nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2014‒08‒20
fourteen papers chosen by
Carlo D’Ippoliti
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. The Blind Spot of Corporate Social Responsibility: Changing the legal framework of the firm By Kevin Levillain; Blanche Segrestin
  2. Derecho Económico y género: alianza para la erradicación de los efectos adversos del desarrollo contra la mujer colombiana By Luis Miguel Hoyos Rojas
  3. An Experimental Approach to Industrial Policy Evaluation: The case of Creative Credits By Hasan Bakhshi; John Edwards; Stephen Roper; Judy Scully; Duncan Shaw; Lorraine Morley; Nicola Rathbone
  4. Una comparación del comportamiento innovador entre Cooperativas de Trabajo y Empresas Capitalistas en Uruguay By Sebastián Berazategui; Emilio Landinelli; Daniel Ramírez
  5. A Demonstration of Sustainability Arguments Using House Price Data By Kauko, Tom
  6. Diversity and SMEs: Existing evidence and policy tensions By Sara Carter; Monder Ram; Trevor Jones; Kiran Trehan
  7. Forecast Shocks in Production Networks By Can Tian
  8. Global Virtual Water Trade: integrating Structural Decomposition Analysis with Network Theory By Tiziano Distefano; Massimo Riccaboni; Giovanni Marin
  11. Social Factors Affecting Women's Susceptibility to HIV in India By Lall, Priya
  12. Trabajo y cuidado: la promoción de la justicia a través de políticas de conciliación con perspectiva de género By Aspiazu, Eliana
  13. Using evidence and operational responses to accelerate gender equality in Kenya By Torkelsson, Asa
  14. Measuring competition in banking: A critical review of methods By Florian LEON

  1. By: Kevin Levillain (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Blanche Segrestin (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris)
    Abstract: CSR research is generally based on the assumption that responsible behaviour is compatible with the legal framework of the firm and its standard strategic approaches. Could this hypothesis be misleading? This paper exhibits some recent practical innovations in the USA that have had to move away from the CSR research framework to provide a more constructive approach to social and environmental impacts. The new legal provisions in question revise the legal framework of firms and their corporate purposes. Such innovations suggest that management science research should study how to improve interactions between the well-acknowledged 'strategic attention' and often overlooked legal contracts, with a view to imagining new forms of collective action.
    Date: 2014–06
  2. By: Luis Miguel Hoyos Rojas
    Abstract: Este artículo presenta un análisis del Derecho Económico desde una perspectiva de género. El artículo demuestra que pese a la existencia de una construcción constitucional y jurisprudencial que responde al desarrollo armónico de todos y todas en los sectores socioeconómicos, aún existen temas fundamentales que el Derecho debe definir. Se partirá de la convicción de que el Derecho Económico aún tiene mucho que aportar a los procesos de desarrollo y que solo de un intercambio entre las disciplinas del Derecho Económico y género se podrían promover intervenciones encaminadas a impulsar el bienestar de la mujer de la población colombiana. El artículo propone que la categoría “género” podría aportarle al Derecho Económico la posibilidad de materializar sus ideales de género en desarrollo de equilibrado y razonable de acuerdo con el país inspirado por la Constitución de 1991.
    Keywords: Derecho y Desarrollo, Género, Inclusión Social, Derechos Fundamentales y Economía Constitucional, Gender Mainstreaming, Ceguera de Género
    Date: 2013–05–23
  3. By: Hasan Bakhshi (Nesta); John Edwards (Aston University Business School); Stephen Roper (Warwick University Business School); Judy Scully (Aston University Business School); Duncan Shaw (Warwick University Business School); Lorraine Morley (Warwick University Business School); Nicola Rathbone (Aston University Business School)
    Abstract: Experimental methods of policy evaluation are well-established in social policy and development economics but are rare in industrial and innovation policy. In this paper we consider the arguments for applying experimental methods to industrial policy measures, and propose an experimental policy evaluation approach (which we call RCT+). This combines the randomised assignment of firms to treatment and control groups with a longitudinal data collection strategy incorporating quantitative and qualitative data (so-called mixed methods). The RCT+ approach is designed to provide a causative rather than purely summative evaluation, i.e. to assess both ‘whether’ and ‘how’ programme outcomes are achieved. We test the RCT+ approach in an evaluation of Creative Credits – a UK business-to-business innovation voucher initiative intended to promote new innovation partnerships between SMEs and creative service providers. The results suggest the potential value of experimental approaches to industrial policy evaluation, and the benefits of mixed methods and longitudinal data collection in industrial policy evaluations.
    Keywords: evaluation, experimental, industrial policy, innovation, creative, qualitative research
    JEL: Z18 D04 D83
    Date: 2013–06–01
  4. By: Sebastián Berazategui (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración.); Emilio Landinelli (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración.); Daniel Ramírez (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración.)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to compare the innovative behavior between Worker Managed Firms (WMF) and Capitalists Firms (CF) in Uruguay. Using cross-sectional data from the IECON-ANII-INACOOP (2011) survey this research analyzed, through descriptive and econometric methods, in which way the condition of WMF is associated with the probability of carrying out innovation activities. The results show that while there are no differences between WMF and CF in the realization of technological innovation activities (involving R&D), differences in favor of WMF appear in the practice of organizational innovation activities. The results are interpreted in the light of the self-managed-firm microeconomics and the evolutionary theory of the firm. WMF focus on the development of those innovative activities involving the use of the factor that they control -work- and that do not represent heavy investments in physical capital, establishing new and different routines inside work organization and making use of their members skills in a different way. This article represents a contribution to the scarce international literature on the subject and is the first of its kind for Uruguay.
    Keywords: innovation, worker cooperatives
    JEL: J54 P51 O31
    Date: 2013–06
  5. By: Kauko, Tom
    Abstract: Real estate is today seen through the widespread sustainability discourse where buildings and land use occupies a core position. Land and buildings are also subject to sustainability evaluations along environmental, social, cultural and economic dimensions. In this paper cross-sectional data on house prices and sales volumes from Budapest, Hungary, for the period 2000-09 are analysed using time-windows generated by the self-organizing map (SOM) algorithms. In particular, upper-market cases are related to sustainable innovations insofar as such exist, which is examined using interviews and field inspection. The results however suggest that such features are largely absent in the period of data collection, although future markets are likely to be different in this respect.
    Date: 2013
  6. By: Sara Carter (University of Strathclyde); Monder Ram (CREME, Birmingham University); Trevor Jones (CREME, Birmingham University); Kiran Trehan (CREME, Birmingham University)
    Abstract: The purpose of this White Paper is to present an overarching review of the evidence that currently exists with regard to diversity and SMEs. It outlines longstanding concerns that entrepreneurial activities and ambitions are restricted to a narrow range of social groups, with others, in particular some ethnic minority groups and women, characterised as having both lesser interest in enterprise and lower levels of resources necessary to participate. Attempts to increase participation rates of under-represented groups have resulted in only modest changes. This White Paper introduces the key evidence relating to ethnic minority and women-led enterprises, explaining the context of each group, and summarising research evidence relating to their relative access to finance, markets and management. Research and policy within the field of diversity and SMEs is characterised by a number of tensions, relating to perceived or real discrimination; whether to promote a volume of new businesses or focus on high growth potential firms; whether specialist business support is more effective or desirable than mainstream provision; and whether there is evidence of market failure in the support provided to diverse enterprises.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship, women, ethnic minority, finance, markets, management
    JEL: G21 G28 L26
    Date: 2013–04–03
  7. By: Can Tian (University of Pennsylvania)
    Abstract: This paper proposes a dynamic multi-sector production network model in which firms receive news on the future product-specific demand of a representative household. Since production takes time and firms in the production sectors are connected via input-output links, news on the future final demand of an individual product changes firms' forecasts of their future sales, creating economy-wide effects named as forecast shocks. Forecast shocks are transferred upwards through the supplier-customer connections in the network, from the buyer of an input good to the producer. The model explains the asymmetry in the transmission of individual shocks in the network and how shocks to the expectations generate real, persistent effects. The equilibrium is analytically solved and calibrated to the U.S. economy. A preliminary estimation under the assumptions for the shock processes shows the importance of the forecast shocks.
    Date: 2014
  8. By: Tiziano Distefano (IMT Lucca Institute for Advanced Studies); Massimo Riccaboni (IMT Lucca Institute for Advanced Studies); Giovanni Marin (Ceris-CNR)
    Abstract: The consideration of both the direct and the indirect effects of global production and trade is the first step in order to assess the sustainability of resource exploitation, in particular water usage. This paper applies the Global Multi-Regional Input-Output model to quantify the interdependencies of different sectors and to determine the overall water consumption of each country. This procedure allows the measurement of Virtual Water Trade, that is the volume of water embedded in traded goods. This paper introduces further extensions based on network analysis to overcome the limitations of I-O models. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to build a bridge between two different, but related, methodologies. Firstly, we assess the evolution of the structure of international trade in Virtual Water (VW). Secondly, we present the results from the Structural Decomposition Analysis. Finally, we introduce other measures from Network Theory, in order to integrate the previous results. Community Detection assessment reveals the emergence of regional VW systems composed by a limited set of countries. Thus our study confirms the need of elaborating and implementing transboundary policies for water management, especially in the European Union.
    Keywords: virtual water trade, multi-regional input-output model, network analysis, community detection
    JEL: C67 Q25 F18
    Date: 2014–08
  9. By: Angela Cipollone (Università Luiss "Guido Carli"); Eleonora Patacchini (Università degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza"); Giovanna Vallanti (Università Luiss "Guido Carli")
    Abstract: We investigate the changes in women’s participation patterns across 15 EU countries over the last 20 years using individual data from ECHP and EUSILC databases. Our findings indicate that macro factors, such as social policies and institutional characteristics, can explain a notnegligible portion of cross-countries differences in trends of women labor market participation. In particular social policy and institutional factors have an important impact on the labor market "opportunities" of women by affecting the quality of potential jobs available, the chances to (re-)enter the labor market and the opportunity costs of employment (vs non-employment). Interesting from the point of view of the policy maker, is that reforms of the institutional framework towards a model of flexicure labour market are effective in enhancing women labour supply only when deregulation is accompanied by sufficient social compensation.
    Keywords: Employment gender gap, Labor Market Institutions, Child-rearing, Elderly care, Flexicurity
    JEL: J11 J21 J2
    Date: 2013
  10. By: Popov, Vladimir
    Abstract: Why even after the dramatic increase in inequality in the 1990s and after the emergence and enrichment of “oligarchs”, the alternative (leftist, social democratic) economic policies that could have improved material and social wellbeing of the majority of the population is not supported by this majority? It is argued that in immature democracies (without efficient restrictions for the participation of private capital in politics) mass media and electoral campaigns are controlled by the rich, so there is vicious circle: market reforms and private property create the class of the wealthy (“oligarchs”) that are not only interested in these reforms, but also have power to maintain their political and eonomic might through mass media and democratic elections. The return of public opinion to the “norm” so that it reflects interests of the majority is possible only if mass media and political process are separated from private capital and private financing. =================================================== Почему после резкого увеличения неравенства в 90-е годы прошлого века, после появления и стремительного обогащения «олигархов», альтернативная (левая, социал-демократическая) экономическая политика, которая могла бы улучшить материальное и социальное положение значительного большинства населения не поддерживается этим большинством? В статье доказывается, что в условиях незрелой демократии (без эффективных барьеров для участия частного капитала в политике) средства массовой информации и избирательные кампании контролируются владельцами крупных состояний, так что возникает замкнутый круг: рыночные рефоры и частная собственность рождают класс богатых («олигархов»), которые не только заинтересованы в этих реформах, но и обладают рычагами поддержания своего экономического и политического влияния через СМИ и демократические выборы. Возвращение общественных предпочтений к «норме» – к стереотипам, отражающим интересы большинства, возможно лишь при отделении СМИ и политического процесса в целом от частного капитала и частного финансирования.
    Keywords: Public opinion, transition from socialism to capitalism, inequalities, elections, mass media
    JEL: H00 P26 P3
    Date: 2014–08–08
  11. By: Lall, Priya (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: India is the global epicentre of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Asia. Previous research indicates that the majority of HIV-positive women in India were infected by their husbands, their only sexual partner, which makes them difficult to identify as a high-risk population. This paper assesses social factors associated with the transmission of HIV based on demographic determinants, such as age; sexual risk behavior; and gendered discrimination, such as domestic violence. Bivariate and multivariate analysis of the National Family Health Survey yields the result that women's socioeconomic status could have an association with their serostatus, as HIV-positive women were significantly more likely to have a low level of education than their HIV-negative counterparts. In contrast, female HIV-positive respondents displayed low tendencies toward high-risk sexual behavior, as less than 10% had two or more sexual partners in their lifetime. Finally, they were significantly more likely to have previously experienced domestic violence (45%) and sexual violence (22%) than the general population. Overall, results illustrate that Indian women's vulnerability toward HIV infection may not be the product of their own sexual risk behavior. The most prominent social factors are their socioeconomic status, such as their level of education, and other sociodemographic determinants, including their region of residence.
    Keywords: hiv; india; gender; domestic violence; sexual risk behavior; socioeconomic status
    JEL: I00 I19 J16 R00
    Date: 2014–06–17
  12. By: Aspiazu, Eliana
    Abstract: En Argentina, a partir de la década de 1970, se inició un periodo de crecimiento de la participación de las mujeres en el mercado laboral que se sostuvo y se profundizó hasta la actualidad. Sin embargo, en el ámbito del hogar, las mujeres continuaron siendo las principales responsables del trabajo doméstico y de cuidado, asumiendo en muchos casos una doble jornada laboral, fenómeno que dio lugar a diversos cuestionamientos en torno a la justicia de tan desigual reparto del trabajo. Este artículo contrasta la posición relativa de las mujeres en el mercado laboral y los avances en su participación con los límites de estos cambios y las desigualdades persistentes. El objetivo es reflexionar sobre la necesidad de generar políticas públicas y arreglos institucionales que permitan la conciliación y promuevan una distribución más igualitaria de los tiempos de trabajo remunerado y no remunerado.
    Keywords: Mujéres; Genero; División del Trabajo; Actividad no Remunerada; Conciliación;
    Date: 2013
  13. By: Torkelsson, Asa
    Abstract: Agriculture is a main contributor to pro-poor growth in Africa, but gender inequalities in the sector hold back agricultural growth and affect household welfare negatively. The sector has been characterized by a lack of gender-disaggregated data and patch
    Keywords: poverty reduction, agriculture, gender, markets, Kenya
    Date: 2014
  14. By: Florian LEON
    Abstract: Many studies have attempted to investigate the determinants and implications of competition in the banking industry. The literature on the measurement of competition can be divided between the structural and non-structural approaches. The structural approach infers the degree of competition from the structure of the market. The non-structural approach, based on the New Empirical Industrial Organization, assesses the degree of competition directly by observing behavior of firms in the market. This paper reviews the most frequently-used structural and non structural measures of competition in banking. It highlights their strengths and weaknesses, especially for studies based on a limited number of observations.
    Keywords: Boone indicator, Panzar-Rosse model, Conjectural variation model, Lerner index, HHI, Bank, competition
    JEL: O55 L13 L11 G21 D4

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