nep-hme New Economics Papers
on All new papers
Issue of 2014‒09‒08
nineteen papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. The impact of market innovations on the evolution of norms: the sustainability case By Stephan Müller; Georg von Wangenheim
  2. Towards an evolutionary perspective on regional resilience By Boschma, Ron
  3. Key Borrowers Detected By The Intensities Of Their Short-range Interactions By Fuad Aleskerov; Irina Andrievskaya; Elena Permjakova
  4. Actualité des analyses de Joseph Schumpeter By Frederic Teulon
  5. Tools Of Government For Support Of Sonpos In Russia: In Search Of Cross-Sector Cooperation In The Delivery Of Social Services By Vladimir B. Benevolenski
  6. Real wages and labor-saving technical change: evidence from a panel of manufacturing industries in mature and labor-surplus economies By Joao Paulo A. de Souza
  7. “Le va bien en la vida” Percepciones de bienestar de un grupo de adolescentes del Perú By Vanessa Rojas; Alexandra Cussianovich
  8. Ce que Bourdieu veut (nous) dire By Frédéric Teulon
  9. Albert Hirschman (1915-2012) : l’étude des aspects non économiques de l’économie By Frederic Teulon
  10. Las compras públicas como herramienta de política productiva en Uruguay. Descripción de las compras públicas de TIC en 2005-2012 By Carlos Bianchi; Martín Brun
  11. Relire Marx (et les marxistes !) By Frederic Teulon
  12. Models and Fictions in (Micro-)Economics By Wichardt, Philipp C.
  13. Why has Inequality in Germany not Risen Further After 2005? By Miriam Rehm; Kai Daniel Schmid; Dieter Wang
  14. Amartya Sen et l’économie du bien-être By Frederic Teulon
  15. Attitudes Towards Gender Equality And Perception Of Democracy In The Arab World By Veronica Kostenko; Pavel Kuzmichev; Eduard Ponarin
  16. Raymond Boudon, le principe de rationalité et l’individualisme méthodologique By Frederic Teulon
  17. John Kenneth Galbraith, un économiste hétérodoxe dans le siècle By Frederic Teulon
  18. Microfinance around the world – regional SWOT analysis By Harmincova, Zuzana; Janda, Karel
  19. Causal Estimates of the Intangible Costs of Violence against Women in Latin America and the Caribbean By Jorge Aguero

  1. By: Stephan Müller (University of Göttingen); Georg von Wangenheim (University of Kassel)
    Abstract: That institutions matter is widely accepted among economists and so are social norms as an important category of informal institutions. Social norms matter in many economic situations, but in particular for markets. The economic literature has studied the interrelation between markets and social norms in both directions – how social norms affect markets and how markets affect social norms. Starting from these two perspectives, we add to the literature, by suggesting a new link between product markets and the evolution of social norms: we analyze how the evolution of a social norm may be affected by a product innovation which adds to the variation of products with respect to their level of norm compliance. We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for a) a positive impact of the innovation on the level of norm adoption and b) for multiplicity of norm equilibria. Finally we discuss policy implications.
    Keywords: Consumer Behavior – Social Norms – Evolutionary Economics – Sustainability – Innovation
    JEL: A13 D02 D11 Q01 Q55
    Date: 2014
  2. By: Boschma, Ron (CIRCLE, Lund University and Department of Economic Geography, Urban and Regional research centre Utrecht, Utrecht University)
    Abstract: This paper proposes an evolutionary perspective on regional resilience. We conceptualize resilience not just as the ability of a region to accommodate shocks, but we extend it to the long-term ability of regions to develop new growth paths. We propose a comprehensive view on regional resilience, in which history is key to understand how regions develop new growth paths, and in which industrial, network and institutional dimensions of resilience come together. Resilient regions are capable of overcoming a trade-off between adaptation and adaptability, as embodied in their industrial (related and unrelated variety), network (loosely coupled) and institutional (loosely coherent) structures.
    Keywords: regional resilience; related variety; networks; institutions; evolutionary economic geography
    JEL: B52 D85 L16 O18 R11
    Date: 2014–08–23
  3. By: Fuad Aleskerov (National Research University Higher School); Irina Andrievskaya (National Research University Higher School); Elena Permjakova (National Research University Higher School)
    Abstract: The issue of systemic importance has received particular attention since the recent financial crisis when it came to the fore that an individual financial institution can disturb the whole financial system. Interconnectedness is considered as one of the key drivers of systemic importance. Several measures have been proposed in the literature in order to estimate the interconnectedness of financial institutions and systems. However, most of them lack an important dimension of this characteristic: intensities of agent interaction. This paper proposes a novel method that solves this issue. A distinctive feature of our approach is that it takes into consideration not just the interconnectedness of agents but also their interaction intensities. The approach is based on the power index and centrality analysis and is employed to find a key borrower in a loan market. To illustrate the feasibility of our methodology we apply it at the European Union level and find key countries-borrowers.
    Keywords: Power index, key borrower, systemic importance, interconnectedness, centrality
    JEL: C7 G2
    Date: 2014
  4. By: Frederic Teulon
    Abstract: Joseph Schumpeter est un des derniers intellectuels a avoir eu une vision encyclopédique de l’économie et des sciences sociales. Il a développé une explication des cycles basé sur une théorie de l’innovation, de la « destruction créatrice » et des entrepreneurs qui cherchent à se créer des rentes de situation. Ainsi il existe une vision schumpétérienne de la croissance économique, celle-ci affirme que la productivité crée la croissance et qu'elle est fonction du changement technique.
    Keywords: Dynamique du capitalisme, Cycles économiques, Innovation, R&D.
    JEL: B0
    Date: 2014–08–29
  5. By: Vladimir B. Benevolenski (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper discusses the set of tools of government enacted in 2009–2013 in Russia to provide support to socially oriented nonprofit organizations (SONPOs). The discussion evaluates the new tools within the context of international comparisons. In particular the comparisons concern the definition of SONPOs as a subpopulation of the nonprofit sector, the economic dimension of the tool kit and the combination of the support measures as a means to foster cross-sector cooperation in the delivery of social services. Worldwide cross-sector partnership in the delivery of social services is used by governments to engage the resources of civic organizations in the implementation of social policy. NPOs quite readily accept government support and espouse participatory approaches considering such approaches as instrumental in pursuit of their social missions. In Russia this approach is considered a serious policy innovation since government policy to date vis-a-vis the nonprofit sector could be described as either indifferent or predominantly restrictive. The conceptual framework employed for our discussion is based on the explanation of the role played by nonprofit organizations and of the motivation for cooperation between the state and NPOs in the supply of public goods provided by the theory of “market / government / voluntary failure” and on the tools of government approach developed by Salamon. We first consider the legal definition of the subsector of SONPOs, and then investigate the newly introduced tools of government support featuring data on the scope of Russian federal government support for SONPOs. Our discussion focuses on international comparisons, showing substantial similarity to government tool kits employed to support NPOs elsewhere in the world.
    Keywords: government regulation; nonprofit sector; public administration; public-private partnership; Russia; social policy; socially oriented NPO.
    JEL: H83
    Date: 2014
  6. By: Joao Paulo A. de Souza (Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst)
    Abstract: This paper uses panel cointegration and error correction models to unveil the direction of long-run causality between the real product wage and labor productivity at the industry level. I use two datasets of manufacturing industries: the EU-Klems dataset covering 11 industries in 19 developed economies, and the Unido Industrial Statistics Database covering 22 industries in 30 developed and developing economies. In both datasets, I find evidence of cointegration between the two variables, as well as evidence of two-way, long-run Granger causality. These findings are consistent with theories of directed technical change, which claim that a rise in labor costs sparks the adoption of labor-saving innovations. They are also consistent with distributive theories whereby real wages keep apace of labor productivity growth, giving rise to long-run stability in functional distribution.
    Keywords: Technological Change, Wage Shares, Labor Productivity, Panel Cointegration
    JEL: B5 E25 O33
    Date: 2014
  7. By: Vanessa Rojas (Niños del Milenio (Young Lives) y GRADE); Alexandra Cussianovich
    Abstract: Este documento de trabajo aborda el bienestar subjetivo según la perspectiva de los adolescentes seguidos por el estudio Niños del Milenio: un subgrupo de los jóvenes de la cohorte mayor, que viven en cuatro distritos del Perú. A ellos, como a un subgrupo de niños de la cohorte menor, se les visita más que a sus pares de la muestra para conversar con ellos en profundidad. La concepción de bienestar de los jóvenes varía de acuerdo a los entornos y las etapas que atraviesan, por lo que sus percepciones se contextualizan y se recogen sus cambios y continuidades en dos de las rondas cualitativas. Durante la primera (2007), estos chicos y chicas empezaban la secundaria, mientras que en la tercera (2011), muchos la concluían y transitaban al mundo adulto. Los jóvenes destacaron como indicadores de bienestar, en ambas rondas, el mantener una buena relación con sus padres y contar con buenos amigos. Asimismo, en zonas urbanas y rurales, resaltaron el acceso a la educación y el buen desempeño académico, además de gozar de una situación económica holgada. En cambio, en las dos rondas, ellos coincidieron en que la pérdida del apoyo de sus padres – por muerte o discapacidad – como el principal riesgo a su bienestar. También identificaron como amenaza ser posibles víctimas de violencia, emocional o física, en la casa o en la escuela. De otro lado, principalmente en áreas rurales, más varones dijeron en el 2011 que el trabajo podría amenazar sus estudios, pero también lo señalaron como medio para afrontar la pobreza familiar, además de fuente de adquisición de habilidades. Aunque el embarazo adolescente ya había sido indicado por los jóvenes como un riesgo en ambas rondas, en el 2011 lo mencionaron con más frecuencia por su edad en tránsito a la adultez. En general, los adolescentes expresaron que su bienestar depende de múltiples factores, muchos vinculados a la educación, y donde juegan un papel relevante la familia y los pares. Esperaban oportunidades para educarse tras acabar el colegio, y obtener trabajos mejor remunerados que los de sus padres. Los jóvenes se veían como dueños de su vida, capaces de superarse y darse, a ellos y a sus familias, mayor bienestar.
    Date: 2013
  8. By: Frédéric Teulon
    Abstract: Pierre Bourdieu est un des sociologues et intellectuels français les plus importants du XXe siècle. Il a fondé une école à laquelle plusieurs sociologues de premier plan se rattachent. Ses travaux nombreux et divers nous interpellent. Son oeuvre porte avant tout sur le pouvoir et comment celui-ci contribue à maintenir l’ordre social. Elle a une portée générale qui devrait concerner plus directement les économistes, les spécialistes des organisations, du marketing ou du management.
    Keywords: Sociologie de l’éducation, Algérie, Discriminations, Habitus culturel, Inégalités, Pouvoir, Violence symbolique.
    Date: 2014–08–29
  9. By: Frederic Teulon
    Abstract: Albert Hirschman est un économiste américain hétérodoxe et difficilement classable. Il se situe totalement en dehors du courant de pensée dominant (néoclassique). Il a développé des travaux de recherche non mathématisés, basés en partie sur des expériences de terrain notamment en Amérique latine. Son modèle Exit, Voice and Loyalty est devenu une référence permettant de mieux comprendre le fonctionnement des marchés.
    Keywords: Albert Hirschman, Concurrence, Développement économique.
    Date: 2014–08–29
  10. By: Carlos Bianchi (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economía); Martín Brun (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economía)
    Abstract: Public procurement is one of the tools most commonly used in order to promote the development of productive activities. Several countries applied this mechanism to promote local industries and innovation process. Nevertheless and despite being discussed in length in Uruguay, public procurement has been rarely implemented in our country for that purpose. Recently, the government has been carrying out some institutional changes that foster a rationalization of the public spending in certain areas. Also, the necessity of an active role of public procurement in the promotion of national enterprises, particularly on technology-based companies, has been stated from different areas of the political spectrum. One of the main issues regarding the implementation of this type of policies is the availability of information about public procurement. What is being bought, how much is the state paying and who are the sellers arise as key questions. In this work we systematize the available information for the ICT sector in Uruguay based on the analysis of the database compiled by the Government's Procurement and Contracting Agency (ACCE for its acronym in Spanish) for 2005-2012. The description of the data is presented along with a revision of the theoretical aspects regarding public procurement and industrial policy. The conclusions show that in the case of the ICT, the purchases registered by ACCE have scarce importance in the sector's activity. In consequence, the use of this tool should focus in specific products rather than pursuing an across-the-board promotion of the sector. Likewise and in spite of the scarcity of information, it is noted that in this sector the public agents who have the potential to promote the ICT demandled dynamism are the three biggest state-owned companies.
    Keywords: public procurement, ICT, demand led policy
    JEL: L52 L86 O25
    Date: 2014–08
  11. By: Frederic Teulon
    Abstract: On ne présente pas Karl Marx, pourtant sa pensée est aujourd’hui galvaudée et largement déformée. L’objectif de cet article est de rappeler les fondements de l’analyse marxiste. L’étude des travers du capitalisme faite par Marx reste aujourd’hui une référence du fait de l’accroissement des inégalités de revenu et de patrimoine, de la concentration du capital et de l’instabilité des marchés (notamment financiers).
    Keywords: Capitalisme, Inégalités, Marxisme.
    Date: 2014–08–29
  12. By: Wichardt, Philipp C. (Department of Economics, Lund University)
    Abstract: How can an argument that is based on assumptions known to be false deliver any insightful conclusions let alone be used for policy recommendations? Over the years, a variety of concerns regarding (micro-)economic modelling and its relevance for real life have been expressed along these lines. Adding to this methodological discussion, I take seriously the recurrent comparison of economic models with literary fiction (fables, metaphors, parables,...) and argue that many of the concerns expressed can be alleviated in a coherent picture if one adopts the fiction view of models proposed by Frigg (2010a,b). In particular, I argue how adopting such a view not only opens a way for meaningful comparisons of economic models with reality but also relieves the pressure on assumptions to be empirically verifiable. Moreover, the argument suggests a distinctive role for strong mathematical theories such as expected utility theory (setting limits to the fictional world to be imagined), the often extensive story telling in economic modelling (adapting the model to a context and suggesting comparisons with "reality") as well as for empirical studies putting economic modelling to the test (exploring properties of the real world and how they relate to properties of the fictional model-world).
    Keywords: Fictions; Modelling; Microeconomics; Story Telling
    JEL: B40 B41
    Date: 2014–08–25
  13. By: Miriam Rehm; Kai Daniel Schmid; Dieter Wang
    Abstract: In this paper we explore the reasons for the trend reversal in the development of household market income inequality in Germany in the second half of the 2000s. We analyse to what extent the increasing relevance of capital income as well as the rising share of atypically employed persons have affected the development of income inequality over the last two decades. We use household data from the German Socio-Economic Panel from 1991-2011 and decompose market income into three income sources: (1) household labour income from full-time work, (2) household labour income from atypical work, and (3) household capital income. We apply the factor decomposition method suggested by Shorrocks (1982) to analyse the contribution of these income forms to overall inequality. Our results suggest that changes in the distribution of capital income were a key factor both in the strong increase of inequality in the first half of the 2000s and in the subsequent trend reversal. This finding contrasts with the reasoning that labour market developments were the main cause behind changes in inequality.
    Keywords: Market Income Inequality, Inequality Decomposition, SOEP
    JEL: D31 D33
    Date: 2014
  14. By: Frederic Teulon
    Abstract: Amartya Sen est un économiste connu pour ses travaux sur le développement humain et l’économie du bien-être. Il est à l’origine de l’approche fondée sur les « capabilités » et de la construction de l’Indicateur de Développement Humain (IDH) qui permet de collecter des données statistiques essentielles pour améliorer le sort des pauvres.
    Keywords: Bien-être, choix collectifs, IDH, Politique publique, Théorème d’impossibilité d’Arrow.
    Date: 2014–08–29
  15. By: Veronica Kostenko (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Pavel Kuzmichev (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Eduard Ponarin (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the relationship between support of democracy and attitudes to human rights: in particular, support for gender equality in the countries covered by the first wave of the Arab Barometer project. We used cluster analysis and negative binomial regression modeling to show that, unlike in most countries of the world, the correlation between support of democracy and gender equality is very low in Arab countries. There is a group of people in the region who support both democracy and gender equality, but they are a small group (about 17% of the population) of elderly and middle-aged people characterized by higher education and social status. A substantial number of poorly educated males express support for democracy, but not for gender equality. Many people (especially young males aged 25–35 in 2007) are against both gender equality and democracy. Younger people tend to be both better educated and more conservative - those belonging to the 25–34 age group are the most patriarchal in their gender attitudes. Controlling for age, education still has a positive effect on gender equality attitudes. Nevertheless, this phenomenon probably means that there are two simultaneous processes going on in the Middle East. On the one hand, people are becoming more educated, urbanized etc., which means the continuation of modernization. On the other hand, we observed a certain retrogression of social values.
    Keywords: modernization, Arab Barometer, democracy, gender equality, patriarchal values, Islam
    JEL: E11
    Date: 2014
  16. By: Frederic Teulon
    Abstract: Raymond Boudon est un des sociologues et intellectuels français les plus importants du XXe siècle. Il s’est efforcé de se démarquer des analyses sociales déterministes en abordant des sujets variés : effets pervers, égalité des chances, modélisation des comportements individuels… Boudon s’est écarté d’un rationalisme économique étroit en élargissant le spectre des raisons d’agir. Nombre de ses ouvrages, comme L’Inégalité des chances sont devenus des classiques de la sociologie. Son oeuvre a une portée générale qui devrait interpeler plus directement les économistes, les spécialistes des organisations ou du management.
    Keywords: Articulation micro/macro, Critique du postmodernisme, Effets pervers, Idéologies, Inégalités, Individualisme méthodologique, Sociologie de l’éducation.
    Date: 2014–08–29
  17. By: Frederic Teulon
    Abstract: John Galbraith est un économiste américain hétérodoxe dont les recherches portent avant tout sur la nature et les structures du capitalisme. Il a publié des travaux sur la crise de 1929, sur les oligopoles, sur la révolution managériale et sur la pauvreté. Favorable à l’intervention de l’Etat, sans s’engager aux côtés des marxistes, Galbraith a été marginalisé aux Etats-Unis par la puissance de l’économie dominante.
    Keywords: Crise de 1929, Filière inversée, John Galbraith.
    Date: 2014–08–29
  18. By: Harmincova, Zuzana; Janda, Karel
    Abstract: The paper focuses on comparison of the functioning of microfinance in various developing regions of the world, as well as on the analysis of the overall functioning, effectiveness, strengths and weaknesses, potential threats and opportunities in the microfinance markets. The conclusion offers several possibilities and insights on how microfinance could be more efficient in financial terms. The paper also presents a brief evaluation of the benefits of microfinance and based on its findings provides a prediction of further development of microfinance.
    Keywords: Microfinance; microcredit
    JEL: G21
    Date: 2014–08–28
  19. By: Jorge Aguero
    Abstract: Violence has a striking gender pattern. Men are more likely to be attacked by a stranger, while women experience violence mostly from their partners. This paper estimates the costs of violence against women in terms of intangible outcomes, such as women's reproductive health, labor supply, and the welfare of their children. The study uses a sample of nearly 83,000 women in seven countries from all income groups and all sub-regions in Latin American and the Caribbean. The sample, consisting of 26. 3 million women between the ages of 15 and 49, strengthens the external validity of the results. The results show that physical violence against women is strongly associated with their marital status because it increases the divorce or separation rate. Violence is negatively linked with women's health. The study shows that domestic violence additionally creates a negative externality by affecting important short-term health outcomes for children whose mothers suffered from violence. To obtain the child health outcomes, the study employs a natural experiment in Peru to establish that these effects appear to be causal. Finally, the paper presents evidence indicating that women's education and age buffer the negative effect of violence against women on their children's health outcomes.
    JEL: I12 I3 J16
    Date: 2013–08

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