nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2011‒08‒15
24 papers chosen by
Frederic S. Lee
University of Missouri-Kansas City

  1. European Administrative Space as a New European Challenge for Public Administration Reform By Leskoviku, Migena
  2. Appropriateness of the Transfer of CSR Practices in the Balkan Area By Matei, Ani; Tuca, Mihaela Violeta
  3. The Fundaments of Applying the Concept of Public Service Motivation in the South-Eastern European States By Fataciune (Badalan), Nicoleta; Matei, Lucica
  4. E-government in the Balkans. Comparative study By Matei, Ani; Savulescu, Carmen
  5. Open Source Government: Applying New Concepts of Research & Development (R&D) in Public Administration By Irimia, Sergiu Ioan; Matei, Ani
  6. Ethics Between General Guidelines and National Values. A Comparative S tudy By Dumitrescu, Adelina
  7. The Social Enterprise: A Literature Review By Matei, Lucica; Sandu, Cristina
  8. Product variety, product quality, and evidence of Schumpeterian endogenous growth: a note By Francesco Venturini
  9. Substitution Between Individual and Cultural Capital: Pre-Migration Labor Supply, Culture and US Labor Market Outcomes Among Immigrant Woman By Blau, Francine D.; Kahn, Lawrence M.
  10. ART ET CULTURE DANS L’EVOLUTION DES DISTRICTS INDUSTRIELS ITALIENS [Art and culture in the evolution of Italian industrial districts] By Ragazzi Elena; Rolfo Secondo
  11. A responsiveness-based (composite) indicator with an application to countries’ innovative performance By Cerulli Giovanni
  12. Critical aspects in the management of new technologies: A case study By Cariola Monica
  13. Connectivity and Competition in Airline Networks: A Complexity Analysis of Lufthansa's Network By Aura Reggiani; Peter Nijkamp; Alessandro Cento
  14. The Role of Women in the Italian Network of Boards of Directors, 2003-2010 By Carlo Drago; Francesco Millo; Roberto Ricciuti; Paolo Satella
  15. Measuring the economic gain of investing in girls : the girl effect dividend By Chaaban, Jad; Cunningham, Wendy
  16. Social Democracy and the âDevelopmental Stateâ as Development Alternatives for South Africa By Van Eck, Lisa
  17. Smallholder Farmers and Collective Action: What Determines the Intensity of Participation? By Fischer, Elisabeth; Qaim, Matin
  18. Women Farmerâs and Agriculture Growth: Challenge and Perspective for Africa face the economic crisis By Adeniyi, Labintan
  19. The Potential Economic and Environmental Costs of GHG Mitigation Measures for Cattle Sectors in Northern Ireland By Minihan, Erin S.; Wu, Zipling
  20. Application possibilities of the micro-meso-macro framework in economic geography By Heike Schroeder
  21. Developing and agreeing a capability list in the British context: What can be learnt from social survey data on ‘rights’? By Polly Vizard
  22. The distribution of total greenhouse gas emissions by households in the UK, and some implications for social policy By Saamah Abdallah; Ian Gough; Victoria Johnson; Josh Ryan-Collins; Cindy Smith
  23. The Impact of Globalization on Women: Testing Vandana Shiva’s Critique of Development By Kilby, Christopher; Scholz, Sally J.
  24. Análise de Insumo-Produto: Teoria e Fundamentos By Guilhoto, Joaquim José Martins

  1. By: Leskoviku, Migena
    Abstract: The European Administrative Space (EAS) should be understood as the ‘environment in which the national administrations are called upon to assure homogeneous levels of service efficiency and quality'. It is important to learn from historical background in order to study the trends of the future organization and challenges of public service. The need for cooperation and benchmarking is rapidly increasing and is related to the need to control the globalizing economy. This new and complex situation almost leads to a crisis of the state, as countries seem incapable of ruling within their own territories. This new situation can only be addressed through international cooperation, supranational organizations and networking of the public sector. But these new tendencies may end up by questioning the power of the state. In Europe in particular interaction has increased considerably, based partly on the unification process. The new approach developed after 2000, triggered formally by the United Nation's (UN) Millennium Declaration, has tended to institutionalize and foster cooperation and strengthen public services in each country. In Europe and specifically in Balkan region, Public Administration has experienced this new trend as well, but it still faces challenges. In future, the EU will turn to positive common policies leading to administrative homogenization. In order to be effective this can only happen if common objectives and performance measures are set, not through an effort to adopt one common model for all Member States.
    Keywords: reform; public service; efficiency; public administration; European Administrative Space
    Date: 2011–08–06
  2. By: Matei, Ani; Tuca, Mihaela Violeta
    Abstract: The Europe two speeds is a reality that makes its presence felt, especially in the newly acceded countries. Although four years have passed since the last wave of accessions, we still speak about new EU countries, without taking into account the actual age but present discrepancies between member countries member for decades, and new wave countries. The financial crisis had its clear contribution to the slowdown the development, moreover, has pushed the system into reform, because of the new financial requirements. Having theses in mind, we can say that there is a need for "completion" of what the public sector can not do. In support of measures and policies of the state, the importation of practices from the private sector is emerging as a better course of action. CSR policies have recognized the potential to reinforce the symbiotic relationship between business and society, already showing tangible results in areas such as sustainable development, education and social cohesion. The role that CSR practices may play in the development of the Balkan area may include support for a better dialogue between the State, public authorities, social partners and civil society, better jobs, safer work environments and more open to employees, innovation and technology transfer to local communities, etc. Finally, the research objective will be the identification of levers and potential niche markets in the Balkans that the public sector may use and take advantage of using CSR practices.
    Keywords: Actors; Balkan Area; Corporate Social Responsibility
    Date: 2011–08–06
  3. By: Fataciune (Badalan), Nicoleta; Matei, Lucica
    Abstract: Public Service Motivation (PSM) is a relatively recent concept, defined for the first time in the 1990s in the United States by Perry and Wise as being the general predisposition of an individual to respond to motives, values which are to be encountered only in public institutions. These values, which represent the basis for the construction of PSM are not institutionalized in the same degree and in the same manner everywhere, which creates differences according to the specificity of the region, the state or the organizational environment. European studies regarding PSM have mainly focused on Western Europe: France, The Netherlands, Belgium. For this reason, in this article we aim to analyze the concept of PSM and set the basis for a thorough research in order to make it operational in the countries of South-Eastern Europe: Romania and Bulgaria. Thus, we wish to bring our own contribution to the development of a theoretical and methodological framework for PSM in Romania and in South-Eastern European countries. The objectives of the article focus on: formulating an exhaustive definition of the concept, analysing Perry's measurement scale based on 24 items and the relevance of these items in the above-mentioned countries, adapting/adjusting the measurement scale according to the national/regional specificities of the public service values.
    Keywords: regional differences; public values; PSM; Public Service Motivation
    Date: 2011–08–06
  4. By: Matei, Ani; Savulescu, Carmen
    Abstract: In Europe, e-government is considered as one of the main goals for the future. Lately, we have witnessed the revolution in the provision of e-government services for citizens. Citizens benefit of e-government services, better access to information, improved interaction with government, especially due to the increase of using ICT. The paper analyses the current state of the art of e-government in the Balkan countries: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Turkey. The paper achieves a comparative analysis on e-government development in the Balkan countries, based on data provided by UN e-government Surveys. At the same time, we make a comparative analysis concerning ICT development in the Balkan countries, using data provided by ICT Development Index - Measuring the Information Society 2010. The methodology of research comprises bibliographic studies, analysis of specialised reports achieved by relevant international organisations, statistic analyses and evaluations, interpolation.
    Keywords: comparative analysis; ICT development; e-government
    Date: 2011–08–06
  5. By: Irimia, Sergiu Ioan; Matei, Ani
    Abstract: This paper is intended as an introduction to the concept of "open source government". It presents the late as it draws from the open source software development. Starting from the identification of the open source (OS) model in a new generation of R&D management, the main objective is to examine the feasibility of introducing innovations based on this new production model in public administration. In this regard, we argue that open source (OS) can become a modus operandi for the continuation of the processes of administrative decentralization and streamlining the exchange of information between suppliers and users of public services.
    Keywords: administrative decentralization; generation of R&D management; open source model; open source software; open source government
    Date: 2011–08–06
  6. By: Dumitrescu, Adelina
    Abstract: It is a known fact that ethical conduct and ethical behavior of public servants at all hierarchical levels is a must for a modern and performance oriented public administration. It is also a known fact that ethical guidelines are the same all over the European Union. This guidelines are being set up to ensure the cohesion of the public administration in all EU member states. However the in-depth perception of the guidelines may vary from one EU member state to another and even within different regions of one and the same member state according to the historical background and national values of a nation. If ethics is to be regarded as one of the main pillars of the cooperation of the public administrations of the EU member states in order to form one European public administration this differences in perception and implementation of ethical guidelines must be understood and accepted. The European Union has understood that it is imperative to preserve the national characteristics of its member states and has let them find specific, regional solutions to communitarian issues. This paper tries to draws some interesting conclusions based on ethics and its perceptions in different EU member states by analyzing national values and opposing them to general ethical guidelines. This comparative study sets of from published sociological studies carried out in several European countries and aims to determine the coordinates a harmonic collaboration between public administrations.
    Keywords: audit of ethics; national values; public administration; cooperation; ethics
    Date: 2011–08–06
  7. By: Matei, Lucica; Sandu, Cristina
    Abstract: The transformations occurring in the last years in the international area have strongly affected the European administrative space. The national administrations are facing multiple problems concerning the financial, human, technological, etc. resources, and in this context, the public services must continue applying the principles of continuity and adaptability to meet the needs of citizens. Concepts such as social entrepreneurship, social business, social enterprise, public -private partnership become increasingly more important, models of good practice being more visible in Western Europe comparing with Central-Eastern Europe or South-Eastern Europe. The aim of this paper is to offer a literature perspective on the concept of social enterprise, which will lead to a comprehensive approach on the topic. The study will use an exploratory research method and data collection, reflecting the differences between Western, Central-Eastern, South-Eastern Europe literature, based on documentation in international data base and journal article reviews. Finally, the study will be able to underline the key points of social enterprise theories, thus proving the applicability of the concept in practice and the role of social enterprise in the development of European administrative space, with special focus on the Balkan area.
    Keywords: the Balkans; literature review; social enterprise
    Date: 2011–08–06
  8. By: Francesco Venturini
    Abstract: Using US manufacturing industry data, this paper re-examines empirical evidence of first- and second-generation Schumpeterian models of endogenous growth focusing on innovation (patent) quality. It shows that semi-endogenous growth models behave better than the other strands of Schumpeterian theory especially in the knowledge-intensive section of the economy.
    Keywords: fully endogenous growth theory, semi-endogenous growth theory, innovation quality, US manufacturing, high-tech industries.
    JEL: O3 O4
    Date: 2011–07–01
  9. By: Blau, Francine D. (Cornell University); Kahn, Lawrence M. (Cornell University)
    Abstract: In this paper we use New Immigrant Survey data to investigate the impact of immigrant women's own labor supply prior to migrating and female labor supply in their source country to provide evidence on the role of human capital and culture in affecting their labor supply and wages in the United States. We find, as expected, that women who migrate from countries with relatively high levels of female labor supply work more in the United States. Moreover, most of this effect remains when we further control for each woman’s own labor supply prior to migrating, which itself also strongly affects labor supply in the United States. Importantly, we find a significantly negative interaction between pre-migration labor supply and source country female labor supply. We obtain broadly similar effects analyzing the determinants of hourly earnings among the employed in the United States, although the results are not always significant. These results suggest an important role for culture and norms in affecting immigrant women's labor supply, since the effect of source country female labor supply on immigrant women's US work hours is still strong even controlling for the immigrant’s own pre-migration labor supply. The negative interaction effects between previous work experience and source country female labor supply on women's US work hours and wages suggest that cultural capital and individual job-related human capital act as substitutes in affecting preparedness for work in the US.
    Keywords: gender, immigration, labor supply, human capital
    JEL: J16 J22 J24 J61
    Date: 2011–07
  10. By: Ragazzi Elena (Ceris - Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth, Moncalieri (TO), Italy); Rolfo Secondo (Ceris - Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth, Moncalieri (TO), Italy)
    Abstract: The competitiveness of a territory is more and more explained by factors that combine technological innovation, recognized as a key element of the competitive advantage of an economic system, with knowledge, creativity, and sometimes even art and culture. In some areas of ancient industrialization we can find at local level a social capital that is a synthesis of economic, social and cultural aspects. This can be used both for the products promotion and for the support to new industries able to offer to the end consumer not only products but the opportunity to carry on an experience with the local tradition. The paper examines two cases of industrial districts in Italy (Biella and Carrara), where the cultural aspect of the traditional manufacturing has been the starting point for enhancing the territorial system and for the beginning of an integrated supply, products-services, which has expanded the boundaries of the previous specialization and it is now a strong element of territorial competitiveness.La compétitivité d’un territoire est de plus en plus expliqué par des facteurs qui associent à l’innovation technologique, depuis longtemps reconnue comme élément de l’avantage compétitif d’un système économique, la connaissance, la créativité et, parfois, même l’art et la culture. On voit ainsi comme dans les territoires d’ancienne industrialisation on retrouve à niveau local une synthèse entre aspects économiques, sociaux et culturels qui représentent un capital utilisable soit pour la promotion sectorielle, soit pour le soutien à la naissance de nouvelles filière capables d’offrir au consommateur final pas seulement un bien, mais la possibilité de faire expérience avec une tradition. Le papier examinera deux cas de districts industriels italiens (Biella et Carrara) où l’aspect culturel de la production traditionnelle a été le point de départ pour une valorisation du système territorial et pour la naissance d’une offre intégrée produits-services qui a élargi les frontières de la précédente spécialisation et représente un élément fort de la compétitivité territoriale.
    Keywords: Art et culture, créativité, districts industriels
    JEL: O18 R11
    Date: 2010–12
  11. By: Cerulli Giovanni (Ceris - Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth, Rome, Italy)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is twofold: on one hand, from a methodological-statistical perspective, it develops a responsiveness-based index for a series of input factors on a specific target variable (assumed to capture the phenomenon the analyst wishes to look at), by means of an extended version of a random coefficient regression approach; on the other hand, it applies this methodology to the case of countries’ innovation performance, where the target variable is the country number of patents (as proxy of “innovativeness”), and where inputs are chosen according to the literature dealing with the measurement of country technological capabilities. The novelty of the approach presented in the paper regards the possibility of extracting from data a country-specific “reactivity effect” or “responsiveness” (that is, mathematically, a derivative) to each single input feeding into the regression. Thus, the paper provides a promising approach for ranking countries according to their responsiveness to specific inputs, an approach that can be complementary to the analysis on “level” performed, for instance, in the canonical composite indicators’ literature. As for results on countries’ innovation function, besides a (new) ranking of countries, this approach allows also for testing - in an original and straightforward way - the (possible) presence of increasing (decreasing) returns. Two years are considered and compared, 1995 and 2007, on 42 countries. Our tests conclude that in both years innovative increasing returns are at work, although in 2007 their strength drops considerably compared to 1995. According to a huge literature on the subject (both neoclassical and evolutionary), we conclude that a self-reinforcing mechanism in new knowledge production, absorption and diffusion is at the basis of these results. As for the structural change found between 1995 and 2007, we deem it to depend on the growing globalization of production and innovation processes and on the brilliant growth of some developing countries worldwide, with a remarkable role played – according to our results – by post-communist economies.
    Keywords: Responsiveness, Country indicators, Random coefficient regression, Innovation function
    JEL: C21 O31 Q01
    Date: 2010–12
  12. By: Cariola Monica (Ceris - Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth, Moncalieri (TO), Italy)
    Abstract: The good and effective management of a new technology is fundamental for its success not only among the scientific and technical community, but especially for its entry and expansion in the market. There are many examples of new product or process technologies that, notwithstanding the technological relevance and many chances to succeed, have found many obstacles to their dimensional development due to a lack of management of technology in their specific sector. The aim of this paper is to analyse the case of many new process technologies developed along 50 years in the titanium metal sector where some critical aspects ad mistakes in the management of these new technologies have limited or stopped their complete development and the following introduction in the sector. Some useful elements will be pointed out in order to reach more general remarks.
    Keywords: Technological Barriers, Management of Technology, Electrolytic Process, Titanium.
    JEL: L72 O32
    Date: 2010–12
  13. By: Aura Reggiani (University of Bologna, Italy); Peter Nijkamp (VU University Amsterdam); Alessandro Cento (KLM Royal Dutch Airlines, Milan, Italy)
    Abstract: Information, communication and transport networks have always been in a state of flux, while they also influence each other. Extensive research efforts have been made to investigate the dynamics in the structure and use of networks, e.g., by means of network geometries, small-world effects and scale-free phenomena. We will illustrate these new developments on the basis of airline network evolution. The present paper provides a new contribution to the analysis of topological properties of complex airline networks. Using Lufthansa's networks as an example, this paper aims to show the empirical relevance of various network indicators - such as connectivity and concentration - for understanding changing patterns in airline network configurations. After an extensive discussion of various statistical results, a decision-aid method, viz. multi-criteria analysis, is used to investigate the robustness of our findings. The results highlight the actual strategi c choices made by Lufthansa for its own network, as well in combination with its partners in Star Alliance.
    Keywords: airline networks; complexity; connectivity; concentration; degree distribution; network geometry; multicriteria analysis
    JEL: L93
    Date: 2011–08–09
  14. By: Carlo Drago (University of Naples Federico II); Francesco Millo (Department of Economics (University of Verona)); Roberto Ricciuti (Department of Economics (University of Verona)); Paolo Satella (Bank of Italy)
    Abstract: We use an innovative and extended dataset (8 years with 2,057 firms) composed of Italian listed firms. Italy appears to be an interesting case for this kind of study, due to the high presence of interlocking directorate. In particular we use Social Network Analysis to analyze the growth of the female directorship network. We also study the dynamics of change over time, and the different behavior of firms respect the growth of the female directorates. At the same time we study the impact of interlocking directorate and female interlocking directorate on equity value and firm performance. We find that interlocking directorate has a negative impact on equity value and firm performance, which is consistent with economic theory and previous literature findings. Furthermore, female interlocking directorate has no effect on firm value and performance.
    Keywords: Corporate Governance, Interlocking Directorships, Company Performance, Social Network Analysis, Board Diversity.
    JEL: C14 C23 G34 L14 M21
    Date: 2011–07
  15. By: Chaaban, Jad; Cunningham, Wendy
    Abstract: Although girls are approximately half the youth population in developing countries, they contribute less than their potential to the economy. The objective of this paper is to quantify the opportunity cost of girls'exclusion from productive employment with the hope that stark figures will lead policymakers to reconsider the current underinvestment in girls. The paper explores the linkages between investing in girls and potential increases in national income by examining three widely prevalent aspects of adolescent girls'lives: early school dropout, teenage pregnancy and joblessness. The countries included in the analysis are: Bangladesh, Brazil, Burundi, China, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Paraguay, Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda. The authors use secondary data to allow for some comparability across countries. They find that investing in girls so that they would complete the next level of education would lead to lifetime earnings of today's cohort of girls that is equivalent to up to 68 percent of annual gross domestic product. When adjusting for ability bias and labor demand elasticities, this figure falls to 54 percent, or 1.5 percent per year. Closing the inactivity rate between girls and boys would increase gross domestic product by up to 5.4 percent, but when accounting for students, male-female wage gaps and labor demand elasticities, the joblessness gap between girls and their male counterparts yields an increase in gross domestic product of up to 1.2 percent in a single year. The cost of adolescent pregnancy as a share of gross domestic could be as high as 30 percent or as low as 1 percent over a girl's lifetime, depending on the assumptions used to calculate the losses.
    Keywords: Population Policies,Adolescent Health,Gender and Development,Primary Education,Gender and Education
    Date: 2011–08–01
  16. By: Van Eck, Lisa
    Abstract: This paper investigates social democracy and the âdevelopmental stateâ model as development alternatives for South Africa. This research is significant as it enhances the developmental debate in South Africa that is indispensable in light of South Africaâs poor socio-economic performance. A comparative-historical study is conducted, as well as an analysis of the socio-political situation in South Africa to determine each modelâs compatibility with South Africa. State autonomy is assumed essential. Liberal democracy and the authoritarian âdevelopmental stateâ model are rejected on theoretical and compatibility grounds. Social democracy is therefore investigated. It is concluded that this model is theoretically stronger, yet ideologically squeezed, and its execution is hindered by major stumbling blocks that are identified. Ultimately, it is shown that the economics is fairly simple, but the âprimacy of politicsâ is essential.
    Keywords: Social democracy, developmental state, South Africa, Political Economy, Public Economics,
    Date: 2010–11
  17. By: Fischer, Elisabeth; Qaim, Matin
    Abstract: Collective action has become an important strategy for smallholders in developing countries to remain competitive in rapidly changing markets. However, within farmer groups, the commitment of individual members can vary, as the expected net benefits are not the same for all individuals, and opportunities to free-ride exist. Since the benefits of collective action emerge primarily through the exploitation of economies of scale, low participation rates in joint activities may put a serious threat to the success and viability of farmer groups. This article investigates determinants of smallholder participation intensity and free-riding, using the example of banana groups in Kenya. The results suggest that family labor availability and previous benefits that members received through the groups positively influence their intensity of participation in group meetings and collective marketing. Free-riding can mostly be attributed to structural and institutional conditions, such as group size and the timing of payments. More diversified farmers are less likely to sell collectively. Since smallholders are often highly diversified in their agricultural activities, farmer groups should also diversify, focusing on more than a single crop. Further policy implications are discussed.
    Keywords: collective action, participation intensity, smallholder farmers, Kenya, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, International Development, D23, D71, O13, Q13,
    Date: 2011–07
  18. By: Adeniyi, Labintan
    Abstract: In poor countries the agricultural sector is essential to growth, poverty reduction, and food security. In Sub- Saharan Africa, the agricultural sector employs 65 percent of the labor force and generates 32 per cent of GDP growth (Christian Friis Bach and all, 2008).More than half of rural employment in Sub- Saharan Africa consists of self-employed farmers, many of whom are women. Women generally own less land and the land they have is often of lower quality than the land owned by men. According to the International Development Research Centre, women in Africa only own 1 per cent of the land. Women have to contend with limited access to financial and technical resources. Women lack political influence. However the recent economic crisis that has affected the food crisis may have considerable consequences on African rural women who are mostly vulnerable in African society and may increase some challenges that can limited the African agriculture growth as women is the heart of this sector in Africa even if most of politic donât consider them in the policies. This paper is to evaluate the major effect of this crisis on this vulnerable group In Africa and define some perspective that policies maker could use for Africa Agriculture sustainable growth.. The Descriptive analysis show that the economic crisis has increase in gender inequality in agriculture sector, increase women financial credit access lack, women farmer migration, women farmer income reduction, women land access facilities reduction and their health problem has also increase. It is clear that to solve the economic crisis impact on African agriculture for sustainable growth, policies maker should include more policies which should consider women farmers. Research also should focus more on women vulnerability in agriculture face the economic crisis.
    Keywords: Women Farmer-Africa- Economic Crisis-Challenge and Perspective, International Development, Labor and Human Capital,
    Date: 2010–09
  19. By: Minihan, Erin S.; Wu, Zipling
    Abstract: National greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation strategy can benefit from information on the technical and economic viability of abatement options. The life-cycle-analysis (LCA) and marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) approaches provide a good, although partial, indication for the potential of existing technologies to mitigate GHG emissions. The input-output (IO) approach has advantages in capturing the indirect impacts of technology adoption from shifts in economic structure and linkages between sectors. It is therefore ideal to develop an integrated approach to more accurately assess the overall economic and environmental impacts of climate policy. In this study, we aim to develop such an approach that extends the assessment of viability to include indirect economic and environmental effects of resulting structural shifts in the economy. The new approach is applied to technological GHG mitigation measures in Northern Irelandâs cattle sectors. The main findings indicate there is a marked difference (even reversal under some conditions) in the overall impact of technical reductions in emission-intensity on national output and emissions when adjustments in economic structure are taken into account.
    Keywords: GHG mitigation, IO analysis, technical cost, Northern Ireland, Agricultural and Food Policy, Livestock Production/Industries, C67, Q52, Q56, Q58,
    Date: 2011–04
  20. By: Heike Schroeder
    Abstract: The micro-meso-macro approach is an analytical framework to study processes of economic evolution. In economic geography it has been hardly taken up so far. Using the example of spatial implications of corporate processes of adaption and renewal after structural interruptions, this paper shows at a conceptual level how the framework could be applied to topics in economic geography. Compared to other approaches, the micro-meso-macro framework has several advantages: It allows to analyse the coevolution between different forms of knowledge in an economic system and the context in which companies operate. By integrating mechanism rules, it also considers the ability of firms to adapt to a changing environment. Furthermore, it is possible to explain the interplay between enterprises and higher levels of analysis like industry sectors or regions through the analytical unit of the rule trajectory. In this paper it is argued not to assign any spatial dimension to the different levels of analysis per se, but to examine the mechanism rules along trajectories of operational rules under a spatial perspective.
    Keywords: evolutionary economic geography, analytical framework, rules, coevolution, meso level, corporate processes of renewal, structural interruptions
    JEL: B52 O18 R11
    Date: 2011–08
  21. By: Polly Vizard
    Abstract: The paper examines what can be learnt about the 'valuation' of freedoms and opportunities (or capabilities) using a general population social survey data source on values. On the assumption that rights can be understood as protecting underlying critical freedoms and opportunities, social survey data on public attitudes towards the rights that people "should have" is interpreted as providing empirical evidence on the 'valuation' of freedoms and opportunities by individuals and groups. The paper addresses the extent to which data of this type provides empirical evidence of the 'valuation' of the 10 domains of freedom and opportunity that are specified in the capability lists for adults and children that have been developed and applied in previous projects (namely, Life; Health; Physical security; Legal security; Standard of living; Education and learning; Productive and valued activities; Individual, family and social life; Identity and self-respect; Participation, influence and voice). Particular emphasis is put on moving beyond the 'legalistic' methodology for deriving a 'human rights-based capability list' applied in previous projects, and examining whether empirical research on values provides an alternative, overlapping or supplementary informational base for deriving a list of this type. The research findings can be interpreted as providing broad empirical underpinnings for the 'valuation' of nine out of the ten domains of freedom and opportunity specified in the capability lists that have been developed and applied in previous projects. The Life domain was effectively not covered by the research exercise, since the underlying social survey data did not include questions on public attitudes towards the right to life.
    Keywords: Capability approach, capability lists, human rights, public attitudes, values
    JEL: I30 I31 I32
    Date: 2010–11
  22. By: Saamah Abdallah; Ian Gough; Victoria Johnson; Josh Ryan-Collins; Cindy Smith
    Abstract: This paper maps the distribution of total direct and embodied emissions of greenhouse gases by households in the UK and goes on to analyse their main drivers. Previous research has studied the distribution of direct emissions by households, notably from domestic fuel and electricity, but this is the first to cover the indirect emissions embodied in the consumption of food, consumer goods and services, including imports. To study total emissions by British households we link an input-output model of the UK economy to the UK Expenditure and Food Survey. Results are presented as descriptive statistics followed by regression analysis. All categories of per capita emission rise with income which is the main driver. Two other variables are always significant: household composition, partly reflecting economies of scale in consumption and emissions in larger households, and employment status. This 'standard' model explains 35% of variation in total emissions, reflecting further variation within income groups and household types. We also compute the distribution of emissions derived from the consumption of welfare state services: here, lower income and pensioner households 'emit' more due to their greater use of these services. To take further account of the social implications of these findings, we first estimate emissions per £ of income. This shows a reverse slope with emissions per £ rising as one descends the income scale. The decline with income is especially acute for domestic energy, housing and food emissions, 'necessary' expenditures with a lower income elasticity of demand. Next, we move away from per capita emissions by assuming children under 14 emit half that of adults, which reduces disparities between household types. To implement personal carbon allowances, further research will be needed into the carbon allowances of children and single person households. Current government policies to raise carbon prices mainly in domestic energy are found to be especially regressive, but tracking total carbon consumption within a country would require radical changes in monitoring carbon flows at national borders. In the meantime, poorly targeted policies to compensate 'fuel poor' families should give way to more radical 'eco-social' policies, such as house retrofitting, coupled with 'social' tariffs for domestic energy.
    Keywords: household income distribution, greenhouse gas emissions, carbon policies, social policies, direct and embodied emissions
    JEL: H23 I32
    Date: 2011–07
  23. By: Kilby, Christopher (Department of Economics and Statistics, Villanova School of Business, Villanova University); Scholz, Sally J. (Department of Philosophy, Villanova University)
    Abstract: Vandana Shiva argues that through the masculinization of agriculture globalization has turned nature and women into passive fields for sowing. Shiva’s critique that international trade, and globalization more generally, has undermined the social and economic position of women in less developed countries provides a wealth of testable hypotheses. For example, Shiva’s argument implies that gender earnings inequality is higher in countries that are more integrated into the world economy, ceteris paribus. After summarizing her argument, we test this hypothesis through cross-sectional regression analysis.
    Keywords: Gender Earnings Inequality; Vandana Shiva; Kuznets Curve
    Date: 2011–07
  24. By: Guilhoto, Joaquim José Martins
    Abstract: This paper presents, in Portuguese, an overview of the input-output theory, originally developed by Wassily Leontief. The first and second chapters present the background of the theory of input-output, placing the work of Leontief in a historical view. Chapter 3 presents the basic theory of input-output. Chapter 4 deals with how the input-output data is overall processed and disseminated by the statistical agencies, and specifically by the Brazilian statistical office (IBGE), and how this information can be analyzed to allow the system to work with the original Leontief model. Chapter 5 deals with how the original Leontief model, developed for a national economy can be extended to the analysis of regional economies, either for a single region or for several interconnected regions. Chapter 6 presents the basic methods of analysis used with input-output models. Chapter 7 deals with the use of input-output in modeling environmental issues. The discussion of how input-output matrices can be obtained by using census and non-census methods is made in Chapter 8. Finally, Chapter 9 aims to present the various possible applications of input-output analysis, while at the same time, outlining the possible future paths in terms of using this powerful tool of analysis.
    Keywords: Insumo-Produto; Teoria; Aplicações
    JEL: D57 R15 C67
    Date: 2011

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