nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2014‒10‒22
fifteen papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. Socio-economic inequalities: a statistical physics perspective By Arnab Chatterjee
  3. Gender Equality in the Labor Market in Cambodia By Asian Development Bank (ADB); ; ;
  4. On the Construction of a Historical Gender Gap Index. An Implementation on French Data By Faustine Perrin
  5. How useful is inequality of opportunity as a policy construct? By Ravi Kanbur; Adam Wagstaff
  6. Women’s Empowerment in Bangladesh: A Case Study of Two NGOs By Mohammad Samiul Islam
  7. Price-setting behaviour in New Zealand By Miles Parker
  9. A gender analysis of children’s well-being and capabilities through time use data By Paula Rodríguez-Modroño; Lina Gálvez-Muñoz; Mauricio Matus-López; Mónica Domínguez-Serrano
  10. Housework share between partners: Experimental evidence on gender identity By Katrin Auspurg; Maria Iacovou; Cheti Nicoletti
  11. Forensic Finance By Verwijmeren, P.
  12. Etica privada vs. ética pública By Luisa Montuschi
  13. El peronismo femenino: La precuela (1945-1949) By Carolina Barry
  14. The African Middle Class in South Africa 1910-1994 By Roger Southall
  15. Intermediarios financieros no bancarios en América Latina: ¿banca paralela? By Fanny Warman D.; María José Roa

  1. By: Arnab Chatterjee
    Abstract: Socio-economic inequalities are manifested in different aspects of our social life. We discuss various aspects, beginning with the evolutionary and historical origins, and discussing the major issues from the social and economic point of view. The subject has attracted scholars from across various disciplines, including physicists, who bring in a unique perspective to the field. The major attempts to analyze the results, address the causes, and understand the origins using statistical tools and statistical physics concepts are discussed.
    Date: 2014–09
  2. By: Lauren Klaus (Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, Australia); Mario Fernando (School of Management, Management Science and Marketing, University of Wollongong, Australia)
    Abstract: There have been increasing calls for business leaders to follow profit making strategies that are aligned with a social purpose. The challenge for leaders is to identify and develop novel and unique organisational initiatives promoting better alignment between the competing interests of business and society. Social purpose related profit making often requires organisations to generate socially innovative ways of operating businesses. In this paper, we examine how social innovation is promoted by successful leaders in organisations through spiritual leadership. Using Parameshwar’s (2005) ego-transcendence based spiritual leadership model, we explore the processes through which business leaders can foster social innovation. Spiritual leadership can help leaders with ethical decision making and help their organisations create a healthy balance between profits, people and the planet (Fernando, 2011). It is in this context that this paper explores the role of spiritual leadership in generating profits whilst at the same time delivering win-win outcomes to organisation’s stakeholders and society through socially innovative ideas. This paper reports on influential business leaders who are credited by the media for pioneering social innovations. Leader case studies are analysed using a cross-case and within-case analysis of representative excerpts from publicly available data. We analyse in particular the instances of oppressive conditions of personal and business failures. These highlight the extreme conditions of human adversity and oppression, which demands engaging several dimensions of leader behaviour to overcome the challenging circumstances. The study aims to capture the processes these successful leaders use when overcoming challenges to create socially innovative ideas. By exploring the responses of the selected business leaders to the challenging circumstances of their social innovations, this paper describes the potentially significant role played by spiritual leadership, particularly the role of higher purpose, in the development of social innovations.
    Date: 2013–09
  3. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); (Regional and Sustainable Development Department, ADB); ;
    Abstract: Based on an analysis of gender inequalities, strategies and promising initiatives to counter gender discrimination and promote equality between men and women in Cambodia, Kazakhstan, and the Philippines, as well as an inventory of global good legal, economic, and social practices, this report summarizes the findings and recommendations for Cambodia. It shows how to improve equitable employment opportunities, remuneration and treatment for women and men at work to support the development of decent work and gender equality good practices in the country. The report is part of a series consisting of: •Good Global Economic and Social Practices to Promote Gender Equality in the Labor Market •Good Global Legal Practices to Promote Gender Equality in the Labor Market •Gender Equality and the Labor Market: Cambodia, Kazakhstan, and the Philippines •Gender Equality in the Labor Market in Cambodia •Gender Equality in the Labor Market in the Philippines.
    Keywords: gender; women; labor market; global practices; legal; gender equality; ADB; ILO; GAD; gender and development; technical assistance; gender mainstreaming; discrimination; legislation; access to work; working women; recruitment; employment; international standards; minimum wage; equal remuneration; sexual harassment; labor clauses; public contracts; security; formal employment; informal employment; part-time work; short-term contracts; home workers; domestic workers; rural workers; entrepreneurs; cooperatives; social protection; maternity care; family leave; child care; association; collective bargaining; freedom of association; social dialogue
    Date: 2014–02
  4. By: Faustine Perrin (Bureau d’Economie Théorique et Appliquée (BETA) – University of Strasbourg Institute for Advanced Studies, France)
    Date: 2014
  5. By: Ravi Kanbur (Cornell University); Adam Wagstaff (The World Bank)
    Abstract: The academic literature on equality of opportunity has burgeoned. More recently, the concepts and measures have begun to be used by policy institutions, including in specific sectors like health and education. Indeed, it is argued that one advantage of focusing on equality of opportunity is that policy makers are more responsive to that discourse than on equality of outcomes per se. This paper presents a critique of equality of opportunity in the policy context. While the empirical analysis to which the literature has given rise is useful and is to be welcomed, current methods for quantifying and implementing the concept with a view to informing the policy discourse face a series of fundamental questions that remain unanswered. Without a full appreciation of these difficulties, these methods may prove to be misleading in the policy context.
    Date: 2014–08
  6. By: Mohammad Samiul Islam (Department of Public Administration, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology (SUST), Sylhet-3114, Bangladesh)
    Abstract: Empowerment of women is a holistic concept. It is a multi-dimensional approach and it covers social, political, and economic aspects. This paper used questionnaires and focus group discussions to shed light on the question if non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have increased women’s empowerment in Bangladesh. Looking at two study areas and two NGOs (the Friends in Village Development Bangladesh (FIVDB) and Nari Uddug Kendra (NUK)), the results of the case study show that these two NGOs have helped women with economic empowerment, but that progress with women’s overall empowerment has been limited.
    Keywords: gender, women, empowerment, microcredit, Bangladesh
    Date: 2014–09
  7. By: Miles Parker (Reserve Bank of New Zealand)
    Abstract: New evidence from a large survey of over 5300 firms provides insight into price-setting behaviour in New Zealand. There is considerable heterogeneity in behaviour both between and within sectors, and marked asymmetry in the responses to shocks. The median number of prices reviews is twice per year, but the median number of changes is just once. Multi-product firms reset prices more frequently, even accounting for other firm characteristics. Explicit and implicit contracts and strategic complementarity are the most widely recognised causes of price stickness. Menu costs and sticky information are not widely recognised.
    JEL: E30 D40
    Date: 2014–07
  8. By: David King (Radley Yeldar, UK)
    Abstract: What is an ethical culture, and why should companies bother about it? An ethical company is a business that helps people know the right thing to do, understand their code of ethics and uphold the organisation’s principles. As a result, the organisation protects itself against the kind of ethical contraventions and scandals that have affected many sectors, putting businesses in the news for all the wrong reasons and undermining the trust of customers, employees and investors. How can companies put ethics at the heart of their business?
    Date: 2013–09
  9. By: Paula Rodríguez-Modroño; Lina Gálvez-Muñoz; Mauricio Matus-López; Mónica Domínguez-Serrano
    Abstract: The main goal of this paper is to analyse gender differences in children’s well-being by applying a capability approach and a gender perspective both to the study of the differences in children’s capabilities by gender and to the study of the impact of the gendered allocation of time on children’s capabilities. The econometric model used is a Multiple Indicator Multiple Causes model (MIMIC). The model is estimated on a sample of children in their middle and late childhood and uses micro-data from the Spanish Time Use Survey. The study focuses on the analysis of well-being through four capabilities: social relations, education and knowledge, leisure and play activities, and domestic and care work. The results point out to the fact that the labour market behaviour by gender is not only related to human capital formation, family conditions or labour market opportunities, but also to children's well-being. Furthermore, gender stereotypes continue influencing the development of children’s capabilities during their process of socialisation.
    Keywords: capabilities, child well-being, time use analysis, structural equation models
    JEL: C35 I30 J22
    Date: 2013–03
  10. By: Katrin Auspurg; Maria Iacovou; Cheti Nicoletti
    Abstract: Using an experimental design, we investigate the reasons behind the gendered division of housework within couples. In particular, we assess whether the fact that women do more housework may beexplained by differences in preferences deriving from differences in gender identity between men and women. We find little evidence of any systematic gender differences in the preference for housework, suggesting that the reasons for the gendered division of housework lie elsewhere.
    Keywords: Gender, housework, unpaid work, division of labor, experiment
    JEL: J16 J22 C35
    Date: 2014–10
  11. By: Verwijmeren, P.
    Abstract: The financial world does not have the best reputation. One of the problems is the perceived lack of integrity of financial markets, which is fuelled by examples of financial misconduct. I argue that with financial data becoming more widely available and constantly improving, financial researchers could help in identifying suspicious behavior in financial markets. I will provide examples of potentially fraudulent behavior surrounding executive compensation and security issuance. Allegedly, companies have backdated executives’ stock options and as such have increased executives’ effective compensation, and there might be widespread insider trading before the announcements of privately placed securities. Systematic analyses of the available data could detect these examples of misconduct. Overall, forensic finance has the potential to detect suspicious behavior and as such could play an important role in understanding and improving the integrity of the financial world.
    Keywords: Financial markets, executive compensation, stock options price, insider trading, financial research, forensic finance
    JEL: G12 G14 G24 G28 G3 K14
    Date: 2014–09–19
  12. By: Luisa Montuschi
    Abstract: En muchos casos, en particular los que se presentan en el mundo de la política, se plantea la existencia de una dicotomía entre la ética privada y la ética pública y se sostiene que, en consecuencia, los principios y normas aplicables a una no deberían ser considerados de aplicación compulsiva a la otra para identificar comportamientos éticos. Ello habría de implicar que aquello que se considera como una regla obligatoria de comportamiento en uno de los campos no debería necesariamente serlo en el otro. Y este planteo resulta claramente inadecuado tanto para interpretar la realidad como para proponer políticas y medidas concretas que procuren el logro de una sociedad más ética. En la vida cotidiana, en las relaciones sociales y personales, en la vida política, en las relaciones laborales, en los negocios y en prácticamente todas las facetas de la actividad humana encontramos frecuentes referencias a hechos o cuestiones que son calificados como “buenos”, “correctos”, “malos”, “incorrectos” o que mencionan los “deberes”, las “obligaciones”, los “derechos”, los “valores” o las “virtudes”. Los enunciados que contienen estas expresiones son enunciados valorativos que corresponden al campo de la ética. También se ubican en ese mismo campo los dilemas con los cuales las personas, o aún las organizaciones, deben enfrentarse y que demandan una solución, la elección de un curso que se espera sea bueno y correcto.
    Date: 2014–10
  13. By: Carolina Barry
    Abstract: Este trabajo propone analizar la apertura de los centros cívicos femeninos peronistas como espacios asociativos con fines políticos y de surgimiento de liderazgos. Numerosas agrupaciones que adquirieron fuerza, autonomía y prácticas diferenciadas relacionadas con el ámbito político y el sindical. Estos centros formaron la rama femenina del peronismo hasta julio de 1949, momento en que se creó el Partido Peronista Femenino (PPF). De allí en más se trató de una organización política diferente, una entidad más significativa que una rama; un partido carismático con connotaciones sumamente singulares y que posibilitó que cuando las mujeres votaron por primera vez en 1951, mayoritariamente por el peronismo, un número importante fuera electo como legisladoras. Estudios previos dan cuenta del PPF, un partido político autónomo del Partido Peronista pero con el cual compartía los mismos objetivos y liderazgos, un partido carismático que se diluyó con la muerte de su líder fundadora, Eva Perón. Esta investigación pretende ser una suerte de precuela o historia previa de este partido novedoso y enfocarse en las organizaciones anteriores, por esa razón se sitúa entre 1945 y 1949. También se considera el rol de Eva Perón y la cimentación de su poder durante este proceso.
    Keywords: centros cívicos femeninos, Eva Perón, Partido Peronista, sufragio femenino, trilogía de la revolución
    Date: 2014–10
  14. By: Roger Southall
    Abstract: Alan Cobley (1990: 3) has argued that no sustained interest was taken in the subject of class in South Africa until the arrival of a generation of radical historians in the 1970s, and then the focus of concern was largely with the origins and development of a black working class in whose revolutionary potential the future was, by many, deemed to lie. In contrast, Jeremy Seekings (2009) has proposed that class was long a concern, if not necessarily the central one, of liberal scholars from the 1940s. Nonetheless, even though it is true that an emergent black middle class attracted considerable interest from liberal historians, anthropologists and social observers, it is fair to say that it was dealt with spasmodically, and then very often largely as a subordinated appendage of the black proletariat. Arguably, therefore, it is only now that the history of the African middle class, notably as it participated in and shaped the African National Congress (ANC), is beginning to receive its due. In part, this is because the lot of the middle class is often deemed in ‘struggle history’ to have been unheroic: indeed in some tellings, the only way for the bourgeoisie to contribute to liberation was by subjecting itself to the leadership of the working class! Yet even while, today, there is a growing interest in the multi-faceted nature of the struggle against apartheid, there has been a failure to trace the holistic evolution of the black middle class. In what follows I provide an overview of the development of the specifically ‘African’ segment of the ‘black middle class’ in the pre-democratic era, even while recognizing that this places severe limitations upon how we portray past struggles against racial oppression.
    Keywords: African, Middle class, South Africa
    Date: 2014
  15. By: Fanny Warman D. (Centro de Estudios Monetarios Latinoamericanos); María José Roa (Centro de Estudios Monetarios Latinoamericanos)
    Abstract: La banca paralela (BP) en las economías emergentes se comprende menos y ha sido mucho menos estudiada que en las economías desarrolladas. La falta de datos es una de las razones fundamentales. El objetivo de este trabajo es proporcionar datos y analizar la BP en un grupo heterogéneo de países de América Latina. De nuestro trabajo se concluye que para el caso de América Latina la naturaleza de la BP es distinta a la de las economías desarrolladas. Si bien en algunos países se realizan actividades de titulizaciones o bursatilizaciones, estas son relativamente pequeñas. Para el grupo de países revisados parece difícil y hasta un poco ambicioso hablar de BP por las siguientes razones: 1) el sistema financiero de estos países está dominado en mayor o menor medida por el sector bancario, y los intermediarios financieros no bancarios representan una proporción muy pequeña del total de activos del sistema financiero; 2) el sistema financiero es relativamente simple comparado con el refinamiento de los sistemas financieros desarrollados; y 3) los intermediarios financieros no bancarios en su mayoría están regulados y supervisados por las mismas autoridades que norman al sector bancario, con excepción de ciertas entidades de inclusión financiera, como las cooperativas
    Keywords: Sistemas financieros; Intermediarios Financieros no bancarios; Banca paralela; Shadow Banking; Regulación; América Latina.
    JEL: G1 G2 O1
    Date: 2014–06

This nep-hme issue is ©2014 by Carlo D’Ippoliti. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.