nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2011‒08‒29
twenty-six papers chosen by
Frederic S. Lee
University of Missouri-Kansas City

  1. Working Paper 01-11 - Analyse du secteur Horeca en Belgique By Caroline Hambye; Bart Hertveldt
  2. Égalité professionnelle homme / femme : entre impulsion législative et pratiques de RSE By Véronique Dutraive; Virginie Forest
  3. Beyond Marshallian Agglomeration Economies: The Roles of the Local Trade Association in a Meiji Japan Weaving District (1868-1912) By Tomoko Hashino; Takafumi Kurosawa
  4. Ethnicity and Election Outcomes in Ghana By Thomas Bossuroy
  5. Untraditional caring arrangements among parents living apart. The case of Norway By Ragni Hege Kitterød and Jan Lyngstad
  6. Improving Access and Quality in the Indian Education System By Sam Hill; Thomas Chalaux
  7. Inequality of opportunity in educational achievement in Latin America: Evidence from PISA 2006-2009 By Luis Fernando Gamboa; Fábio D. Waltenberg
  8. Economic Institutions and Stability: A Network Approach By Gilles, R.P.; Lazarova, E.A.; Ruys, P.H.M.
  9. The Italian Labour Market and the Crisis By Tindara Addabbo; Anna Maccagnan
  10. Inequality and poverty during the recession in Italy By Massimo Baldini; Emanuele Ciani
  11. Quality of work and health status: a multidimensional analysis By Tindara Addabbo; Marco Fuscaldo; Anna Maccagnan
  12. Performance of Microfinance Institutions: A Macroeconomic and Institutional Perspective By Katsushi Imai; Raghav Gaiha; Ganesh Thapa; Samuel Kobina AnnimAditi Gupta; Aditi Gupta
  13. Environmental and gender impacts of land tenure regularization in Africa : pilot evidence from Rwanda By Ali, Daniel Ayalew; Deininger, Klaus; Goldstein, Markus
  14. Political economy of the petroleum sector in Nigeria By Gboyega, Alex; Soreide, Tina; Le, Tuan Minh; Shukla, G. P.
  15. Engendering trade By Do, Quy-Toan; Levchenko, Andrei A.; Raddatz, Claudio
  16. Forms of Emergence and the Evolution of Economic Landscapes By Ron Martin; Peter Sunley
  17. RThe Malthusian Intermezzo - Women’s wages and human capital formation between the Late Middle Ages and the Demographic Transition of the 19th century By Jan Luiten van Zanden
  18. Los docentes, las escuelas y los aprendizajes escolares en América Latina: Un estudio regional usando la base de datos del SERCE By Jesús Duarte; María Soledad Bos; Martín Moreno
  19. Varieties of Capitalism, Governance and Government Spending – A Cross-Section Analysis By Joachim Ahrens; Rainer Schweickert; Juliane Zenker
  20. Economic liberalization, gender wage inequality and welfare – a theoretical analysis By Mukhopadhyay, Ujjaini; Chaudhuri, Sarbajit
  21. Effects of sex preference and social pressure on fertility in changing Japanese families By Yamamura, Eiji
  22. Multidimensional Poverty in Pakistan: Case of Punjab Province By Awan, Masood Sarwar; Waqas, Muhammad; Aslam, Muhammad Amir
  23. Adolescent pregnancies and health issues in Uttar Pradesh: Some policy implications By Rode, Sanjay
  24. Domestic tourism and regional inequality in Brazil By Haddad, Eduardo A.; Porsse, Alexandre A.; Rabahy, Wilson
  25. Interregional input-ouptut system for Ecuador, 2007: methodology and results By Haddad, Eduardo A.; Garcia Samaniego, Juan Manuel; Porsse, Alexandre A.; Ochoa Jimenez, Diego Alejandro; Ochoa Moreno, Wilman Santiago; Souza, Luiz Gustavo Antonio
  26. Do multinationals beat down developing countries' export prices? The impact of FDI on net barter terms of trade By Konstantin M. Wacker

  1. By: Caroline Hambye; Bart Hertveldt
    Abstract: This Working Paper gives an overall picture of the horeca industry in Belgium. The study focuses in particular on aspects of business demography, the importance of the sector for the Belgian economy, its development since the mid‐nineties and the financial health of horeca companies. Since the provision of horeca services is a very labour‐intensive activity, special  attention is paid to employment features.
    Keywords: Sectoral analyses, Input-output tables
    JEL: L8 C67
    Date: 2011–02–01
  2. By: Véronique Dutraive (TRIANGLE - Triangle : action, discours, pensée politique et économique - CNRS : UMR5206 - Université Lumière - Lyon II - Institut d'Études Politiques de Lyon - École Normale Supérieure de Lyon - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne); Virginie Forest (LEFI - Laboratoire d'Economie de la Firme et des Institutions - Université Lumière - Lyon II : EA4012)
    Abstract: Face à l'échec relatif des dispositifs législatifs en matière d'égalité professionnelle, les pratiques de RSE peuvent apparaitre comme une solution pour réduire les inégalités que les femmes subissent encore quant à leurs conditions d'emploi. Nous nous interrogeons sur ce point en mobilisant les travaux propres à l'institutionnalisme américain, et notamment ceux de T. Veblen et de J.R. Commons. Ainsi, si les pratiques de RSE peuvent contribuer à davantage d'égalité, nous montrons que le rôle des pouvoirs publics demeure déterminant.
    Keywords: Egalité professionnelle ; RSE ; Institutionnalisme américain
    Date: 2011
  3. By: Tomoko Hashino (Graduate School of Economics, Kobe University/ Department of History, George Washington University); Takafumi Kurosawa (Graduate School of Economics, Kyoto University)
    Abstract: Recent studies have shown that economic development based on industrial districts or clusters is common not only in the Western nations but also among many developing countries, as Marshall might have anticipated. Similarly, in the development process of modern Japan, many industrial districts developed in various industries. Interestingly, they were much more organized and institutionalized than Marshall described. This article demonstrates that local trade associations had an important role in enhancing Marshallian externalities by facilitating joint actions for the supply of public goods, such as the creation of glocal district brandsh and provision of technological and market information. In this article, we consider the case of Kiryu, which was one of the oldest and best-known silk weaving districts in modern Japan.
    Keywords: industrial district, industrial cluster, weaving industry, local trade association, joint action, modern Japan
    Date: 2011–08
  4. By: Thomas Bossuroy (SALDRU, University of Cape Town, South Africa UMR DIAL-Paris-Dauphine)
    Abstract: Is ethnicity the critical determinant of election results in Africa? We investigate this question empirically on the 2004 presidential poll in Ghana. We use variables from several data sources matched at the district level, and perform econometric analysis on the turnout rate and party vote shares, and on their evolution between two similar polls. We test the accuracy of two alternate models of voting, an ethnic model and a non-ethnic one that includes variables such as education, occupation or wealth. We provide robust evidence that the ethnic factor is a slightly better explaining factor for the structure of votes in Ghana, but does not rule out the significance of the non-ethnic model. We then show that the ethnic model fails to account accurately for the evolution of votes between two polls, which appears as the result of evaluative votes. Since a changeover of political power has occurred repeatedly in Ghana, the analysis of the motives of the pivotal voter is crucial. Our results show that non-ethnic determinants may ultimately drive election outcomes. _________________________________ L’ethnicité est-elle le déterminant majeur des résultats électoraux en Afrique? Nous étudions empiriquement cette question pour le scrutin présidentiel de 2004 au Ghana, en utilisant des données provenant de sources variées, assemblées au niveau du district. Nous conduisons une analyse économétrique du taux de participation et des résultats des partis politiques, ainsi que de leur évolution entre deux élections similaires. Nous testons la précision de deux modèles alternatifs de vote, un modèle ethnique et un non-ethnique qui inclut des variables telles que l’éducation, la profession ou la richesse. Nous montrons que le facteur ethnique surpasse légèrement le modèle non-ethnique pour expliquer la structure des votes au Ghana, même si ce dernier reste statistiquement valide. Mais le modèle ethnique explique très mal l’évolution des votes entre deux élections, qui apparaît comme le résultat d’un vote d’évaluation politique non ethnique. Comme des alternances se sont produites au Ghana plusieurs fois, les motivations de l’électeur pivot sont cruciales. Nos résultats montrent donc que les facteurs non-ethniques semblent déterminer les résultats des élections.
    Keywords: Vote, Ethnicity, Elections, Africa.
    JEL: D72 O1
    Date: 2011–04
  5. By: Ragni Hege Kitterød and Jan Lyngstad (Statistics Norway)
    Abstract: In spite of more symmetric parental roles in couples, shared residence is still practiced by a minority of parents following partnership dissolution in Norway, and the same is true for father sole custody. Utilising a survey of parents living apart in 2004, we find that shared residence is particularly likely when the father has a medium or high income, the mother is highly educated, the parents split up rather recently, the mother is currently married and the parents have no other children in their present households. Father sole custody is most likely when the mother has low income, the father has high income, the parents were formally married prior to the breakup, the child is a boy, the child is fairly old, the father is single and the mother has children in her current household. More equal parenting roles in couples in younger generations as well as policies urging parents to collaborate about their children’s upbringing when they split up, may lead to an increase in shared residence in the years to come, and perhaps also to new groups of parents practicing such an arrangement.
    Keywords: Father sole custody; gender equality; parents living apart; shared residence.
    JEL: J12 J13
    Date: 2011–08
  6. By: Sam Hill; Thomas Chalaux
    Abstract: Education has been given high priority by India’s central and state governments and continues to grow fast. School access has been expanded by investment in school infrastructure and recruitment of teachers. In higher education too, the number of providers continues to rise rapidly. A new law enshrining the rights of all children to free and compulsory education will further lift enrolment, bringing closer the government’s goal of universal elementary education, which comprises eight years of schooling. Nevertheless, high drop-out rates and low attendance continues to be a challenge at lower levels and enrolment at higher levels remains modest by international standards. Private sector involvement is on the rise. While it helps expand education infrastructure, particularly in higher education, access has not always been assured and the availability of student loans for higher education needs to improve. Poor learning outcomes amongst school students and mediocre higher education provision call for more effective government regulation and funding arrangements. Expanding resources will help but they need to be deployed more effectively, while incentives and professional development systems for teachers need to be strengthened. In higher education the government has proposed reforms which have the potential to bring about much-needed improvements in regulatory effectiveness. Efforts should focus on reducing micro-regulation and improving institutional autonomy, in order to stimulate innovation and diversity. Increasing the number of institutions subjected to quality assessments will be important for lifting standards across the higher education system, while reform of recruitment and promotion mechanisms could help attract and retain talent in academia.<P>Améliorer l'accès et la qualité du système éducatif indien<BR>L'éducation est l'une des grandes priorités des autorités indiennes, à l'échelon central et dans les États, et elle continue de se développer rapidement. L'accès à l'école a été élargi grâce à des investissements dans les infrastructures et au recrutement d'enseignants. Dans l'enseignement supérieur également, le nombre de prestataires continue d'augmenter à un rythme soutenu. Une nouvelle loi établissant le droit de tous les enfants à l'instruction gratuite et obligatoire va encore accroître les effectifs scolarisés dans le primaire et le premier cycle du secondaire, si bien que l'objectif de scolarisation élémentaire universelle que se sont fixé les autorités pourrait bientôt être atteint. Néanmoins, la fréquence des abandons en cours d'études et les faibles taux de fréquentation scolaire continuent de poser un problème aux niveaux inférieurs, tandis que les taux d'inscription aux niveaux supérieurs restent modestes par rapport aux normes internationales. Le secteur privé joue un rôle croissant. S'il est utile de développer les infrastructures, en particulier dans l'enseignement supérieur, l'accès aux études n'est pas toujours garanti et l'offre de prêts étudiants doit être étoffée. Les résultats insuffisants des écoliers et la qualité médiocre de l'enseignement supérieur appellent une amélioration de l'action publique et des mécanismes de financement. Augmenter les ressources est une bonne chose, mais il faudra les déployer de manière plus efficace et renforcer les systèmes d'incitations et de perfectionnement professionnel destinés aux enseignants. Dans l'enseignement supérieur, le gouvernement a proposé des réformes à même d'apporter des améliorations indispensables pour l'efficacité de la réglementation. Les efforts devraient viser avant tout à limiter la micro réglementation et à accroître l'autonomie des établissements afin de stimuler l'innovation et la diversité. Augmenter le nombre d'institutions soumises à des contrôles de qualité permettra de relever les normes dans l'ensemble du système d'enseignement supérieur, tandis qu'une réforme des modalités de recrutement et de promotion des enseignants devrait concourir à attirer et à retenir les talents dans les universités.
    Keywords: human capital, tertiary education, education policy, India, secondary education, vocational education, primary education, universities, education spending, literacy, schools, capital humain, formation professionnelle, université, politique d'éducation, Inde, dépenses d’éducation, alphabétisation, études primaires, écoles, études secondaires, études tertiaires
    JEL: H52 H75 I2 I20 I21 I22 I23 I28 J24 O10 O15 O53
    Date: 2011–07–29
  7. By: Luis Fernando Gamboa (Universidad del Rosario, Colombia); Fábio D. Waltenberg (Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brazil)
    Abstract: We assess inequality of opportunity in educational achievement in six Latin American countries, employing two waves of PISA data (2006 and 2009). By means of a non-parametric approach using a decomposable inequality index, GE(0), we rank countries according to their degree of inequality of opportunity. We work with alternative characterizations of types: school type (public or private), gender, parental education, and combinations of those variables. We calculate ?incremental contributions? of each set of circumstances to inequality. We provide rankings of countries based on unconditional inequalities (using conventional indices) and on conditional inequalities (EOp indices), and the two sets of rankings do not always coincide. Inequality of opportunities ranges from less than 1% to up to 27%, with substantial heterogeneity according to the year, the country, the subject and the specification of circumstances. Robustness checks based on bootstrap and the use of an alternative index confirm most of the initial results.
    Keywords: Inequality of Opportunity, economics of education, Latin America.
    JEL: D63 O15
    Date: 2011
  8. By: Gilles, R.P.; Lazarova, E.A.; Ruys, P.H.M. (Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research)
    Abstract: We consider a network economy in which economic agents are connected within a structure of value-generating relationships. Agents are assumed to be able to participate in three types of economic activities: autarkic self-provision; binary matching interactions; and multi-person cooperative collaborations. We introduce two concepts of stability and provide sufficient and necessary conditions on the prevailing network structure for the existence of stable assignments, both in the absence of externalities from cooperation as well as in the presence of size-based externalities. We show that institutional elements such as the emergence of socioeconomic roles and organizations based on hierarchical leadership structures are necessary for establishing stability and as such support and promote stable economic development.
    Keywords: Cooperatives;Networks;Clubs;Network economies;Stable matchings.
    JEL: C72 D71 D85
    Date: 2011
  9. By: Tindara Addabbo; Anna Maccagnan
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyse the effects of the crisis on the Italian labour market. The Italian labour market is characterized by deep gender differences and regional variability. The data show that the crisis lead to an increase in the gap of female employment rates and womens inactivity rates with respect to Europe. The North of Italy experienced a higher increase in unemployment than the South, where many people withdrew from the labour market because of poor employment prospects. Moreover, in Italy, the increase in unemployment has been mitigated by the increase in the number of workers having access to the wage supplementation fund who are not computed within the unemployed. However, the heterogeneity in the system of unemployment benefits increased inequalities amongst the unemployed. Using a micro simulation techniques, we estimate the effect of the crisis on income distribution and poverty and find that at the national level, the population showed a reduction in equivalised household income by about 1 percent. The limited impact on household's equivalent income can be connected to the relatively high share of unemployed who are young with relatively low income and sustained by other members of the household.
    Keywords: labour market, poverty, economic crisis
    JEL: J6 I32
    Date: 2011–02
  10. By: Massimo Baldini; Emanuele Ciani
    Abstract: This paper simulates the effects of the recent economic crisis on income inequality and poverty in Italy. We impute the changes in employment rates for groups of the population, obtained from the Labour force survey, on the Silc sample for Italy, and simulate in detail also the resulting changes in unenployment benefits and in the Cassa Integrazione Guadagni, a wage supplement fund greatly expanded in the last few years.
    Keywords: Quality of work, health status, elderly
    Date: 2011–08
  11. By: Tindara Addabbo; Marco Fuscaldo; Anna Maccagnan
    Abstract: Quality of work has been found to significantly affect health outcomes. In this paper we analyse the extent to which the quality of the work done in the past affects the health of the elderly in Italy. For this purpose, we use data drawn from the Italian sample of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and focus on individuals aged over 60. Using different types of factor analysis, we identify three dimensions of quality of work and five factors of health status. In particular, as regards the former, we distinguish among the physical dimension, the control dimension and the socioeconomic dimension of work quality. As regards health, using a nested factor model we obtain a factor of global health problems and four residual factors of cognitive problems, mobility problems, affective problems and motivational problems. These factors are then analysed by gender using a multivariate analysis. Our findings suggest that good quality of work in terms of the socioeconomic and control dimensions significantly decreases the probability of being globally unhealthy during the elder phase of one’s life cycle as well as of displaying motivational problems, the effect being similar in both genders. We also find that a higher level of control in men’s work increases their affective problems when they are older and have left the labour force, suggesting a loss in men’s social sphere after retirement from a rewarding job and a likely underdevelopment of their relational dimension outside their work activity.
    Keywords: Quality of work, health status, elderly.
    JEL: J14 J28
    Date: 2011–08
  12. By: Katsushi Imai; Raghav Gaiha; Ganesh Thapa; Samuel Kobina AnnimAditi Gupta; Aditi Gupta
    Date: 2011
  13. By: Ali, Daniel Ayalew; Deininger, Klaus; Goldstein, Markus
    Abstract: Although increased global demand for land has led to renewed interest in African land tenure, few models to address these issues quickly and at the required scale have been identified or evaluated. The case of Rwanda's nation-wide and relatively low-cost land tenure regularization program is thus of great interest. This paper evaluates the short-term impact (some 2.5 years after completion) of the pilots undertaken to fine-tune the approach using a geographic discontinuity design with spatial fixed effects. Three key findings emerge from the analysis. First, the program improved land access for legally married women (about 76 percent of married couples) and prompted better recordation of inheritance rights without gender bias. Second, the analysis finds a very large impact on investment and maintenance of soil conservation measures. This effect was particularly pronounced for female headed households, suggesting that this group had suffered from high levels of tenure insecurity, which the program managed to reduce. Third, land market activity declined, allowing rejection of the hypothesis that the program caused a wave of distress sales or widespread landlessness by vulnerable people. Implications for program design and policy are discussed.
    Keywords: Common Property Resource Development,Banks&Banking Reform,Municipal Housing and Land,Urban Housing,Rural Land Policies for Poverty Reduction
    Date: 2011–08–01
  14. By: Gboyega, Alex; Soreide, Tina; Le, Tuan Minh; Shukla, G. P.
    Abstract: The relatively slow pace of Nigeria's development has often been attributed to the phenomenon of the resource curse whereby the nature of the state as a"rentier"dilutes accountability for development and political actors are able to manipulate institutions to sustain poor governance. The impact of the political elite's resource-control and allocation of revenues on core democratic mechanisms is central to understand the obstacles to development and governance failure. Given that problems of petroleum sector governance are extremely entrenched in Nigeria, the key question is whether and how it is possible to get out of a poor equilibrium after fifty years of oil production. This paper uses a political economy perspective to analyze the governance weaknesses along the petroleum sector value chain and attempts to establish the links between challenges in sector regulation and the following major political and economic attributes: (i) strong executive control on petroleum governance in a political environment of weak checks and balances; (ii) regulatory and operating roles bundled into one institution, thereby creating conflict of interest; and (iii) manipulation of elections and political appointments. The restoration of democratic government has helped improve transparency and management of oil revenue and reforms at the federal level and proposed reforms of the petroleum sector hold much promise. At the same time, the judiciary has started to restore confidence that it will serve as a check and balance on the executive and the electoral process. Yet, these reforms are fragile and need to be deepened and institutionalized. They must be addressed not as purely technocratic matters but as issues of political economy and vested interests that must, through regulation and reform, be aligned with the public interest and a vision of Nigerian development.
    Keywords: National Governance,Environmental Economics&Policies,Oil Refining&Gas Industry,Energy Production and Transportation,Public Sector Corruption&Anticorruption Measures
    Date: 2011–08–01
  15. By: Do, Quy-Toan; Levchenko, Andrei A.; Raddatz, Claudio
    Abstract: The authors analyze the interaction between a country's world market integration and its attitude towards gender roles. They discuss both theoretically and empirically how female empowerment is a source of comparative advantage that shapes a country's response to trade opening. Reciprocally, the authors show that as countries integrate into the world economy, the costs and benefits of gender discrimination shift. Their theory goes beyond a potential aggregate wealth effect associated with trade opening, and emphasizes the heterogeneity of impacts. On the one hand, countries in which women are empowered -- measured by fertility rates, female labor force participation or female schooling -- experience an expansion of industries that use female labor relatively more intensively. On the other hand, the gender gap is smaller in countries that export more in relatively female-labor intensive sectors. In an increasingly globalized economy, the road to gender equality is paradoxically very specific to each country’s productive structure and exposure to world markets.
    Keywords: Labor Markets,Labor Policies,Gender and Development,Economic Theory&Research,Political Economy
    Date: 2011–08–01
  16. By: Ron Martin; Peter Sunley
    Abstract: Over the past two decades, the notion of ÔemergenceÕ has attracted increasing attention and controversy across the social sciences, as par of a growing interest in the applicability of complexity theory to socio-economic-political systems. Within this context, as economic geographers, our concern in this paper is with the usefulness of the idea of emergence for studying the economic landscape and its evolution. We examine three ÔordersÕ of emergence, and focus attention especially on the third type, Ôdevelopmental or evolutionaryÕ emergence. Despite its limitations, the notion of third order emergence is a potentially valuable organizing concept in economic geography. It provides a framework for exploring how it is that the spatial forms of the economy - clusters, regions, firm networks and so on Ð are recursively related to economic action.
    Keywords: Emergence, Supervenience, Downward causation, Evolution, Economic landscape
    JEL: B15 R11 R12
    Date: 2011–08
  17. By: Jan Luiten van Zanden
    Abstract: Why did the European Marriage Pattern that emerged in the North-Sea region in the late Medieval Period not result in a continuous shift from ‘quantity’ to ‘quality’? This paper addresses this question focusing on the changing labour market position of women in England between 1500 and 1800. It is demonstrated that the gender wage gap increased strongly in this period; wages of women working in agriculture fell from about 80% to 40% of the wages of an unskilled labourer. This was probably the result of a decline in the demand for female labour in this period due to changes in the structure of agriculture, and was possibly also related from the movement from a labour scarcity economy in the 15th century to a labour surplus economy in 18th and early 19th century. This decline in female labour participation and in particular in the relative wages earned by women had important consequences for demographic behaviour and investment in human capital of children. It helps to explain the ‘baby boom’ of the second half of the 18th century, and the stagnation in human capital formation that occurred at the same time – in short, it contributes to the understanding of the ‘Malthusian intermezzo’ of this period.
    Keywords: Demographic change, European Marriage Pattern, Female wage gap, Female labour participation
    Date: 2011–08
  18. By: Jesús Duarte; María Soledad Bos; Martín Moreno
    Abstract: Este estudio busca identificar factores escolares que se asocian con los aprendizajes de los alumnos en América Latina, en particular aquellos relacionados con los docentes y el contexto escolar en el que ejercen la docencia. Utilizando modelos de regresión multinivel y la base de datos del SERCE, identifica un grupo de factores escolares que tienen potencial de mejorar la calidad y la equidad de la educación en la región. Entre las características de los docentes asociadas con la calidad se presenta la edad, la experiencia, el nivel educativo y la cercanía de su vivienda al centro escolar. La manera como son contratados los docentes, el tipo de contrato que sostienen con la escuela o con el sector, o tener empleos adicionales, no presentan asociaciones significativas con los aprendizajes escolares. En cambio, el tiempo efectivo que le dedican los docentes a enseñar, o la jornada completa, y la dotación de libros y material educativo están altamente relacionados con los puntajes de los estudiantes en las pruebas. Las escuelas con mejores facilidades físicas y con buenos servicios de agua, acueducto, electricidad y teléfono también tienen una clara ventaja en las pruebas de los alumnos, independiente del nivel socioeconómico de las familias que atienden.
    Date: 2010–09
  19. By: Joachim Ahrens; Rainer Schweickert; Juliane Zenker
    Abstract: We argue that the literature on government size suffers from neglecting the role of governance both as a driving and a limiting factor for government spending. Cross-country evidence for a sample of 126 developed and developing countries averaging data for the period 2003-07 reveals that better governance allows for higher spending. However, on the demand side, more open countries are likely to spend more in cases of minor quality of governance only. In this respect, government spending compensates ineffective institutional structures. More generally, a preference for a coordinated (continental European type) market economy leads to higher levels of spending if accompanied by better governance. While most developing countries share these preferences, Latin American countries seem to prefer a lower level of spending as in liberal (anglo-saxon) market economies
    Keywords: Government Size, Governance, Varieties of Capitalism, OECD, Developing Countries
    JEL: H10 P10 P51
    Date: 2011–08
  20. By: Mukhopadhyay, Ujjaini; Chaudhuri, Sarbajit
    Abstract: The paper develops a 3-sector general equilibrium model appropriate for economies with female labour oriented export sector to examine the effects of economic liberalization policies on gender based wage inequality. It is assumed that there exist disparities in efficiencies between male and female labour due to skewed access to education and health, and differences in their spending patterns leading to differential effects of respective wages on their nutrition. The results indicate that tariff cut may reduce gender wage inequality, but may have detrimental effects on welfare; while foreign capital inflow may accentuate the inequality, despite improving the welfare of the economy. However, government policies to increase the provision of education and health have favourable effects on gender wage inequality but may be welfare deteriorating. Thus, the paper provides a theoretical explanation to empirical evidences of diverse effects of liberalization on gender wage inequality and explains the possibility of a trade-off between gender inequality and social welfare.
    Keywords: gender; wage inequality; foreign capital inflow; tariff cut
    JEL: D50 F21 J16
    Date: 2011–08–20
  21. By: Yamamura, Eiji
    Abstract: This study explored how social pressure related to parental preference for the sex of their children affects fertility. Pre-war and post-war generations were compared using individual level data previously collected in Japan in 2002. In the pre-war generation, if the first child was a daughter, the total number of children tended to increase not only when the mother preferred a son, but also when the mother did not have a preference for either gender. This tendency was not observed for the post-war generation. Results suggest that social pressure related to giving birth to a son led to high fertility in the pre-war generation; however, fertility was not influenced by social pressure in the post-war generation. This was because of a change in the influence of the traditional marriage system.
    Keywords: Fertility; son preference; social pressure; family structure
    JEL: J13 J12 J16
    Date: 2011–08–18
  22. By: Awan, Masood Sarwar; Waqas, Muhammad; Aslam, Muhammad Amir
    Abstract: This paper applies Alkire & Foster (2007) approach for measuring the multidimensional poverty. The data set used in the study is Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2003-04 of Punjab, Pakistan. Eight dimensions used in the study are Housing, Water, Sanitation, Electricity, Assets, Education, Expenditure, and Land. Results shows that at cut off K=2; Rajanpur, Muzaffargarh, Rahimyar Khan, Kasur, Okara and Lodhran respectively are the most multidimensionally poor districts of Punjab whereas, Gunj Buksh Town Lahore, Ravi Town Lahore, Cantt Town Lahore, Sialkot, Rawalpindi, Allama Iqbal Town Lahore, Gujranwala and Jhelum are the least deprived Towns/Districts of Punjab province. Dimension wise breakdown shows that Land deprivation, expenditure, sanitation, housing and education are respectively the major contributors among overall multidimensional poverty.
    Keywords: Multidimensional Poverty; Pakistan; MDGs
    JEL: D63 I3 I32
    Date: 2011
  23. By: Rode, Sanjay
    Abstract: In the globalization era, adolescent pregnancies have become an important health issue. Teenage mothers have bigger disadvantage in terms of socio-economic factors. In Uttar Pradesh teenage mothers are found in the poorer households with less education. The logistic regression shows that odd ratio for the teenage mothers are more in rural area. The odd is higher for scheduled caste, tribe and other backward caste as compare to other caste households. The adolescent mothers of low standard of living index has higher odd ratio as compare to the adolescent mothers of higher standard of living index. Teenage mothers do not use the family planning methods and prenatal care. They do not deliver the baby in the health care facility and breastfeed their baby immediately after the delivery. The odd ratio is higher for no breastfeeding after child birth. In order to reduce the teenage pregnancy, government of Uttar Pradesh must generate more self employment opportunities to women and girls. The vocational training will improve the employment possibilities among adolescent girls. Government must provide the health care facilities to the poorer households. Such policies will reduce the adolescent pregnancies in the state.
    Keywords: Pregnancies; fertility; employment
    JEL: J13 J1
    Date: 2011–03–04
  24. By: Haddad, Eduardo A.; Porsse, Alexandre A.; Rabahy, Wilson
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the consumption patterns of tourists coming from different domestic origins and choosing other domestic destinations in Brazil, in terms of expenditure level and composition. We also look at the different alternatives of financing tourist expenditures and their implications for the net multipliers in an integrated framework. We use survey data for domestic tourism in Brazil to consolidate an interregional matrix of expenditures by tourists and then use an interregional input-output system for Brazil to compute the tourism multiplier effects based on alternative hypotheses for the sources of financing of expenditures by tourists. The results are analyzed, and their implications for regional inequality in the country are discussed.
    Keywords: regional impact analysis of tourism; interregional input-output model; tourist expenditure multipliers; domestic tourism; regional inequality; Brazil
    JEL: R13 R15 R12 L83
    Date: 2011
  25. By: Haddad, Eduardo A.; Garcia Samaniego, Juan Manuel; Porsse, Alexandre A.; Ochoa Jimenez, Diego Alejandro; Ochoa Moreno, Wilman Santiago; Souza, Luiz Gustavo Antonio
    Abstract: In this paper, we explore the structural characteristics of the interregional input-output system developed for Ecuador for the year 2007. As part of an ongoing project that aims to develop an interregional CGE model for the country, this database was developed under conditions of limited information. It provides the opportunity to better understand the spatial linkage structure associated with the national economy in the context of its 22 provinces, 15 sectors and 60 different products. This exploratory analysis is based on the description of structural coefficients and the use of traditional input-output techniques. Finally, we further explore the spatial linkage structure by looking at the regional decomposition of final demand. It is hoped that this exercise might result in a better appreciation of a broader set of dimensions that might improve our understanding of the integrated interregional economic system in Ecuador.
    Keywords: Interregional input-output model; Ecuador; spatial linkages
    JEL: D57 R15 R12 R34 C67
    Date: 2011
  26. By: Konstantin M. Wacker (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen)
    Abstract: This paper explores the economic relationship between foreign direct investment to developing countries and the export prices of the latter, measured by terms of trade. It is rst shown that economic theory suggests such a relationship for various reasons but is inconclusive about the direction of the eect. To address this open issue empirically, I analyze data on more than 50 developing countries throughout the period 1980 - 2008 using dynamic panel data methods. The results show that multinational corporations, measured by data on foreign direct investment, had an economically relevant and statistically signicant positive impact on developing countries' net barter terms of trade. A higher level of education in the developing country fosters this eect.
    Keywords: Multinationals, FDI, Terms of Trade, Prebisch-Singer hypothesis
    JEL: C23 F23 O11
    Date: 2011–08–19

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