers, the paper moves towards a typology of regions and relates it to existing empirical literature.
    Keywords: Institutions; evolutionary economic geography; geography; regional transformation;
    JEL: B52 O43
    Date: 2014–11
  4. By: Joanna Dzionek-Kozlowska (University of Lodz, Faculty of Economics and Sociology)
    Abstract: The relationship between the development of economics and economic performance is not reducible to any set of simple rules. Among the historians of economic thought there is even a handful of those who perceive the progress in economics mostly as an outcome of the attempts to solve the problems, inconsistencies and paradoxes within economic theory itself. Seen from this perspective, economic reality has minor (or no) importance. On the other hand, the endeavours to modify a mainstream approach are significantly greater in times of economic downturns. Seeing that economics is in such a state of ‘intellectual ferment’ nowadays, it is worth reconsidering the connection between economics and the economy. Thus the main aim of the paper is to analyse the current state of economic science in relation to the last economic slump. Although it is of course not possible to predict the future trajectories of economic theorising, taking into consideration the nature of the crisis the most feasible and potentially most fruitful areas are indicated.
    Keywords: economic methodology, economics imperialism, economic performance, economic crisis, homo economicus, value judgements
    JEL: B41 B50
    Date: 2014–12
  5. By: G. Gozzi
    Abstract: Marx’s analysis of the determination of the general rate of profit and of the associated relative prices is based on the conceptual distinction between law of value and law of exchange. The law of value states that simple, necessary abstract labour is the substance and measure of the value of commodities and is fundamental in the analysis of the social relations of the capitalist economy, i.e. for the analysis of the creation of surplus-value; it therefore represents the theoretical framework within which the problem of the distribution of surplus-value among the different capitals may be approached, i.e. the law of exchange must be taken into consideration. The analytical mistakes surrounding the marxian solution of the problem have given the way to the critics of the labour theory of value to question its relevance and coherence as a tool for the analysis of the capitalist mode of production. The aim of the present note is simply to show that it is possible to frame the relationship between law of value and law of exchange along marxian lines while determining in a coherent way the rate of profit and the corresponding relative prices of commodities in such a way that the proportionality between profits and surplus-labour is retained. Actually this is the main result of the “New Interpretation” of the marxian transformation problem which is obtained by defining the conservation of value in terms of the net product and not the gross one and the value of labour power in terms of generalized (or unallocated) purchasing power. This interpretation of the problem is therefore in contrast with the neoricardian one which is based on the refutation of the role of the law of value different from that of the determination of the relative prices of the commodities.
    JEL: B14 B24 B51
    Date: 2014–12
  6. By: Otobe, Naoko
    Abstract: The paper attempts to examine the extent to which the ILO-supported projects have contributed to women.s economic empowerment and well-being i.e., from a gender perspective. The paper provides the ILO.s perspectives on gender dimensions of employment prom
    Keywords: employment creation, entrepreneurship, feminist economics, self-employment
    Date: 2014
  7. By: Luciana Lazzeretti; Francesco Capone
    Abstract: The aim of the present research is to participate to the recently resurged debate on cluster life cycle theory among scholars of New Evolutionary Geography and Industrial Economics, starting from the seminal contributions of Menzel and Fornhal (2010). Authors pointed out how the very cluster dynamics is both the driver for the movement of a cluster through a life cycle and the reason why this movement differs from the industry life cycle. Cluster life cycle is recently attracting increasing attention and notwithstanding some authors as Martin and Sunley (2011) showed some criticism, proposing alternative approaches, they agreed the cluster evolution literature is still in search of an appropriate analytical frame work and is necessary to follow an evolutionary approach instead of a deterministic perspective, considering also the analysis of local contexts. Boschma and Fornahl (2011) reaffirming this position, indicate a ?roadmap for future research' able to integrate different approaches and promote the production of a coherent mass of longitudinal empirical study necessary to verify theoretical hypothesis, at the moment not sufficiently adequate. The work deals with the evolution of textile-clothing Marshallian Industrial District (MID) in Prato, focusing on last twenty years, characterised by the settlement of a large numbers of Chinese firms. The Prato MID is in a transformation/decline phase due for many scholars to the entrance of Chinese immigrants as well as the recent economic crisis and the effects of globalization (Johnson et al., 2009). We contribute to this debate following an evolutionary approach according to the Organisational Ecology and density dependence (Hannan and Freeman, 1989; Hannan and Carroll, 1992). The analysis is carried out on Italian and Chinese firms in Prato MID. Data are collected elaborating the Registry of Economic Activity held by the Province of Prato (1990-2011) and integrated with a previous database constructed from REA from Chambers of Commerce of Prato and Florence (1945-1998) (Lazzeretti and Storai, 2003; Lazzeretti and Terchi, 2002). We carried out demographic analysis on the natality and mortality of firms of Prato MID and we tested ecological models in order to establish relationships between legitimation and competition ecological processes and different life cycle phases. Results allow us to reconstruct the internal dynamics of Prato MID from its birth till today and identify in which stage of the life cycle it is currently, providing a theoretical and empirical contribution to the study of cluster evolution, through the Organisational Ecology.
    Keywords: Cluster evolution; cluster life cycle; organisation ecology approach; Prato; textile-clothing; Industrial District; Chinese firms population.
    JEL: R12 L67 R23
    Date: 2014–11
  8. By: Giovanni Dosi (Laboratory of Economics and Management); Mauro Napoletano (OFCE); Andrea Roventini (Department of economics); Tania Treibich (Maastricht University)
    Abstract: This paper presents the family of the Keynes+Schumpeter (K+S, cf. Dosi et al, 2010, 2013, 2014) evolutionary agent-based models, which study the effects of a rich ensemble of innovation, industrial dynamics and macroeconomic policies on the long-term growth and short-run fluctuations of the economy. The K+S models embed the Schumpeterian growth paradigm into a complex system of imperfect coordination among heterogeneous interacting firms and banks, where Keynesian (demand-related) and Minskian (credit cycle) elements feed back into the meso and macro dynamics. The model is able to endogenously generate long-run growth together with business cycles and major crises. Moreover, it reproduces a long list of macroeconomic and microeconomic stylized facts. Here, we discuss a series of experiments on the role of policies affecting i) innovation, ii) industry dynamics, iii) demand and iv) income distribution. Our results suggest the presence of strong complementarities between Schumpeterian (technological) and Keynesian (demand-related) policies in ensuring that the economic system follows a path of sustained stable growth and employment
    Keywords: agent-based model; Fiscal policy; Economic crises; Austerity policies; Disequilibrium dynamics
    JEL: C63 E32 E52 G21 O4 E6
    Date: 2014–11
  9. By: Kemp-Benedict, Eric
    Abstract: This paper provides an explication of the Method of Reflections developed by Hidalgo and Hausmann and a critique of their interpretation of the variables that it produces. They show that a quantity they identify with the average complexity of a country’s exports is correlated with log income. We show that their complexity measure is also orthogonal to their country diversity score. This suggests that the two measures capture different kind of information, but what that information might be is unclear. In this paper we propose an alternative interpretation and argue that the correlation between log income and Hausmann et al.’s complexity measure is a consequence of the well-studied relationship between export and income growth.
    Keywords: Method of Reflections; economic complexity; Perron-Frobenius theorem
    JEL: C6 O4
    Date: 2014–12–15
  10. By: Claude Gamel (Aix-Marseille University (Aix-Marseille School of Economics), CNRS & EHESS)
    Abstract: Dans "The Idea of Justice" (2009), Sen formule une critique systématique des théories « transcendantales » de la justice, dont l’archétype se trouve dans l’œuvre de Rawls et propose de leur substituer une approche « comparative », plus pragmatique. Dans "Macrojustice" (2005), Kolm défend une conception du « choix social endogène » qui le conduit, lui aussi, à se démarquer des notions rawlsiennes trop abstraites de « position originelle » et de « voile d’ignorance ». Quant à Rawls lui-même, la formulation  philosophique qu’il a pu donner de son second principe de justice (« juste égalité des chances » et « principe de différence ») semble trop floue pour contenir à elle seule des propositions précises de politique économique et sociale. En dépit des profondes différences d’ordre épistémologique sur le sens qu’ils donnent à leur réflexion normative respective, Sen, Kolm et Rawls sont pourtant tous des représentants d’un « égalitarisme libéral », dont l’économie générale reste toutefois à préciser (1) : si la hiérarchie rawlsienne des principes de justice fournit à notre essai son armature générale (2), l’approche des capacités de Sen légitime une conception plus ambitieuse de l’égalité des chances (3) et les transferts redistributifs « ELIE » de Kolm constitue une traduction possible du principe de différence (4). Portée et limites de notre essai font l’objet en conclusion d’un premier examen (5).
    Keywords: égalitarisme, libéralisme, principes de justice, capacités, macrojustice
    JEL: A12 B41 D6
    Date: 2014–12–08
  11. By: Paul David (Stanford University)
    Abstract: In most modern economies scientific and technological research activities are conducted in two distinct organizational modes: commercially oriented R&D based upon proprietary information, and noncommercial “open science.” When taken together and kept in proper balance, these form a complementary pair of institutionally differentiated sub-systems. Each can work to amplify and augment the productivity of the other, thereby spurring long-term economic growth and improvements of social welfare in knowledge driven societies. This paper considers the difference between historical origins of open science and its modern, critically important role in the allocation of research resources. The institutional structure of ‘The Republic of Open Science’ generally is less well understood and has less robust self-sustaining foundations than the familiar non-cooperative market mechanisms associated with proprietary R&D. Although they are better suited for the conduct of exploratory science, they also remain more vulnerable to damages from collateral effects of shifts in government policies, particularly those that impact their fiscal support and regulatory environments. After reviewing the several challenges that such policy actions during the 20th century’s closing decades had posed for continued effective collective explorations at the frontiers of scientific knowledge, the discussion examines the responses that those developments elicited from academic research communities. Those reactions to the threatened curtailment of timely access to data and technical information about new research methods and findings took the form of technical and organizational innovations designed to expand and enhance infrastructural protections for sustained open access in scientific and scholarly communications. They were practical, “bottom-up” initiatives to provide concrete, domain relevant tools and organizational routines whose adoption subsequently could be, and in the event were reinforced by “top-down” policy guidelines and regulatory steps by public funding agencies and international bodies. The non-politicized nature of that process, as well as its largely effective outcomes should be read (cautiously) as positive portents of the future vitality of the Republic of Open Science – and of those societies that recognize, protect and adequately support this remarkable social innovation.
    Keywords: science and technology policy, open science, new economics of science, evolution of institutions, patronage, asymmetric information, principal-agent problems, common agency contracting, social networks, ‘invisible colleges,’ scientific academies, intellectual property rights, anti-commons, contractual construction of commons  
    JEL: D8 H4 O3
    Date: 2014–08
  12. By: José M. Menudo (Department of Economics, Universidad Pablo de Olavide); José Mª O’Kean (Department of Economics, Universidad Pablo de Olavide)
    Abstract: This work analyses the particular and repeated attempt to introduce the entrepreneur into economic activity through the market for entrepreneurs. We shall examine the few suggestions ? Richard Cantillon, Jean-Baptiste Say, Alfred Marshall and Frank Knight ? that propose it. The analysis of the writings of these authors enables us to draw relevant conclusions from their attempts to develop an economic theory of the entrepreneur from the perspective of the market for entrepreneurs.
    Keywords: History of Economic Thought, Entrepreneurship, Profit, Production and Organizations, Institutions and Growth.
    JEL: B1 M13 M53 D2 O43
    Date: 2014–10
  13. By: Roger Backhouse; Beatrice Cherrier
    Abstract: This paper conjectures that economics has changed profoundly since the 1970s and that these changes involve a new understanding of the relationship between theoretical and applied work. Drawing on an analysis of John Bates Clark medal winners, it is suggested that the discipline became more applied, applied work being accorded a higher status in relation to pure theory than was previously the case. Discussing new types of applied work, the changing context of applied work, and new sites for applied work, the paper outlines a research agenda that will test the conjecture that there has been a changed understanding of the nature of applied work and hence of economics itself.
    Keywords: Applied economics, theory, Clark Medal, JEL codes, core, policy, computation, data, econometrics
    JEL: A10 B20 B40 C00
    Date: 2014–12
  14. By: Lutter, Mark; Schröder, Martin
    Abstract: Prior studies that try to explain who gets tenure and why remain inconclusive, especially on whether non-meritocratic factors influence who becomes a professor. On the basis of career and publication data of virtually all sociologists working in German sociology departments, we test how meritocratic factors (academic productivity) as well as non-meritocratic factors (ascription, symbolic, and social capital) influence the chances of getting a permanent professorship in sociology. Our findings show that getting tenure in sociology largely depends on scholarly output, as previous studies have shown. Improving on existing studies, however, we show specifically that each refereed journal article and each monograph increases a sociologist’s chance for tenure by 10 to 15 percent, while other publications affect one’s likelihood for tenure only marginally and in some cases even negatively. Regarding non-meritocratic factors, we show that network size and individual reputation matter, while international experience and the reputation of one’s university do not directly affect the likelihood of tenure. Women need on average 23 to 44 percent fewer publications than men to get their first permanent position as university professor. Thus, all else being equal, they are about 1.4 times more likely to get tenure than men. The article contributes to a better understanding of the role of meritocratic and non-meritocratic factors in achieving scarce and highly competitive job positions.
    Abstract: Bei der Frage, wer eine Professur bekommt, sind sich bisherige Studien insbesondere über den Einfluss nichtmeritokratischer Faktoren unschlüssig. Auf Basis von Lebenslauf- und Publikationsdaten fast aller an soziologischen Instituten in Deutschland beschäftigten Sozialwissenschaftlerinnen und Sozialwissenschaftlern testen wir, wie meritokratische (wissenschaftliche Produktivität) und nichtmeritokratische Faktoren (Askription, symbolisches und soziales Kapital) die Chance beeinflussen, auf eine Soziologieprofessur berufen zu werden. Es zeigt sich, dass eine Berufung vor allem von der Anzahl wissenschaftlicher Publikationen abhängt. Mit jedem referierten Zeitschriftenaufsatz und jeder Buchpublikation steigt die Chance auf eine Berufung um 10 bis 15 Prozent an, während andere Publikationsarten sie nur moderat oder sogar negativ beeinflussen. Unter den nicht-meritokratischen Faktoren zeigen sich insbesondere Netzwerkfaktoren wie auch individuelle Reputation als relevant. Internationale Erfahrung sowie das Prestige der Herkunftsinstitution weisen keine direkten Effekte auf. Frauen, so das weitere Ergebnis der Untersuchung, benötigen im Schnitt 23 bis 44 Prozent weniger Publikationen als Männer, um einen Erstruf zu erhalten. Unter sonst gleichen Faktoren liegt ihre Chance auf eine Professur um das 1,4-fache höher als die ihrer männlichen Kollegen. Insgesamt leistet die Studie einen Beitrag zur Beantwortung der Frage, wie und wie stark meritokratische und nichtmeritokratische Faktoren die Chancen auf sehr knappe, zugleich hoch kompetitive Berufspositionen beeinflussen.
    Date: 2014
  15. By: Kota Kitagawa
    Abstract: This article distills the economic and current significance contained in the political economy of J.R. Commons. It compares descriptions of his three main works that discuss “sovereignty”: A Sociological View of Sovereignty (SVS), Legal Foundations of Capitalism (LFC), and Institutional Economics (IE). Through this comparison, we find that the role of sovereignty in his theory changed dramatically. First, in the period from SVS (1899–1900) to LFC (1924), the theory of sovereignty changes significantly from the standpoint of natural rights, which imply permanence of privileged customs, to “pragmatic philosophy” of the courts, in which laws are relevant to customs at certain times and places. Second, from the manuscripts of IE (1927–1928), sovereignty is defined as comprising part principles, which relate to each other and make up the whole principle, willingness. In other words, Commons views sovereignty as one perspective, which in turn has a high capability of explaining the socioeconomic system. Additional descriptions of IE (1934) derived from its original manuscripts repeatedly emphasize the “power” of economic concerns that are equal to or exceed the power of the state, as well as the importance of the “function” of sovereignty in pragmatic investigations of economic disputes. We distill the economic and current significance of IE. First, the value theory that constructs values institutionally and collectively starts from an analysis of sovereignty and joint evaluations. Second, sovereignty cannot be separated from an analysis of economic transactions. Third, this paper concretely shows elements of a “deliberate space” in which sovereignty and economic interests act in concert. J.R. Commons’s IE sets out specific knowledge on the interface between sovereignty and economic interests, and serves as a useful tool in reconsidering the organ of sovereignty.
    Keywords: J.R. Commons; Institutional Economics; Sovereignty; Supreme Court; Commission
    JEL: B11
    Date: 2014–12
  16. By: Fernando Perobelli; Vinicius Vale
    Abstract: In the recent period, there is an increase in the household income in Brazil. There is a positive impact upon consumption and welfare. On the other hand is important to verify the impact upon emissions derived from household consumption. The literature presents two approaches to analyze emissions. They are: account CO2 emissions based on the production principle and on the consumer principle. According to the consumer principle, the consumer is responsible for CO2 emissions from the production of energy, goods and services. In this case, the CO2 emissions are related to final use of goods and services even if they are imported from other countries. In order to reach the main aim of this paper we will use an input-output approach, specifically the extraction method. We use input-output matrix calibrated for 2003 and 2009 for the Brazilian economy considering 35 production sectors. We opened the household consumption into eight income categories. We closed the input-output model for household. This enables us to better understand the impact of each class of consumption upon the CO2 emissions.
    JEL: Q50 C67
    Date: 2014–11
  17. By: Alessandro Moro (Department of Economics, University Of Venice Cà Foscari)
    Abstract: This paper develops an agent-based computational model of violent political revolution in which a subjugated population of agents and an armed revolutionary organization try to overthrow a central authority and its loyal forces. The model replicates several patterns of rebellion consistent with the major historical revolutions and provides an explanation for the multiplicity of outcomes that can arise from an uprising. This last point is of particular interest if we consider the heterogeneity of political outcomes produced by the recent revolutionary episodes in the so-called Arab Spring.
    Keywords: Political Revolutions, Arab Spring, Agent-Based Models
    JEL: C63 D74
    Date: 2014
  18. By: Christelle Hamel (INED); Wilfried Rault (INED); Rnité de recherche Démographie, genre et sociétés (INED)
    Abstract: Demographic studies have revealed the extent of recent progress in gender equality, but also the distance still to be covered. In a wide range of areas – be it representations in school textbooks, career trajectories, the division of household and parenting tasks, the evolution of conjugal and sexual norms, exposure to violence or health and disability – survey data all provide concordant evidence. Men’s and women’s trajectories are becoming more similar, but inequality still exists, most often to the detriment of women.
    Date: 2014
  19. By: Sandrine Stervinou
    Abstract: Worker cooperatives are enterprises owned by employees who are sharing the decision taking. This form of enterprises is an old one in Europe but the recent crisis has underlined their capacity of resilience. Furthermore, worker cooperatives are non purchasable and non relocatable. So, it has given to this companies a new notoriety and created some interest from medias, politicians and researchers. This article will give an overview of the importance of workers cooperative in different regions in three countries of Europe: Emilia-Romagna (Italy), Basque region (Spain), West of France. The choice of these regions is based on the weight of worker cooperatives compared to other regions in their country. An analysis of the key success factors is tried in order to understand why worker cooperatives developed more in these regions.
    Keywords: worker cooperatives local development Europe
    Date: 2014–11
  20. By: Anastasia Nagirnaya
    Abstract: Spatial diffusion of information and communication technologies (ICTs) is a global continuous accumulative process. But is it uniform or cyclic? Is it possible to skip some of its historical stages? What is a specific feature of the modern stage? Are there any patterns of ICTs interaction? And how do different ICT innovations work on globalization? Based on official statistics on ICTs penetration and traffic (print press, postal service, telegraph, telephone, radio, television, mobile phone, Internet) received from governments (including USA and Russia) and international organizations (ITU, UN, etc.) covering the period of the latest 20--150 years, graphs and maps have been generated and the following results have been obtained. The study has shown that ICTs diffusion is wave-like in the long term. As a rule, new innovation waves accelerate a decline of the old ones. But in some cases, when waves of different ICT generations overlap, a "resonance effect" appears caused by the inertness of ICT infrastructure. Detailed analysis of mobile telephony diffusion in correlation with fixed telephony and Internet revealed a fact that advanced ICTs development can make it possible for developing regions to skip certain stages of informatization and even implement an "overcoming" scenario of catching-up development. Specific feature of the modern stage is ICTs convergence: an integrated universal system of global digital communications is being developed on the Internet basis. It is an outcome of the modern globalization age, just as telegraph formed the 1st global information network in early globalization epoch. According to our research of different ICTs' traffic structure, each next generation of ICT innovations provides more international communicative openness (defined by a share of international traffic in a total traffic volume). In the modern world only 4% of the global telephone traffic is international, just 1% of the traditional postal mail crosses international borders. Another trend has been discovered for the Internet traffic, 46% of which is international, and this share is growing rapidly. Thus, when moving from traditional to the newest ICTs, a spatial scale of communication grows from mostly local to international, and international traffic is constantly migrating from traditional to the newest telecommunications. This study expands the understanding of ICTs diffusion process, presenting it in a long term and in an integrated manner, and its results could be important for informatization policies and strategies elaboration.
    Keywords: innovations diffusion; information and communication technologies; telecommunications
    Date: 2014–11
  21. By: Maren Duvendack; Richard W. Palmer-Jones; W. Robert Reed (University of Canterbury)
    Abstract: This study reports on various aspects of replication research in economics. It includes (i) a brief history of data sharing and replication; (ii) the results of the authors’ survey administered to the editors of all 333 “Economics” journals listed in Web of Science in December 2013; (iii) an analysis of 155 replication studies that have been published in peer-reviewed economics journals from 1977-2014; (iv) a discussion of the future of replication research in economics, and (v) observations on how replications can be better integrated into research efforts to address problems associated with publication bias and other Type I error phenomena.
    Keywords: Replication, data sharing, publication bias
    JEL: A1 B4
    Date: 2014–12–03

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