nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2014‒06‒02
twenty papers chosen by
Carlo D'Ippoliti
La Sapienza University of Rome

  1. Interdisciplinary research: measurement and assessment indicators By Mario De Marchi
  2. Beyond the Critique: How Feminist Perspectives Can Feed Entrepreneurship Promotion in Developing Countries By Saskia Vossenberg
  3. Orthodoxer Mainstream und Heterodoxe Alternativen: Eine Analyse der ökonomischen Wissenschaftslandschaft By Quaas, Friedrun
  4. Ethics and Economics, Family & Firm Corporate Family Responsibility, an innovative approach By Rosalia Azzaro Pulvirenti
  5. Ethics and Economics, Family & Firm Social philosophy and practical perspectives By Rosalia Azzaro Pulvirenti
  7. Industrial and technological policy: Contributions from evolutionary perspectives to policy design in developing countries. By Yoguel, Gabriel; Pereira, Mariano
  8. How graduate business schools professors can assist in reducing todayÂ’s lack of ethics in business By Ronald Degen
  9. The Gender-Career Estimation Gap By Kaiser, Lutz C.
  10. How Do Women Entrepreneurs Define Success? A Qualitative Study of Differences Among Women Entrepreneurs in Ethiopia By Atsede Tesfaye Hailemariam; Brigitte Kroon
  11. Do Foreign Owners Favor Short-Term Profit? Evidence from Germany By Dill, Verena; Jirjahn, Uwe; Smith, Stephen C.
  12. (English) Can the Economics of Happiness Revive the Economics of Welfare (Italiano) L’economia della felicità può rinnovare l’economia del benessere? By AndreaSalvatore Antonio Barbieri
  13. The socio-economic power of renewable energy production cooperatives in Germany: Results of an empirical assessment By Debor, Sarah
  14. Husbands and Wives. The powers and perils of participation in a microfinance cooperative for female entrepreneurs By Prof dr Erik Stam; Felix Meier zu Selhausen, MSc MA
  15. Is there empowerment in entrepreneurship? A systematic literature review By Haataja Vera
  16. Backbone services as growth enabling factor - an Input-Output analysis for South Africa By Susanne Fricke; Bianka Dettmer
  17. The Wages of Women in England, 1260-1850 By Humphries, Jane; Weisdorf, Jacob
  18. How age matters. Exploring contemporary Dutch debates on age and sex work By Coumans, S.V.
  19. Mothers, Friends and Gender Identity By Olivetti, Claudia; Patacchini, Eleonora; Zenou, Yves
  20. "The Political Economy of Shadow Banking: Debt, Finance, and Distributive Politics under a Kalecki-Goodwin-Minsky SFC Framework" By Eloy Fisher; Javier Lopez Bernardo

  1. By: Mario De Marchi (Ceris - Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth,Rome,Italy)
    Abstract: In order to implement appropriate policies to face the difficulties and remove the obstacles that hinder interdisciplinary research, it is necessary to clarify how this ever broader and more dynamic portion of science works and which incentives best support the activities of scientists. Interdisciplinary studies are a peculiar aspect of the activities performed by researchers operating at the frontier of science, for instance in cutting-edge sectors. They might encompass fields of investigation that already exist, but they cannot be exclusively ascribed to any one of them. Abstract answers regarding the very unusual matters investigated by interdisciplinary research would make it extremely difficult to provide quantitative output measurements and evaluations. Yet, the shift from general abstract answers to specific empirical problems, which is the objective of most interdisciplinary research, turns out to be an advantage when assessing this type of research. Concentrating on problems and on approaching their solutions in objective quantitative terms can allow for output measurement and assessment also in the case of interdisciplinary research. This can be achieved by using precision and efficiency parameters able to provide public policies and entrepreneurial activities with content that is as clearly defined and as rigorous as that of specialist research.
    JEL: O30
    Date: 2013–06
  2. By: Saskia Vossenberg (Consultant Gender and Women's Political Empowerment, NIMD | Netherlands Institute for Multiparty Democracy; External Research fellow 'Women and Entrepreneurship in Developing Countries', Maastricht School of Management; Program manager 'Women's Entrepreneurship Promotion', Maastricht School of Management)
    Abstract: How can we move the debate beyond feminist critique and present policy-makers and development practitioners with premises for entrepreneurship promotion in its attempt to overcome issues of gender inequality in economic growth and development? Feminist epistemologies can offer a set of conceptual advances and tools of analysis to define goals, problems and solutions for entrepreneurship promotion. By means of a literature review it is argued that a critical realist approach, as found in standpoint feminism, provides a strong basis for thinking through feminist concerns about entrepreneurship promotion. Consequently, four premises for feminist driven entrepreneurship promotion are presented.
    Keywords: feminist theory, female entrepreneurship, developing countries, entrepreneurship promotion, policy.
    Date: 2014–05
  3. By: Quaas, Friedrun
    Abstract: Die moderne Volkswirtschaftslehre als wissenschaftliche Disziplin ist einerseits durch große Uneinheitlichkeit geprägt, die andererseits selbst in Zeiten der Krise der Theorie anscheinend nicht nachhaltig in ein öffentliches Bewusstsein vordringen konnte. Nach wie vor wird die Ökonomik unterstellt und auf diese Weise werden Unterschiede ökonomischer Denkweisen entweder nivelliert oder für irrelevant erachtet, wenn es um die Erklärung der großen Zusammenhänge geht. Doch neben dem orthodox-neoklassischen Mainstream, der seit langem den institutionalisierten akademischen Forschungs- und Lehrbetrieb dominiert, existieren vielfältige alternative Ansätze. Diese Tatsache an sich könnte der Ökonomik insgesamt den Schein eines monolithischen Theoriengebäudes eigentlich nehmen und stattdessen ihre Pluralität belegen. Als Phänomen ist Ökonomik zwar durchaus im Plural denkbar, aber die Existenzweise von Pluralität ist kümmerlich und bestenfalls durch hegemonialen Diskurs geprägt. Warum es nach wie vor schwierig ist, die Emanzipation vom Streamlining der Wirtschaftswissenschaften konsequent und erfolgreich zu betreiben, wird aus verschiedenen Perspektiven beleuchtet. Jenseits vertrauter Standarderklärungen unterstützen ideengeschichtliche, wissenschaftstheoretische und wissenschaftspolitische Argumente das Plädoyer für eine kritisch-pluralistische Ökonomik als Bestandteil eines funktionierenden modernen Wissenschaftsgebäudes. -- Economics as a branch of social science is marked by considerable inconsistency, but this fact is largely beyond public awareness. It seems that even in times of theoretical crisis the differences in economic thought are ignored, at least they are believed to be irrelevant for explaining the economic reality. However, in addition to the dominant neoclassic mainstream, many alternative approaches exist, and one might think, there is not such a thing as a monolithic economic tradition. But the phenomenon of pluralism is only rudimentarily developed and the discourse between the different approaches is proceeding as hegemonic as ever. The question, why it is so difficult to emancipate economics from streamlining in a consequent and successful manner, makes up the subject matter of this paper. Beside well-known standard arguments, some reflections on the history of economic thought, on the philosophy of social science and on science policy shore up a passionate plea for theoretical and methodological pluralism in modern economics.
    Keywords: Orthodoxie,Heterodoxie,Pluralismus,Mainstream,neoklassischer Kern,Ideengeschichte,Methodenkritik,Wissenschaftspolitik,orthodoxy,heterodoxy,pluralism,mainstream,neoclassical core,history of economic thought,criticism of methods,science policy
    JEL: B12 B13 B41 B50
    Date: 2014
  4. By: Rosalia Azzaro Pulvirenti (Ceris - Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth,Rome,Italy)
    Abstract: The starting point of this paper is a comparison between science and economy, considering how ethical approach could be a same key to understand some reasons of their recent crisis. We propose a theoretical framework based on the idea that families and firms are not only “private goods”, but also “common goods”. Our interest is concentrated upon an innovative approach of business ethics, the “Corporate Family Responsibility”.
    JEL: A13 D1 M14
    Date: 2013–06
  5. By: Rosalia Azzaro Pulvirenti (Ceris - Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth,Rome,Italy)
    Abstract: “Corporate Family Responsibility” means that Households and Stakeholders can help each other, supported by institutions, to increase their growth. Our aim is to explain the main result of it: a higher level of social benefits can be effective for achieving economic goals. The first part of the paper illustrates the status of the art and some theories on business ethics; the final part some practical perspectives about it in Italy.
    JEL: A13 D1 M14
    Date: 2013–06
  6. By: Oscar Volij (BGU)
    Date: 2014
  7. By: Yoguel, Gabriel; Pereira, Mariano
    Abstract: In the recent years a renewed consensus about the crucial role of industrial and technological policy to economic development has been growing. Despite of that, strong theoretical differences still persist concerning why and how the government must intervene in the economy. Neoclassical approach proposes that the intervention is only justified by the presence of market failures which leads to an underinvestment on R&D expenditures with respect to a Pareto efficiently level (Arrow and Debreu, 1954). Contrary to this view, a heterodox position integrated by several theoretical approaches can be identified. This group of heterodox authors does not constitute a cohesive and homogeneous corpus. In this paper three different approaches are differentiated. Firstly, we have identified a literature centred on population thinking models (Metcalfe 1994 and 2002, Dopfer, Foster and Potts, 2004, among others) that focus their analysis on the mechanism of variation, selection and retention in the competition process . From this perspective, policy design should be centred on: i) improving firms’ capabilities to increase the system variety which lead to renewing the process of market selection, and ii) enhancing the institutions that regulate the market-selection process. Secondly, we have identified a literature centred on the concept of national systems (Lundvall, 1992; Freeman, 1987; Nelson 1992 and Edquist, 1997), sectorial system (Malerba, 2002) and local system of innovation (Boschma and Martin, 2011; Antonelli, 2011). According to these authors, the elements that block the virtuous-functioning of the system and lead to a low innovative performance are targets for policy maker. Hence, industrial and technological policies should be focused on: i) enhancing agents’ capabilities and ii) improve their interactions. Thirdly, we have identified a literature integrated by contributions from evolutionary authors interested on the role of demand and cumulative causation process (Dosi, 2014; Saviotti y Pyka, 2002; Antonelli, 2011). This contributions are complemented and extended by others contributions that comes from neo-Structuralist and post-Keynesianism framework (Cimoli, Dosi, Stiglitz, 2009; Cimoli y Porcile, 2011, 2013) and authors inscribed in both theoretical traditions (Lee, 2013; Dosi, 2014). This evolutionary approach is focused on the divergence between economies and considers that gap’s reduction requires policies aimed at promote the generation of non-related variety with the production structure (Saviotti y Pika, 2002). In this context, the main objective of this paper is to discuss the prescriptions of industrial and technological policy that can be derived from this broad group of heterodox authors; and taking into account the specificities of developing countries stressed by Arocena and Sutz (2000, 2002 y 2003), Dutrenit, Rodriguez and Vera-Cruz (2006) and Cassiolato and Lastres (2009), among others. The combination of the three evolutionary streams is the path that industrial and technological policy should follow in developing economies and especially in Latin America. So, incorporating a concern for the divergence and the need for instruments that strengthen both the coevolution between related and unrelated variety and the dynamic of micro, meso and macro dimensions are keys. These instruments would be enhanced even more if population competition and innovation systems approaches are considered. This requires i ) to consider in which scheme of population competition the generation of variety emerge, ii) to develop firm´s capacities, and iii ) to design tools to improve the selection conditions These related and unrelated variety processes have a sectorial and regional general affiliation. Therefore, the contribution of the literature of local and sectorial innovation systems is important to understand existing blockades to generate positive feedbacks and increasing returns. Finally, the national innovation system approach can add elements of policy focused on both the necessary institutions for generating unrelated variety processes in the interactions between institutions and firms, and the need to identify the blockages that impede the process of building capacities.
    Keywords: Innovation Policy, Evolutionary Theory
    JEL: O25 O30
    Date: 2014–05–29
  8. By: Ronald Degen (ISM - International School of Management Paris)
    Abstract: This paper discusses how graduate business school professors can assist in reducing todayÂ’s lack of ethics in business by orienting future corporate leaders on how to behave and decide properly when confronted with the myriad ethical dilemmas of the corporate world. To accomplish this, graduate business school professors have to be able to make future leaders understand what is right and what is wrong from the ethical point of view. This requires that they engage these future leaders in philosophical discussions on ethics in business, particularly to deconstruct the misconceptions that justify todayÂ’s unethical behavior. To help them in these discussions this paper presents three explanations for todayÂ’s unethical behavior, the most important misconceptions built on five half-truths, and the fundamental ethical principles and the requisites of skilled ethical reasoning.
    Keywords: ethics in business, misconceptions that justify todayÂ’s unethical behavior, critical ethical reasoning
    JEL: M0 M1
    Date: 2014–05–21
  9. By: Kaiser, Lutz C. (North Rhine-Westphalia University of Applied Sciences)
    Abstract: The paper discusses gender differences with regard to the self- and reciprocal estimation of career expectations. Firstly, the theoretical background and the literature are identified. Within this frame, the instance of self-under-estimated career prospects of female workers and statistical discrimination in the labor market are described. Both aspects are jointly assessed as a self-fulfilling prophecy-phenomenon redounded to women's disadvantage on the labor market. Secondly, the empirical part analysis the respective self- and reciprocal estimation of female and male career prospects for public sector workers in Germany. The results display obvious discrepancies between self- and reciprocally estimated career expectations that constitute a gender-career estimation gap. As the German public sector contains specific devices to equalising career chances of male and female employees, the findings even underpin the insistency of under-estimated career prospects of female workers despite the existing public sector regime of equality. Finally, approaches of how to equalize male and female career chances are critically reviewed.
    Keywords: self- and reciprocal estimation of career opportunities, self-fulfilling prophecy, gender-career estimation gap, statistical discrimination, public sector
    JEL: J16 J24 J4 J71 J78
    Date: 2014–05
  10. By: Atsede Tesfaye Hailemariam (Tilburg University, The Netherlands and Addis Ababa University – School of Commerce, Ethiopia); Brigitte Kroon (Tilburg University, The Netherlands)
    Abstract: This paper describes how women entrepreneurs in Ethiopia define success in their own terms. Semi structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 24 women entrepreneurs from various sectors in Addis Ababa. The interview formats allowed the women to tell their life history and define success in their own terms. A common stereotype is that women entrepreneurs in Ethiopia operate businesses out of necessity and therefore women measure success in terms of financial rewards than personal rewards. Despite this stereotype, the findings of this study show that differences in definition of success exist among group of women entrepreneurs. Differences are in background characteristics, socialization experiences, learning experiences and reasons for starting business. The results of the study show women entrepreneurs define their success in various ways including, financial gains, growth, personal fulfillment, helping others, social contribution among others play a role here. Further, based on the findings an attempt has been made to identify different groups of women entrepreneurs in Ethiopia suggesting women entrepreneurs in Ethiopia are not a homogeneous group.
    Date: 2014–05
  11. By: Dill, Verena (University of Trier); Jirjahn, Uwe (University of Trier); Smith, Stephen C. (George Washington University)
    Abstract: Comparing domestic- and foreign-owned firms in Germany, this paper finds that foreign-owned firms are more likely to focus on short-term profit. This influence is particularly strong if the local managers of the German subsidiary are not sent from the foreign parent company. Moreover, the physical distance between the foreign parent company and its German subsidiary increases the probability of focusing on short-term profit. These findings conform to the hypothesis that foreign owners facing an information disadvantage concerning the local conditions of their subsidiaries are more likely to favor short-term profit. However, we do not identify differences in "short-termism" between investors from "Anglo-Saxon" and other foreign countries; rather, results point in the direction of more general features of corporate globalization.
    Keywords: foreign ownership, short-termism, asymmetric information, globalization, multinational enterprises, stakeholders
    JEL: F23 G34 M16 P10
    Date: 2014–05
  12. By: AndreaSalvatore Antonio Barbieri
    Abstract: (English) This article questions the increasing use of “happiness” or “subjective well-being” in order to evaluate public policies and social conditions. In more scientific words, can the blossoming economics of happiness revive the economics of welfare, which is said to be dying? The first section puts economics of happiness in the history of economic thought. The second part presents the methodological arguments and proofs of happiness data relevance, as well the results that open on welfare economics renewal and unusual political recommendations. The last part concludes that happiness is a useful criterion to evaluate society’s state, but should not be the only one: happiness data can allow avoiding paternalism and ethnocentrism, for example, but happiness economics face several and serious challenges that should prevent researchers from transforming satisfaction scores into the only barometer of public action. (Italiano) Lo scopo di questo lavoro è quello di esaminare le questioni che solleva l’utilizzo di dati sul “benessere soggettivo” per valutare le politiche pubbliche. In termini più accademici, si tratta di determinare in quale misura l’economia della felicità, in piena espansione, può contribuire a rinnovare l’economia del benessere, che secondo alcuni autori sarebbe in una fase di stallo. Per capire meglio le implicazioni di questa questione, la prima parte dell’articolo situa l’economia della felicità e l’economia del benessere nella storia del pensiero economico. La seconda parte presenta le argomentazioni metodologiche dell’economia della felicità e il suo contributo al rinnovamento delle raccomandazioni delle politiche economiche e dell’economia del benessere. L’ultima parte sottolinea che la felicità è un criterio utile, ma non può essere l’unico criterio per giudicare lo stato della società: se l’economia della felicità vuole evitare una forma di paternalismo o di etnocentrismo, le incertezze metodologiche che ancora la circondano, e le obiezioni in linea di principio ci invita a non fare della felicità il solo barometro dell’azione pubblica.
    Keywords: (English) Happiness; Subjective well-being; Welfare economics; Utilitarianism; “Welfarism” (Italiano) Economia della felicità; Economia del benessere; Benessere soggettivo; Utilitarismo; “Welferismo”
    Date: 2014
  13. By: Debor, Sarah
    Abstract: This paper reflects the socio-economic power of renewable energy production cooperatives for a wider energy system transformation in Germany. Energy cooperatives have turned into important supporters of renewable and decentralised energy structures, due to their strong growth since the year 2006, their participation in local renewable energy projects and their democratic awareness. The cooperative form of coordinating regional energy projects applies to a decentralised energy system that is managed by many smaller firms - a system concept that is preferred by the majority of German citizens. However, there is not enough knowledge to understand to what extent this organisational form is able to unify a broad group of actors in promoting a renewable energy system (societal power) and to gather capital for elaborating renewable energy supply structures (economic power). The reflection is based on an empirical assessment of all energy cooperatives that were registered in Germany by 31st December 2013. Their growth dynamic and their business approaches are discussed. A special focus lies on renewable energy production cooperatives. The study presents the development of their members, their capital, their profit and loss, as well as their investment intensity over a timeframe of three years (2010-2012). The socio-economic potential of renewable energy production cooperatives for supporting a renewable energy system is discussed against the background of empirical results. -- Das Diskussionspapier reflektiert die sozio-ökonomische Macht erneuerbarer Energieproduktions-Genossenschaften für eine Energiewende in Deutschland. Energiegenossenschaften sind durch ihr starkes Wachstum seit dem Jahr 2006, ihre Beteiligung an lokalen Energieprojekten, sowie ihrem demokratischen Selbstverständnis zu wichtigen Unterstützern von erneuerbaren und dezentralen Energiestrukturen geworden. Die Koordinierung lokaler Energieprojekte durch Genossenschaften steht für ein dezentrales Energiesystem, das vor allem von vielen kleineren Unternehmen verwaltet wird - ein Systemkonzept, das von einer Mehrheit in Deutschland bevorzugt wird. Allerdings existieren nicht genug Kenntnisse über das Vermögen dieser Organisationsform, viele Akteure für die Förderung eines erneuerbaren Energiesystems zu vereinen (gesellschaftliche Macht), sowie Kapital für die Diffusion erneuerbarer Energieversorgungsstrukturen zu sammeln (wirtschaftliche Macht). Die Reflektion basiert auf einer empirischen Untersuchung aller Energiegenossenschaften, die in Deutschland bis zum 31. Dezember 2013 registriert wurden. Ihre Wachstumsdynamik und Geschäftsansätze werden vorgestellt. Der Schwerpunkt der Analyse liegt auf erneuerbaren Energieproduktions-Genossenschaften. Die Studie beschreibt die Entwicklung ihrer Mitglieder und des Kapitals, sowie ihre Investitionsintensität für einen Zeitraum von drei Jahren (2010-2012). Das sozio-ökonomische Potenzial von Energiegenossenschaften für die Unterstützung eines erneuerbaren Energiesystems wird vor dem Hintergrund der empirischen Ergebnisse diskutiert.
    Date: 2014
  14. By: Prof dr Erik Stam; Felix Meier zu Selhausen, MSc MA (PhD Candidate, Utrecht University)
    Abstract: Participation in microfinance and in production cooperatives has been identified as a means to improve income and empower female entrepreneurs in developing economies. This study on female entrepreneurs in Western Uganda tests how participation of the husband in the same microfinance cooperative affects gender empowerment. Participation by female entrepreneurs in a microfinance cooperative turns out not to be an unconditional blessing: even though it does deliver higher household incomes, it also deteriorates the female’s household decision-making power when her husband participates in the same self-help group of the microfinance cooperative. This offers new insights for development policy and for entrepreneurship scholars to study the bright and dark sides of microfinance.
    Date: 2014–05
  15. By: Haataja Vera (PhD Candidate, Aalto University)
    Abstract: The paper undertakes a systematic review of the literature on empowerment in entrepreneurship research. The overall purpose of the paper is to create a better understanding of what empowerment is and what constitutes it. The literature review reveals that there is lack of clear definition even though it is widely used concept. Many development initiatives aim to “empower” poor people by offering them means to become entrepreneurs. Yet, there is no coherent understanding of what really empowers the people and what the role of entrepreneurship is in the process. Hence, this paper aims to fill that gap by conceptualizing “entrepreneurial empowerment” in order to clarify the connections between empowerment and entrepreneurial activity. The study builds on the empowerment discussion in the ‘entrepreneurship under poverty conditions’ literature. Findings suggest that contradictory to development organizations’ thinking empowerment cannot be bestowed by a third party. It is a process that starts from people becoming aware of their own interests and capabilities. Furthermore, empowerment alone does not guarantee poverty relief. Thus, entrepreneurial activity should strive to rise above subsistence level. Hence, this research contributes to the scarce literature on entrepreneurship in poverty and development aid discussion. Moreover, the research has implications for policy makers and development aid actors providing suggestions on how to support entrepreneurial activity of the impoverished people and more effective and meaningful way of designing development programs. The paper is structured as follows; First part presents the background of the study and general ideas about empowerment. The second section argues the selection of the method and explains the process how the systematic literature review was conducted in this study. Furthermore the emerged themes are identified. Third part discusses the empowerment in entrepreneurship literature. Finally some concluding thoughts are presented.
    Date: 2014–05
  16. By: Susanne Fricke (Chair of Economic Policy, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena); Bianka Dettmer (Chair of Economic Policy, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena)
    Abstract: While previous studies highlight the importance of the manufacturing sector in the economy, we argue that rather backbone services play a key role for economic growth. We perform an Input-Output analysis to determine the linkages between backbone services and manufacturing in South Africa. We find high and evenly spread forward linkages of backbone services to the rest of the economy which indicate strong growth- inducing downstream effects. Moreover, the interconnectedness between backbone services and manufacturing is twofold and depends on the level of technology intensity of industries. Especially the production of high technology goods requires a relatively higher share of inputs from backbone services. Thus, an efficient provision of backbone services is essential to induce manufacturing production and enable economic growth in South Africa.
    Keywords: Backbone Services, Growth, Input-Output Analysis, South Africa
    JEL: L8 L9 O1 O4 R15
    Date: 2014–05–22
  17. By: Humphries, Jane; Weisdorf, Jacob
    Abstract: This paper presents a wage series for unskilled English women workers from 1260 to 1850 and compares it with existing evidence for men. Our series cast light on long run trends in women’s agency and wellbeing, revealing an intractable, indeed widening gap between women and men’s remuneration in the centuries following the Black Death. This informs several recent debates: first whether or not “the golden age of the English peasantry” included women; and second whether or not industrialization provided women with greater opportunities. Our contributions to both debates have implications for analyses of growth and trends in wellbeing. If the rise in wages that followed the Black Death enticed female servants to delay marriage, it contributed to the formation of the European Marriage Pattern, a demographic regime which positioned England on a path to modern economic growth. If the industrial revolution provided women with improved economic options, their gains should be included in any overall assessment of trends in the standard of living.
    Keywords: Black Death; England; Gender segregation; Gender wage gap; Industrial Revolution; Wages; Women
    JEL: J3 J4 J6 J7 N33
    Date: 2014–03
  18. By: Coumans, S.V.
    Abstract: Social protection policies regarding sex work in The Netherlands use ‘age’ as an instrument to create binaries between adults and young people. The concept ‘chronological age’ assumes that age is a static feature and supports the process of categorization; however, age is a socially constructed phenomenon and has an embodied experience that is gendered. The objective of this research is to understand the role of ‘age’ in shaping social protection policies regarding sex work in The Netherlands, by analyzing how age is understood by those involved in the design and implementation of policies related to sex work in The Netherlands.
    Keywords: Age, sex work, minimum age policies, gender, agency, protection, resilience, prostitution.
    Date: 2014–05–23
  19. By: Olivetti, Claudia; Patacchini, Eleonora; Zenou, Yves
    Abstract: This paper explores a novel mechanism of gender identity formation. Specifically, we explore how the work behavior of a teenager's own mother, as well as that of her friends' mothers, affect her work decisions in adulthood. The first mechanism is commonly included in economic models. The second, which in social psychology is also emphasized as an important factor in gender identity formation, has so far been overlooked. Accordingly, our key theoretical innovation is how the utility function is modeled. It is assumed that an adult woman's work decisions are influenced by her own mother's choices as well as her friends' mothers' choices when she was a teenager, and the interaction between the two. The empirical salience of this behavioral model is tested using a network model specification together with the longitudinal structure of the AddHealth data set. We find that both intergenerational channels positively affect a woman's work hours in adulthood, but the cross effect is negative, indicating the existence of cultural substitutability. That is, the mother's role model effect is larger the more distant she is (in terms of working hours) from the friends' mothers.
    Keywords: gender identity; Intergenerational transmission; labor force participation; social networks
    JEL: J22 Z13
    Date: 2013–10
  20. By: Eloy Fisher; Javier Lopez Bernardo
    Abstract: This paper describes the political economy of shadow banking and how it relates to the dramatic institutional changes experienced by global capitalism over past 100 years. We suggest that the dynamics of shadow banking rest on the distributive tension between workers and firms. Politics wedge the operation of the shadow financial system as government policy internalizes, guides, and participates in dealings mediated by financial intermediaries. We propose a broad theoretical overview to formalize a stock-flow consistent (SFC) political economy model of shadow banking (stylized around the operation of money market mutual funds, or MMMFs). Preliminary simulations suggest that distributive dynamics indeed drive and provide a nest for the dynamics of shadow banking.
    Keywords: Political Cycles; Debt and Public Finance; Shadow Banking; Political Economy of Finance; Kaleckian Macrodynamics; Stock-Flow Consistent (SFC) Modeling; Political Macroeconomic Models
    JEL: E12 E62 E63 H5 H6 P16
    Date: 2014–05

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