nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2014‒01‒10
five papers chosen by
Frederic S. Lee
University of Missouri-Kansas City

  1. The Road to Market Serfdom: Why Economics is Not a Science and How to Fix it. By Freeman, Alan
  2. Entrepreneurship, Innovation and the Good Life: Reflections on Edmund Phelps’ Mass Flourishing By Henrekson, Magnus
  3. La Argentina y la tendencia descendente de la tasa de ganancia (1910-2011) By Maito, Esteban Ezequiel
  4. On the Ricardian Invariable Measure of Value in General Convex Economies: Applicability of the Standard Commodity By Kurose, Kazuhiro; Yoshihara, Naoki
  5. Pay What You Want – But Pay Enough! Information Asymmetries and PWYW Pricing By Greiff, Matthias; Egbert, Henrik; Xhangolli, Kreshnik

  1. By: Freeman, Alan
    Abstract: This paper was presented to the May 2013 conference of the Postglobalization Initiative in Moscow, and deals with the function of economics in the modern world order. It seeks to explain why, as a profession (notwithstanding individual exceptions) economics failed to predict the crisis that opened in 2007; why it then failed to foresee its length and depth; and why it proposes no solutions that could bring it to an end. The paper challenges economics’ most fundamental claim, that it conducts itself as a science, arguing that it instead behaves as a religious system for making and justifying political decisions whose core belief is market perfection: the notion that the combination of private property in production with universal commodification is not only optimal, but cannot fail. The paper proposes a radical new conception of the ethical duty of economists as resisting untruth, which it can do by conducting itself as a pluralist science. To this end, the paper introduces a distinction between two functions of knowledge: its exoteric function through which society arranges to control nature, and its esoteric function which organises, within a rational structure, systems of law, ethics, morality, and their relations to each other. In science, the exoteric predominates over the esoteric. In religion, the reverse is the case. This explains the real function of economics, which is a disguised normative system rooted in the primary principle of market perfection. Its prescriptions are derived not by the normal scientific method of testing a variety of theories against the evidence, but by the elevation of this supposition into an unchallengeable dogma. It operates as a monotheoretic body of knowledge in which, at any given time and facing any given problem, only one unique answer is offered, denying the users of economics the basic democratic and scientific right to choose between a variety of answers on the basis of their own independent assessment of both the evidence and the presuppositions of the theories from which the prospective answers are deduced. The primary mechanism of its religious function lie therefore in its methods of theoretical selection: it permits the promulgation and indeed, development, only of those theories which yield predictions consistent with the dogma of market perfection. It is constructed to suppress any body of theory which leads to conclusions inconsistent with the assumption of market perfection, most notably those, such as the theories of Marx and Keynes, which demonstrate that the market system is self-contradictory – that is to say, that it acts so as to undermine the basis for its own existence. The more likely it is that a given theory may lead to such conclusions, the more thoroughly it is suppressed. In consequence, those theories that escape the suppressive net of economics are precisely those in which the present social order is presented as not merely optimal but natural, inevitable and eternal. Interference with this market then becomes a crime against nature. All private benefits of the property-owners become the result of natural forces: they are rich because nature intended them to be. Take their riches from them, and things can only get worse. Poverty, destitution, famine: these are sad but inevitable consequences of nature. Any policy designed to offset or overcome them is misguided. Nature, in a word, has been enthroned as a God, by excluding humans from Nature. I employ the term market serfdom to characterise such a system, because it removes choice from the field. Human agency is itself designated a crime against nature. Hayek and his followers, the paper, have erred in making an issue of the claim that ‘serfdom’ comes from interfering with the market: Actually they propose that they only course open to humanity is to submit to the market. His is the freedom of the slave who accepts his destiny. We have no choice but what the market ordains. Economics, as we now know it, is the theoretically perfected manifestation of this doctrine, just as late mediaeval Catholicism was the perfected manifestation of the doctrine of submission to the established aristocratic and monarchic order. The paper then analyzes the two principal mechanisms by which the profession of economics has arrived at this point: selection for conformity and institutional delegitimation, and briefly outlines how ‘assertive pluralism’ could, if applied systematically, restore the study of political economy to the status of a science. Slides, and a video of the presentation and discussion, will be made available through the link to this paper at an
    Keywords: Value, Price, Money, Labour, Marx, MELT, Okishio, TSSI, temporalism, rate of profit
    JEL: B1 B4 B5
    Date: 2013–05–01
  2. By: Henrekson, Magnus (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))
    Abstract: Edmund Phelps, the 2006 Nobel Laureate in Economics, has written a thought-provoking and ambitious book: Mass Flourishing: How Grassroots Innovation Created Jobs, Challenge, and Change (Princeton University Press, 2013). The book is laudable for its emphasis on innovation, for its discussion of what constitutes a good life, and Phelps’ realization that true life satisfaction cannot be achieved through a mindless quest for money and the goods it can buy. But the overly glossy characterization of the period before WW II as opposed to the post-1980 period, the niggardly evaluation of the European economies, and the lack of empirical indicators actually showing that the rate of innovation has dropped are significant weaknesses. These objections are especially regrettable given the importance of the book´s main message: Creative entrepreneurship is not merely the key to economic growth, but to life satisfaction as well.
    Keywords: Innovation; Entrepreneurship; Modernism; Postmodernism; Values
    JEL: L26 M14 P47 Z13
    Date: 2014–01–02
  3. By: Maito, Esteban Ezequiel
    Abstract: This work presents an estimation of the profit rate evolution in Argentina for the period 1910-2011, on the basis of five long time series: real machine fixed capital productivity (1874-2011), real and nominal fixed capital productivity (1910-2011), and real and nominal profit rate on fixed capital (1910-2011). All these series show a tendency to fall, according to Marx´s approach, due to relative increase on investment expenses in relation to labor force´s, which represent the profit source. Like estimations for other countries, the first part of the seventies and later years were signed by a great fall in the profit rate, which later recovery couldn´t reach the previous levels. The tendency of the profit rate to fall take place beyond any change on income distribution, which effects over profitability are more related with short and medium place cycles.
    Keywords: Profit rate – Argentina – Output/Capital ratio – Income distribution – Accumulation
    JEL: E01 E32 O11 O54 P16
    Date: 2013–12
  4. By: Kurose, Kazuhiro; Yoshihara, Naoki
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the critical arguments made by Burmeister, Samuelson, and others, with respect to Sraffa (1960). Sraffa did not address these arguments, but they are relevant from the viewpoint of modern economic theories. In his arguments about the standard commodity, Sraffa assumed that a change in income distribution has no effect on the output level and choice of techniques. However, modern economic theories allow interdependence among changes in income distribution, output level, and choice of techniques. Therefore, it is interesting to consider the existence of an invariable measure of value and linearity of income distribution in a model where such interdependence is discussed. We assume general convex economies with non-increasing returns to scale. In this model, we obtain the conditions under which the existence of an invariable measure of value and the validity of the linearity of income distribution are assured.
    Keywords: Ricardo'痴 invariable measure of value, Sraffa'痴 standard commodity, General convex economies, Linear relation of income distribution
    JEL: B51 D30 D51
    Date: 2013–12
  5. By: Greiff, Matthias; Egbert, Henrik; Xhangolli, Kreshnik
    Abstract: Pay What You Want (PWYW) pricing has received considerable attention recently. Empirical studies show that when PWYW pricing is implemented buyers do not behave selfishly in a number of cases and that some sellers are able to use PWYW to increase turnover as well as profits. In this paper we present a theoretical model of buyer behavior under asymmetric information about production costs. Our model shows that information asymmetries provide an explanation for the results found in empirical studies.
    Keywords: PWYW pricing, information asymmetry, fairness, buyer behavior
    JEL: D4 M2 M3
    Date: 2013–12–12

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